keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Soil sampling method

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732294/soil-bacterial-community-response-to-vegetation-succession-after-fencing-in-the-grassland-of-china
#1
Quanchao Zeng, Shaoshan An, Yang Liu
Natural succession is an important process in terrestrial system, playing an important role in enhancing soil quality and plant diversity. Soil bacteria is the linkage between soil and plant, has an important role in aboveground community dynamics and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial ecosystems, driving the decomposition of soil organic matter and plant litter. However, the role of soil bacteria in the secondary succession has not been well understood, particularly in the degraded soil of Loess Plateau...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729688/improved-genome-recovery-and-integrated-cell-size-analyses-of-individual-uncultured-microbial-cells-and-viral-particles
#2
Ramunas Stepanauskas, Elizabeth A Fergusson, Joseph Brown, Nicole J Poulton, Ben Tupper, Jessica M Labonté, Eric D Becraft, Julia M Brown, Maria G Pachiadaki, Tadas Povilaitis, Brian P Thompson, Corianna J Mascena, Wendy K Bellows, Arvydas Lubys
Microbial single-cell genomics can be used to provide insights into the metabolic potential, interactions, and evolution of uncultured microorganisms. Here we present WGA-X, a method based on multiple displacement amplification of DNA that utilizes a thermostable mutant of the phi29 polymerase. WGA-X enhances genome recovery from individual microbial cells and viral particles while maintaining ease of use and scalability. The greatest improvements are observed when amplifying high G+C content templates, such as those belonging to the predominant bacteria in agricultural soils...
July 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728909/assessing-impacts-of-dna-extraction-methods-on-next-generation-sequencing-of-water-and-wastewater-samples
#3
Connie Walden, Franck Carbonero, Wen Zhang
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is increasingly affordable and easier to perform. However, standard protocols prior to the sequencing step are only available for few selected sample types. Here we investigated the impact of DNA extraction methods on the consistency of NGS results. Four commercial DNA extraction kits (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, MO BIO Power Water Kit, and MO BIO Power Soil DNA Isolation Kit) were used on sample sources including lake water and wastewater, and sample types including planktonic and biofilm bacteria communities...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728141/estimates-of-soil-ingestion-in-a-population-of-chinese-children
#4
Chunye Lin, Beibei Wang, Xiaoyong Cui, Dongqun Xu, Hongguang Cheng, Qin Wang, Jin Ma, Tuanyao Chai, Xiaoli Duan, Xitao Liu, Junwei Ma, Xuan Zhang, Yanzhong Liu
BACKGROUND: China's soil pollution poses serious health risks. However, data regarding the soil ingestion rate (SIR) of the Chinese population, which is critical to assessing associated health risks, are lacking. OBJECTIVES: We estimated soil ingestion of 177 Chinese children from Guangdong, Hubei, and Gansu Provinces. METHODS: We conducted this investigation by employing a tracer mass-balance method. We collected a duplicate of all food consumed and all feces and urine excreted on 1 d () and over 3 consecutive d (), as well as soil samples from play areas and drinking-water samples...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724405/environmental-drivers-of-viral-community-composition-in-antarctic-soils-identified-by-viromics
#5
Evelien M Adriaenssens, Rolf Kramer, Marc W Van Goethem, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Ian Hogg, Don A Cowan
BACKGROUND: The Antarctic continent is considered the coldest and driest place on earth with simple ecosystems, devoid of higher plants. Soils in the ice-free regions of Antarctica are known to harbor a wide range of microorganisms from primary producers to grazers, yet their ecology and particularly the role of viruses is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the virus community structures of 14 soil samples from the Mackay Glacier region. METHODS: Viral communities were extracted from soil and the dsDNA was extracted, amplified using single-primer amplification, and sequenced using the Ion Torrent Proton platform...
