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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088677/the-relationship-between-children-s-sensitivity-to-dominant-and-non-dominant-patterns-of-lexical-stress-and-reading-accuracy
#1
Joanne Arciuli
This study reports on a new task for assessing children's sensitivity to lexical stress for words with different stress patterns and demonstrates that this task is useful in examining predictors of reading accuracy during the elementary years. In English, polysyllabic words beginning with a strong syllable exhibit the most common or dominant pattern of lexical stress (e.g., "coconut"), whereas polysyllabic words beginning with a weak syllable exhibit a less common non-dominant pattern (e.g., "banana"). The new Aliens Talking Underwater task assesses children's ability to match low-pass filtered recordings of words to pictures of objects...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#2
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
January 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088146/photoinduced-c-i-bond-homolysis-of-5-iodouracil-a-singlet-predissociation-pathway
#3
Xiaojuan Dai, Di Song, Kunhui Liu, Hongmei Su
5-Iodouracil (5-IU) can be integrated into DNA and acts as a UV sensitive chromophore suitable for probing DNA structure and DNA-protein interactions based on the photochemical reactions of 5-IU. Here, we perform joint studies of time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (TR-FTIR) spectroscopy and ab initio calculations to examine the state-specific photochemical reaction mechanisms of the 5-IU. The fact that uracil (U) is observed in TR-FTIR spectra after 266 nm irradiation of 5-IU in acetonitrile and ascribed to the product of hydrogen abstraction by the uracil-5-yl radical (U·) provides experimental evidence for the C-I bond homolysis of 5-IU...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087234/interference-from-related-actions-in-spoken-word-production-behavioural-and-fmri-evidence
#4
Greig de Zubicaray, Douglas Fraser, Kori Ramajoo, Katie McMahon
Few investigations of lexical access in spoken word production have investigated the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in action naming. These are likely to be more complex than the mechanisms involved in object naming, due to the ways in which conceptual features of action words are represented. The present study employed a blocked cyclic naming paradigm to examine whether related action contexts elicit a semantic interference effect akin to that observed with categorically related objects. Participants named pictures of intransitive actions to avoid a confound with object processing...
January 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087070/can-evolution-supply-what-ecology-demands
#5
REVIEW
Hanna Kokko, Anurag Chaturvedi, Daniel Croll, Martin C Fischer, Frédéric Guillaume, Sophie Karrenberg, Ben Kerr, Gregor Rolshausen, Jessica Stapley
A simplistic view of the adaptive process pictures a hillside along which a population can climb: when ecological 'demands' change, evolution 'supplies' the variation needed for the population to climb to a new peak. Evolutionary ecologists point out that this simplistic view can be incomplete because the fitness landscape changes dynamically as the population evolves. Geneticists meanwhile have identified complexities relating to the nature of genetic variation and its architecture, and the importance of epigenetic variation is under debate...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087007/manipulating-the-microbiome
#6
Tammy L Sirich, Timothy W Meyer
The application of molecular methods has provided a new picture of the colon microbial flora, or microbiome. The microbiome has been found to be a complex ecosystem with multiple influences on its human host. In renal medicine, interest has focused on the microbiome as a source of toxic waste chemicals and a stimulant to unwanted systemic inflammation. Early attempts to manipulate the microbiome have yielded limited benefit, but further research is strongly motivated.
February 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086932/spontaneous-ischaemic-stroke-lesions-in-a-dog-brain-neuropathological-characterisation-and-comparison-to-human-ischaemic-stroke
#7
Barbara Blicher Thomsen, Hanne Gredal, Martin Wirenfeldt, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, Bettina Hjelm Clausen, Anders Elm Larsen, Bente Finsen, Mette Berendt, Kate Lykke Lambertsen
BACKGROUND: Dogs develop spontaneous ischaemic stroke with a clinical picture closely resembling human ischaemic stroke patients. Animal stroke models have been developed, but it has proved difficult to translate results obtained from such models into successful therapeutic strategies in human stroke patients. In order to face this apparent translational gap within stroke research, dogs with ischaemic stroke constitute an opportunity to study the neuropathology of ischaemic stroke in an animal species...
