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Paul H Lysaker, Michelle L Pattison, Bethany L Leonhardt, Scott Phelps, Jenifer L Vohs
Poor insight in schizophrenia is prevalent across cultures and phases of illness. In this review, we examine the recent research on the relationship of insight with behavior, mood and perceived quality of life, on its complex roots, and on the effects of existing and emerging treatments. This research indicates that poor insight predicts poorer treatment adherence and therapeutic alliance, higher symptom severity and more impaired community function, while good insight predicts a higher frequency of depression and demoralization, especially when coupled with stigma and social disadvantage...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Marianne Lerch, Carlo Mainetti, Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Thomas Harr
Recognition and timely adequate treatment of erythema multiforme remain a major challenge. In this review, current diagnostic guidelines, potential pitfalls, and modern/novel treatment options are summarized with the aim to help clinicians with diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. The diagnosis of erythema multiforme, that has an acute, self-limiting course, is based on its typical clinical picture of targetoid erythematous lesions with predominant acral localization as well as histological findings...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Patricia Johansson, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Axel Choidas, Peter Habenberger, Bijan Mahboubi, Baek Kim, Anke Bergmann, René Scholtysik, Martina Brauser, Anna Lollies, Reiner Siebert, Thorsten Zenz, Ulrich Dührsen, Ralf Küppers, Jan Dürig
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is an aggressive malignancy with a median survival of the patients of less than two years. Besides characteristic chromosomal translocations, frequent mutations affect the ATM gene, JAK/STAT pathway members, and epigenetic regulators. We here performed a targeted mutation analysis for 40 genes selected from a RNA sequencing of 10 T-PLL in a collection of 28 T-PLL, and an exome analysis of five further cases. Nonsynonymous mutations were identified in 30 of the 40 genes, 18 being recurrently mutated...
January 19, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
Steven E Hyman
An epochal opportunity to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of psychiatric disorders has emerged from advances in genomic technology, new computational tools and the growth of international consortia committed to data sharing. The resulting large-scale, unbiased genetic studies have begun to yield new biological insights and with them the hope that a half century of stasis in psychiatric therapeutics will come to an end. Yet a sobering picture is coming into view; it reveals daunting genetic and phenotypic complexity portending enormous challenges for neurobiology...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Jennifer V Gerbracht, Niels H Gehring
During splicing, the exon junction complex (EJC) is deposited upstream of exon-exon boundaries. The EJC and its peripheral bound proteins play an essential role in mediating mRNA export, translation and turnover. However, the exact sequence of EJC assembly and the involved factors during splicing remain elusive. Recently published structures of the human C* spliceosome clarified the position of the EJC at this phase of splicing and have given insight into previously unidentified interactions between the EJC and spliceosomal proteins...
January 19, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Alan White, Amanda Seims, Ian Cameron, Tim Taylor
BACKGROUND: The social determinants of health have a disproportionate impact on mortality in men. A study into the state of health of the male population in Leeds was undertaken to guide public health commissioning decisions. This paper reports on the data relating to the social lives of men. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, comprising descriptive analysis of data relating to educational attainment, housing, employment (including benefit claimants), marital status and relationships...
January 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Jonas Blomberg, Jens Mayer, Enzo Tramontano
BACKGROUND: The genomes of all vertebrates harbor remnants of ancient retroviral infections, having affected the germ line cells during the last 100 million years. These sequences, named Endogenous Retroviruses (ERVs), have been transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian way, being relatively stable components of the host genome even long after their exogenous counterparts went extinct. Among human ERVs (HERVs), the HERV-W group is of particular interest for our physiology and pathology...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Martyn Hewett
GPs undertaking the Induction and Refresher (I&R) Scheme in England spend a period of between 4 weeks and 6 months in placements in a General Practice setting. During this time they have to complete a number of workplace-based assessments, and their Educational Supervisor is required to complete a report which confirms that they have demonstrated an adequate level of competence to enable them to be accepted by NHS England onto the National Medical Performers List without conditions. This report describes a process (using an online survey completed by Educational Supervisors) of reviewing and improving the end-of-placement report forms to make them clearer and easier to use...
January 19, 2018: Education for Primary Care
Kazi Md Mukitul Islam, M Niaz Asadullah
Using government secondary school English language textbooks from Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, we conducted a quantitative content analysis in order to identify gender stereotypes in school education. In total, 21 categories of exclusion and quality of representation were used to study gender stereotypes. Our analysis confirms a pro-male bias in textbooks: the aggregate female share is 40.4% in textual and pictorial indicators combined. Female occupations are mostly traditional and less prestigious while the characters are predominantly introverted and passive in terms of personality traits...
2018: PloS One
Sophie L W Spoorenberg, Klaske Wynia, Ronald J Uittenbroek, Hubertus P H Kremer, Sijmen A Reijneveld
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the population-based, person-centred and integrated care service 'Embrace' at twelve months on three domains comprising health, wellbeing and self-management among community-living older people. METHODS: Embrace supports older adults to age in place. A multidisciplinary team provides care and support, with intensity depending on the older adults' risk profile. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in fifteen general practices in the Netherlands...