July 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724228/a-new-method-for-correlation-analysis-of-compositional-environmental-data-a-worked-example
#6
C Reimann, P Filzmoser, K Hron, P Kynčlová, R G Garrett
Most data in environmental sciences and geochemistry are compositional. Already the unit used to report the data (e.g., μg/l, mg/kg, wt%) implies that the analytical results for each element are not free to vary independently of the other measured variables. This is often neglected in statistical analysis, where a simple log-transformation of the single variables is insufficient to put the data into an acceptable geometry. This is also important for bivariate data analysis and for correlation analysis, for which the data need to be appropriately log-ratio transformed...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724222/development-of-a-soft-extraction-method-for-sulfamethoxazole-and-transformation-products-from-agricultural-soils-effects-of-organic-matter-co-extraction-on-the-environmental-availability-assessment
#7
Anaïs Goulas, Marjolaine Bourdat-Deschamps, Sylvie Nélieu, Julie Jimenez, Dominique Patureau, Claire-Sophie Haudin, Pierre Benoit
The recycling of biosolids and livestock manure in agriculture may lead to the introduction of antibiotic residues, i.e., parent molecule and transformation products, into amended soils. Their fate in soils can be approached through the assessment of their environmental availability. In this work, the environmental availability of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and three transformation products (N(4)-acetyl-SMX, 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole, aniline) was assessed in soils amended with sludge compost or cow manure throughout a three-month incubation, using soft extractions with CaCl2, EDTA or cyclodextrin solutions...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722571/more-poop-more-precision-improving-epidemiologic-surveillance-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-with-multiple-fecal-sampling-using-the-kato-katz-technique
#8
Chengfang Liu, Louise Lu, Linxiu Zhang, Yu Bai, Alexis Medina, Scott Rozelle, Darvin Scott Smith, Changhai Zhou, Wei Zang
Soil-transmitted helminths, or parasitic intestinal worms, are among the most prevalent and geographically widespread parasitic infections in the world. Accurate diagnosis and quantification of helminth infection are critical for informing and assessing deworming interventions. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique, the most widely used laboratory method to quantitatively assess infection prevalence and infection intensity of helminths, has often been compared with other methods. Only a few small-scale studies, however, have considered ways to improve its diagnostic sensitivity...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722197/simultaneous-determination-and-method-validation-of-difenoconazole-propiconazole-and-pyraclostrobin-in-pepper-and-soil-by-lc-ms-ms-in-field-trial-samples-from-three-provinces-china
#9
Kunming Zheng, Banghua Meng, Sizhuo Wu, Haizhen Zhang, Fei Wang, Ying Cui, Song Zeng, Kankan Zhang, Deyu Hu
A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simple and accurate detection of the fungicides difenoconazole, propiconazole and pyraclostrobin in peppers and soil. Three fungicides residues were extracted from samples by acetonitrile, cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction before instrumental analysis. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated by conducting intra- and inter-day recovery experiment. The limits of quantification and detection of difenoconazole, propiconazole and pyraclostrobin in pepper and soil were 0...
July 19, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721626/fate-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-response-to-application-of-poultry-and-swine-manure-in-simulated-manure-soil-microcosms-and-manure-pond-microcosms
#10
Mianzhi Wang, Yongxue Sun, Peng Liu, Jing Sun, Qin Zhou, Wenguang Xiong, Zhenling Zeng
This study aimed to determine the occurrence, abundance, and fate of nine important antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (sul1, sul2, tetB, tetM, ermB, ermF, fexA, cfr, and Intl1) in the simulated soil and pond microcosms following poultry and swine manure application. Absolute quantitative PCR method was used to determine the gene copies. The results were modeled as a logarithmic regression (N = mlnt + b) to explore the fate of target genes. Genes sul1, Intl1, sul2, and tetM had the highest abundance following the application of the two manure types...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719852/rapid-gamma-spectrometric-analysis-of-soil-samples-after-radioactive-fallout-using-a-conjugate-view-technique
#11
M Isaksson, M Fahlström, N Ossipova, K Rosén
