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Masahiko Mukaino, Kei Ohtsuka, Hiroki Tanikawa, Fumihiro Matsuda, Junya Yamada, Norihide Itoh, Eiichi Saitoh
Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) is shown to be a useful clinical tool for the evaluation of gait abnormality due to movement disorders. However, the use of 3DGA in actual clinics remains uncommon. Possible reasons could include the time-consuming measurement process and difficulties in understanding measurement results, which are often presented using a large number of graphs. Here we present a clinician-friendly 3DGA method developed to facilitate the clinical use of 3DGA. This method consists of simplified preparation and measurement processes that can be performed in a short time period in clinical settings and intuitive results presentation to facilitate clinicians' understanding of results...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Federica Cavalera, Mario Zanoni, Valeria Merico, Thi Thu Hien Bui, Martina Belli, Lorenzo Fassina, Silvia Garagna, Maurizio Zuccotti
Infertility clinics would benefit from the ability to select developmentally competent vs. incompetent oocytes using non-invasive procedures, thus improving the overall pregnancy outcome. We recently developed a classification method based on microscopic live observations of mouse oocytes during their in vitro maturation from the germinal vesicle (GV) to the metaphase II stage, followed by the analysis of the cytoplasmic movements occurring during this time-lapse period. Here, we present detailed protocols of this procedure...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Cicely Marston, Alicia Renedo, Gertrude Nsorma Nyaaba, Kazuyo Machiyama, Placide Tapsoba, John Cleland
CONTEXT: According to Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data, highly educated urban women in some West African countries simultaneously have low rates of both contraceptive use and fertility-suggesting that the DHS may not be capturing a complete picture of women's contraceptive practices. METHODS: Individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 48 women aged 18-49 in Accra, Ghana, who had at least a secondary education to explore their reproductive lives and relationships, and their views on and use of fertility regulation strategies...
September 1, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Shaden Jobran, Randa Kattan, Jamal Shamaa, Hiyam Marzouqa, Musa Hindiyeh
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses have an important role in paediatric respiratory tract infections. They are estimated to cause 2-5% of the overall respiratory tract infections and 4-10% of all pneumonias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical presentation and effect of adenoviral infection on the management of infected infants. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of patients infected with adenovirus and admitted to Caritas Baby Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Musallam Abukhalil, Osama Mehjez, Mohammed Aladdam, Bettina Bottcher, Sobhi Skaik, Mohammed Matter
BACKGROUND: In 2013, al-Shifa Hospital, the largest hospital in the Gaza Strip, introduced an assessment programme for potential kidney donors on the basis of medical and radiological evaluation. The aims of this study and an associated clinical audit were to examine the final outcome of the potential live kidney donors assessment programme, to review the findings and determine the level of accuracy of the radiological evaluations, to assess the completeness and standard of radiological record keeping, and to evaluate adherence to guidelines...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ala Simonchyk, Isabelle Darcy
The current study investigated the potential facilitative or inhibiting effects of orthography on the lexical encoding of palatalized consonants in L2 Russian. We hypothesized that learners with stable knowledge of orthographic and metalinguistic representations of palatalized consonants would display more accurate lexical encoding of the plain/palatalized contrast. The participants of the study were 40 American learners of Russian. Ten Russian native speakers served as a control group. The materials of the study comprised 20 real words, familiar to the participants, with target coronal consonants alternating in word-final and intervocalic positions...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
Huanchen Zhai, Anastassia N Alexandrova
Sub-nano surface-supported catalytic clusters, can be generally characterized by many low-energy isomers accessible at elevated temperatures of catalysis. The most stable isomer may not be the most catalytically active. Additionally, isomers may interconvert across barriers, i.e. exhibit fluxionality, during catalysis. To study the big picture of the cluster fluxional behavior, we model such a process as isomerization graph using bipartite matching algorithm, harmonic transition state theory, and paralleled nudged elastic band method...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Amina Wili Wilu, Yann Coello, Mohamad El Haj
Destination memory, which is socially driven, refers to the ability to remember to whom one has sent information. Our study investigated destination memory in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Patients and control participants were invited to tell proverbs (e.g., "the pen is mightier than the sword") to pictures of celebrities (e.g., Barack Obama). Then they were asked to indicate to which celebrity they had previously told the proverbs. Besides the assessment of destination memory, participants performed a binding task in which they were required to associate letters with their corresponding location...
March 17, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Margaret B Menzel, Anne K Lawrence, Eva I Rubio, Dorothy I Bulas
Fetal medicine programs within children's hospitals have been developed to ensure access to pediatric specialists across multiple disciplines. The cases that present to these programs are usually complex and require involvement of a multidisciplinary care team. Although some providers on the team limit their focus to their pediatric specialty when counseling patients, the radiologist and genetic counselor have a distinct perspective allowing them to take the larger picture into account in the evaluation of the fetus...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
E Trybus, G Krol, T Obarzanowski, W Trybus, A Kopacz-Bednarska, M Obarzanowski, T Krol
Most studies on the effects of glucocorticosteroid therapy in rhinitis relate to their inhibitory effect on activation and the number of inflowing cells that are involved in the development and maintenance of inflammation. It is also very important to determine the range of effect of budesonide on residing cells (epithelial cells). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of local budesonide therapy on the cytological image of the nasal mucosa, with attention paid to columnar cells in patients with rhinitis...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Michael Freund, Nazbanou Nozari
Recent work using the Picture Word Interference (PWI) paradigm has revealed that language production, similar to non-verbal tasks, shows a robust Congruency Sequence Effect (CSE), defined as a decreased congruency effect following incongruent trials. Although CSE is considered an index of adaptive control, its mechanism is debated. In two experiments, we tested the predictions of a learning model of adaptive control in production, using a task-switching paradigm fully balanced to evaluate CSE on a PWI trial as a function of the congruency of a 2-back PWI trial (within-task CSE), as well as a 1-back trial belonging to a different task (cross-task CSE)...