2018: PloS One
Francesca De Filippis, Eugenio Parente, Danilo Ercolini
Sequencing technologies have deeply changed our approach to the study of food microbial communities. This review describes recent exploitations of high-throughput sequencing applications to improve our knowledge of food microbial consortia. In the past 10 years, target amplicon sequencing has become routinely used in many food microbiology laboratories, providing a detailed picture of food-associated microbiota. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics approaches are still underexploited in food microbial ecology, despite their potential to uncover the functionality of complex communities...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Jonas Grimm, Maxim Dolgushev
We investigate the dynamics of fractals and other networks in a viscoelastic and active environment. The viscoelastic dynamics is modeled based on the generalized Langevin equation, where the activity is introduced to it by means of the exponentially correlated noise. The intramolecular interactions are taken into account by the bead-spring picture. The microscopic connectivity (studied in the form of Vicsek fractals, of dual Sierpiński gaskets, of NTD trees, and of a family of deterministic small-world networks) reveals itself in the multiscale monomeric dynamics, which shows vastly different behaviors in the active and passive baths...
January 19, 2018: Soft Matter
M W C Dharma-Wardana, D D Klug, L Harbour, Laurent J Lewis
We study the conductivities σ of (i) the equilibrium isochoric state σ_{is}, (ii) the equilibrium isobaric state σ_{ib}, and also the (iii) nonequilibrium ultrafast matter state σ_{uf} with the ion temperature T_{i} less than the electron temperature T_{e}. Aluminum, lithium, and carbon are considered, being increasingly complex warm dense matter systems, with carbon having transient covalent bonds. First-principles calculations, i.e., neutral-pseudoatom (NPA) calculations and density-functional theory (DFT) with molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations, are compared where possible with experimental data to characterize σ_{ic}, σ_{ib}, and σ_{uf}...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Bálint Korbuly, Mathis Plapp, Hervé Henry, James A Warren, László Gránásy, Tamás Pusztai
Standard two-dimensional orientation-field-based phase-field models rely on a continuous scalar field to represent crystallographic orientation. The corresponding order parameter space is the unit circle, which is not simply connected. This topological property has important consequences for the resulting multigrain structures: (i) trijunctions may be singular; (ii) for each pair of grains there exist two different grain boundary solutions that cannot continuously transform to one another; (iii) if both solutions appear along a grain boundary, a topologically stable, singular point defect must exist between them...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Iacopo Pozzana, Kaiyuan Sun, Nicola Perra
We study SIS epidemic spreading processes unfolding on a recent generalization of the activity-driven modeling framework. In this model of time-varying networks, each node is described by two variables: activity and attractiveness. The first describes the propensity to form connections, while the second defines the propensity to attract them. We derive analytically the epidemic threshold considering the time scale driving the evolution of contacts and the contagion as comparable. The solutions are general and hold for any joint distribution of activity and attractiveness...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Ohad Shpielberg
Dynamical phase transitions are defined as nonanalytic points of the large deviation function of current fluctuations. We show that for boundary-driven systems, many dynamical phase transitions can be identified using the geometrical structure of an effective potential of a Hamiltonian, recovered from the macroscopic fluctuation theory description. Using this method we identify new dynamical phase transitions that could not be recovered using existing perturbative methods. Moreover, using the Hamiltonian picture, an experimental scheme is suggested to demonstrate an analog of dynamical phase transitions in linear, rather than exponential, time...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
P Gerlee, K Tunstrøm, T Lundh, B Wennberg
Many animals, including humans, have predictive capabilities and, presumably, base their behavioral decisions-at least partially-upon an anticipated state of their environment. We explore a minimal version of this idea in the context of particles that interact according to a pairwise potential. Anticipation enters the picture by calculating the interparticle forces from linear extrapolations of the particle positions some time τ in the future. Simulations show that for intermediate values of τ, compared to a transient time scale defined by the potential and the initial conditions, the particles form rotating clusters in which the particles are arranged in a hexagonal pattern...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Pierre Le Doussal, Thimothée Thiery
Although time-dependent random media with short-range correlations lead to (possibly biased) normal tracer diffusion, anomalous fluctuations occur away from the most probable direction. This was pointed out recently in one-dimensional (1D) lattice random walks, where statistics related to the 1D Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class, i.e., the Gaussian unitary ensemble Tracy-Widom distribution, were shown to arise. Here, we provide a simple picture for this correspondence, directly in the continuum, which allows one to study arbitrary space dimensions and to predict a variety of universal distributions...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Shu-Nan Li, Bing-Yang Cao
The second law of thermodynamics governs the direction of heat transport, which provides the foundational definition of thermodynamic Clausius entropy. The definitions of entropy are further generalized for the phenomenological heat transport models in the frameworks of classical irreversible thermodynamics and extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT). In this work, entropic functions from mathematics are combined with phenomenological heat conduction models and connected to several information-geometrical conceptions...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Vicente Azcoiti, Giuseppe Di Carlo, Eduardo Follana, Eduardo Royo-Amondarain
We study the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model with a purely imaginary magnetic field, which can be thought of as a toy model for the usual θ physics. Our motivation is to have a benchmark calculation in a system which suffers from a strong sign problem, so that our results can be used to test Monte Carlo methods developed to tackle such problems. We analyze here this model by means of analytical techniques, computing exactly the first eight cumulants of the expansion of the effective Hamiltonian in powers of the inverse temperature, and calculating physical observables for a large number of degrees of freedom with the help of standard multiprecision algorithms...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
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