January 13, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086910/identifying-youth-friendly-service-practices-associated-with-adolescents-use-of-reproductive-healthcare-services-in-post-conflict-burundi-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Imelda K Moise, Jaclyn F Verity, Joseph Kangmennaang
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about reproductive health service (RHS) availability and adolescents' use of these services in post-conflict settings. Such information is crucial for targeted community interventions that aim to improve quality delivery of RHS and outcomes in post-conflict settings. The objectives of this study therefore was to examine the density of RHS availability; assess spatial patterns of RHC facilities; and identify youth-friendly practices associated with adolescents' use of services in post-conflict Burundi...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086823/a-realist-review-of-the-partograph-when-and-how-does-it-work-for-labour-monitoring
#9
Carol Bedwell, Karen Levin, Celia Pett, Dame Tina Lavender
BACKGROUND: The partograph (or partogram) is recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO), for monitoring labour wellbeing and progress. Concerns about limitations in the way the partograph is used in the clinical context and the potential impact on its effectiveness have led to this realist systematic review of partograph use. METHODS: This review aimed to answer two key questions, 1) What is it about the partograph that works (or does not work); for whom does it work; and in what circumstances? 2) What are the essential inputs required for the partograph to work? A comprehensive search strategy encompassed key databases; including papers of varying methodologies...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086808/a-quiet-harvest-linkage-between-ritual-seed-selection-and-the-historical-use-of-the-finger-bladed-knife-as-a-traditional-plant-breeding-tool-in-ifugao-philippines
#10
REVIEW
Kevin M Murphy
The transverse harvest knife, also commonly called the finger or finger-bladed knife, has been utilized by rice farmers in southeast Asia for many centuries. The finger knife persisted in many traditional cultures long after the introduction of the sickle, a tool which provided farmers with the means to execute a much faster harvest. Several theories in interpretative archaeology have attempted to account for this rejection of more modern technological innovations. These theories, which include community-based social organization ideas and practical reasons for the continued use of the finger knife, are presented in this paper...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081451/how-specialized-are-writing-specific-brain-regions-an-fmri-study-of-writing-drawing-and-oral-spelling
#11
Samuel Planton, Marieke Longcamp, Patrice Péran, Jean-François Démonet, Mélanie Jucla
Several brain imaging studies identified brain regions that are consistently involved in writing tasks; the left premotor and superior parietal cortices have been associated with the peripheral components of writing performance as opposed to other regions that support the central, orthographic components. Based on a meta-analysis by Planton, Jucla, Roux, and Demonet (2013), we focused on five such writing areas and questioned the task-specificity and hemispheric lateralization profile of the brain response in an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment where 16 right-handed participants wrote down, spelled out orally object names, and drew shapes from object pictures...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081201/complex-network-analysis-for-characterizing-global-value-chains-in-equipment-manufacturing
#12
Hao Xiao, Tianyang Sun, Bo Meng, Lihong Cheng
The rise of global value chains (GVCs) characterized by the so-called "outsourcing", "fragmentation production", and "trade in tasks" has been considered one of the most important phenomena for the 21st century trade. GVCs also can play a decisive role in trade policy making. However, due to the increasing complexity and sophistication of international production networks, especially in the equipment manufacturing industry, conventional trade statistics and the corresponding trade indicators may give us a distorted picture of trade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081136/task-irrelevant-external-cues-can-influence-language-selection-in-voluntary-object-naming-evidence-from-hindi-english-bilinguals
#13
Divya Bhatia, Seema Gorur Prasad, Kaushik Sake, Ramesh Kumar Mishra
We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi-English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon's choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081020/sonographic-findings-and-diagnostic-pitfalls-in-evaluation-for-uterine-rupture-in-a-case-of-fetal-demise-and-prior-cesarean-delivery-of-unknown-type
#14
James Andrew Spain, Shehbaz Shaikh, Sharon A Sandberg
A 38-week pregnant patient with history of cesarean delivery was admitted to the hospital for induction of labor after diagnosis of fetal demise. When the clinical picture became concerning for uterine scar dehiscence, an ultrasound was ordered. After targeted ultrasound of the lower uterine segment, the sonographer initially reported thin but intact lower uterine segment and normal positioning of the fetus. By keeping a high level of suspicion, the radiologist analyzed the images submitted and found other clues suggesting possible dehiscence or rupture...