March 15, 2018: Cognition
Elisabeth Stöttinger, Markus Aichhorn, Britt Anderson, James Danckert
In a constantly changing environment we must adapt to both abrupt and gradual changes to incoming information. Previously, we demonstrated that a distributed network (including the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex) was active when participants updated their initial representations (e.g., it's a cat) in a gradually morphing picture task (e.g., now it's a rabbit; Stöttinger et al., 2015). To shed light on whether these activations reflect the proactive decisions to update or perceptual uncertainty, we introduced two additional conditions...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Giuseppe Brescia, Claudia Zanotti, Daniela Parrino, Umberto Barion, Gino Marioni
PURPOSE: Endotyping chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) poses a challenge for rhinologists nowadays. Phenotyping CRSwNP proved inappropriate as an approach to their classification because of their common clinical features. Endotyping, being based on the pathogenic mechanism, provides a precise picture more appropriate for use in clinical practice. Patients' treatment and follow-up can thus be tailored to cope with the degree of aggressiveness of a specific CRSwNP endotype...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Penelope Hannant
A number of studies have evidenced marked difficulties in language in autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Studies have also shown that language and word knowledge are associated with the same area of brain that is also responsible for visual perception in typically developing (TD) individuals. However, in ASC, research suggests word meaning is mapped differently, on to situational sensorimotor components within the brain. Furthermore, motor coordination is associated with communication skills. The current study explores whether motor coordination and visual perception are impaired in children with ASC, and whether difficulties in coordination and visual perception correlate with receptive language levels...
March 14, 2018: Human Movement Science
Bruno Rossion, Caroline Michel
We report normative data from a large (N = 307) sample of young adult participants tested with a computerized version of the long form of the classical Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT; Benton & Van Allen, 1968). The BFRT-c requires participants to match a target face photograph to either one or three of six face photographs presented simultaneously. We found that the percent accuracy on the BFRT-c (81%-83%) was below ceiling yet well above chance level, with little interindividual variance in this typical population sample, two important aspects of a sensitive clinical test...
March 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Alfonso Vaquero-Picado, Joaquín Núñez de Armas, Samuel Antuña, Raúl Barco
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Radial head arthroplasty (RHA) is a reliable procedure to manage complex injuries of the elbow, but complications due to inadequate sizing have been observed. Radiocapitellar morphometry has been studied widely, but RHA preoperative planning is not yet well defined. We hypothesized that specific morphologic parameters of the radiocapitellar joint measured with simple clinical software for radiographic analysis could be useful tools for clinical practice to predict RHA size preoperatively...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Matteo Paoluzzi, Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi, Claudio Maggi
We study the effect of exponentially correlated noise on the xy model in the limit of small correlation time, discussing the order-disorder transition in the mean field and the topological transition in two dimensions. We map the steady states of the nonequilibrium dynamics into an effective equilibrium theory. In the mean field, the critical temperature increases with the noise correlation time τ, indicating that memory effects promote ordering. This finding is confirmed by numerical simulations. The topological transition temperature in two dimensions remains untouched...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Teresa Morales-Ruiz, Álvaro C Romero-Valenzuela, Vanessa M Vázquez-Grande, Teresa Roldán-Arjona, Rafael R Ariza, Dolores Córdoba-Cañero
Base excision repair (BER) is a major defense pathway against spontaneous DNA damage. This multistep process is initiated by DNA glycosylases that recognise and excise the damaged base, and proceeds by the concerted action of additional proteins that perform incision of the abasic site, gap filling and ligation. BER has been extensively studied in bacteria, yeasts and animals. Although knowledge of this pathway in land plants is increasing, there are no reports detecting BER in algae. We describe here an experimental in vitro system allowing the specific analysis of BER in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
March 5, 2018: DNA Repair
Stoyan Popkirov, Vera Flasbeck, Uwe Schlegel, Georg Juckel, Martin Brüne
Previous studies have suggested that alexithymia may be related to impairments in automatic emotion processing. While it is well established that alexithymia is highly prevalent in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), it is unknown whether this is reflected by an altered automatic processing of emotional stimuli. In the present study we investigated visually evoked event-related potentials using neutral and negative images from the International Affective Pictures System in 26 BPD patients and 26 healthy controls...
March 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Amjad M Husaini, Aafreen Sakina, Souliha R Cambay
Fusarium oxysporum, a ubiquitous soil-borne pathogen causes devastating vascular wilt in more than 100 plant species and ranks fifth among top ten fungal plant pathogens. It has emerged as a human pathogen too, causing infections in immune-compromised patients. It is, therefore, important to gain insight into the molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of this trans-kingdom pathogen. A complex network comprising of interconnected and over lapping signal pathways; mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, Ras proteins, G-protein signaling components and their downstream pathways, components of the velvet (LaeA/VeA/VelB) complex and cAMP pathways, is involved in perceiving the host...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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