January 9, 2017: Ultrasound Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080110/spoken-words-can-make-the-invisible-visible-testing-the-involvement-of-low-level-visual-representations-in-spoken-word-processing
#15
Markus Ostarek, Falk Huettig
The notion that processing spoken (object) words involves activation of category-specific representations in visual cortex is a key prediction of modality-specific theories of representation that contrasts with theories assuming dedicated conceptual representational systems abstracted away from sensorimotor systems. In the present study, we investigated whether participants can detect otherwise invisible pictures of objects when they are presented with the corresponding spoken word shortly before the picture appears...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080089/what-you-like-is-what-you-try-to-get-attitudes-toward-emotions-and-situation-selection
#16
Noam Markovitch, Liat Netzer, Maya Tamir
Why do people expose themselves to certain emotional stimuli and avoid others? We propose that what people want to feel is linked to attitudes toward emotions. In 3 studies, we show that individuals with more (vs. less) negative attitudes toward an emotion were more (vs. less) likely to avoid stimuli that induce that emotion. People who evaluated disgust (or joy) less favorably than others were less likely to expose themselves to disgusting (or joyful) pictures (Study 1). These links were emotion-specific and could not be explained by differences in state or trait emotion (Study 2) or in emotional reactivity (Study 3)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080075/cognitive-outcomes-in-early-treated-adults-with-phenylketonuria-pku-a-comprehensive-picture-across-domains
#17
Liana Palermo, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Anita MacDonald, Ellie Limback, S Kate Hall, Cristina Romani
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease which affects cognitive functions due to an inability to metabolize phenylalanine which leads to the accumulation of toxic by-products (Phe) in the brain. PKU can be effectively treated with a low phenylalanine diet, but some cognitive deficits remain. Studies have reported impairments, especially for processing speed and executive functions, but there is a lack of comprehensive assessment across cognitive domains. Moreover, it is important to establish outcomes in early treated adults with PKU (AwPKU) who have better metabolic control than groups previously reported in the literature...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079855/acute-sarcoid-myopathy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
José Miguel Gómez-Verdú, Salvador Valero Cifuentes, Francisco Pastor Quirante, Francisco Román López-Andreu
Sarcoidosis is a worldwide spread disease with brad clinical spectrum, in which the pulmonary involvement is the main manifestation (more than 90% of cases); nevertheless, extrathoracic symptoms can predominate in the clinical picture and they may even be the first manifestation. One of them is the skeletal muscle involvement that normally is chronic and silent, with poor response to treatment with glucocorticoids. However, in some cases, it has an acute presentation. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with diagnosis of sarcoidosis whe were evaluated for proximal lower limb weakness within few days of evolution...
December 23, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079687/periocular-amyloidosis-manifesting-as-pseudopemphigoid-treated-with-mitomycin-c
#19
Kaveh Vahdani, Vladimir T Thaller, Giorgio Albanese, Andrew F Dean
PURPOSE: To describe an unusual cicatrizing manifestation of periocular amyloid and the utility of adjuvant antimetabolite therapy. METHODS: This is a case report of a 49-year old woman with progressive bilateral upper lid ptosis, who was found to have bilateral inferior forniceal masses with thickening of the conjunctiva. Conjunctival and eyelid biopsies showed evidence of amyloid deposition. Systemic evaluation did not reveal any evidence of systemic amyloidosis...
January 11, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079663/general-anesthesia-and-fabry-disease-a-case-report
#20
Stefan Krüger, Albina Nowak, Torben Christoph Müller
Fabry disease is an inherited X-linked disorder characterized by the absence (in men) or deficiency (in women) in α-galactosidase A activity that causes a progressive accumulation of glycosphingolipids within lysosomes of cells of all the major organ systems. The subsequent organ damage that manifests in childhood and early adulthood presents a widely variable clinical picture of pain, hypertension, and cardiac, renal, nervous system, and lung dysfunction. We present 2 female patients with Fabry disease who required general anesthesia twice for gynecological and trauma surgery, respectively, and discuss their perioperative management based on new information in the medical literature...
January 11, 2017: A & A Case Reports
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