A method for fast determination of the activity in soil samples by measuring a fresh soil core sample from both ends with an HPGe-detector is proposed. The method was tested by simulations, as well as by measurements on spiked soil samples. Both simulations and measurements showed that the geometrical mean of the count rates when the sample is measured twice, with the bottom and the top end, respectively, facing the detector closely resembles the count rate from a measurement on a homogenized sample. Therefore, an efficiency calibration for homogenized samples could be used even if the activity is highly inhomogeneous in the soil core, as is the case with fresh fallout...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718022/identifying-nitrate-sources-and-transformations-in-taizi-river-basin-northeast-china
#12
Yanli Li, Yanfen Li, Tongqian Zhao, Wei Sun, Zirui Yang
The nitrate (NO3(-)) pollution of aquatic systems in Northeast China is a severe problem. To identify NO3(-) sources and transformations in different zones with different land uses in the Taizi River Basin, ion-exchange methods were utilized to determine the concentrations and isotopic compositions (δ(15)N and δ(18)O) of NO3(-) and chloride (Cl(-)). Results showed that Cl(-) concentrations ranged from 2.7 to 73.4 mg/L. Cl(-) concentrations were the highest in zone 8 and the lowest in zone 1. NO3(-) concentrations ranged from 0...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716067/molecular-characterization-of-group-a-rotaviruses-in-mukuru-slums-kenya-detection-of-novel-strains-circulating-in-children-below-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#13
Joshua Ndung'u Gikonyo, James Nyangao, Cecilia Mbae, Carlene Sang, Eliud Njagi, Joseph Ngeranwa, Mathew Esona, Mapaseka L Seheri, Grace W Gitau, Kedra Raini, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a public health concern due to high morbidity and mortality among children. Rotaviruses are the leading etiological agents of severe gastroenteritis in children and accounts for more than half a million deaths per year in Africa. The study aimed at investigating the rotavirus genotypes that were circulating in children aged 5 years and below in and around Mukuru slums in Nairobi County Kenya. METHODS: A purposive cross sectional sampling method was applied where 166 samples were collected from children below 5 years of age and taken to Kenya Medical Research Institute virology laboratory...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710624/identification-and-characterization-of-the-genes-and-enzymes-belonging-to-the-bile-acid-catabolic-pathway-in-pseudomonas
#14
José M Luengo, Elías R Olivera
The study of the catabolic potential of microbial species isolated from different habitats has allowed the identification and characterization of bacteria able to assimilate bile acids and other steroids (e.g., testosterone and 4-androsten-3,17-dione). From soil samples, we have isolated several strains belonging to genus Pseudomonas that grow efficiently in chemical defined media containing some cyclopentane-perhydro-phenantrene derivatives as carbon sources. Genetic and biochemical studies performed with one of these bacteria (P...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702916/risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-soil-of-tongnan-district-southwest-china-evidence-from-multiple-indices-with-high-spatial-resolution-sampling
#15
Yongmei Ma, Zhongmin Jia, Siyue Li
Assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in soil is critical for human health, ecological remediation, and soil conservation. In this study, statistical analyses and geochemical approaches such as enrichment factor (EF), the index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), and potential ecological risk index (RI) were used for characterization and risk assessment of soil HMs through a high-spatial-resolution 385 samples from Tongnan District, an important agricultural practice area in Chongqing Municipality in Southwest China...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702004/screening-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-against-drug-resistant-bacteria-of-photorhabdus-and-xenorhabdus-associated-with-entomopathogenic-nematodes-from-mae-wong-national-park-thailand
#16
Paramaporn Muangpat, Temsiri Yooyangket, Chamaiporn Fukruksa, Manawat Suwannaroj, Thatcha Yimthin, Sutthirat Sitthisak, Narisara Chantratita, Apichat Vitta, Nicholas J Tobias, Helge B Bode, Aunchalee Thanwisai
Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are symbiotic with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively. These bacteria produce several secondary metabolites including antimicrobial compounds. The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify EPNs and their symbiotic bacteria from Mae Wong National Park, Thailand and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of symbiont extracts against drug resistant bacteria. A total of 550 soil samples from 110 sites were collected between August 2014 and July 2015...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701687/the-temperature-sensitivity-of-soil-organic-carbon-decomposition-is-greater-in-subsoil-than-in-topsoil-during-laboratory-incubation
#17
Dong Yan, Jinquan Li, Junmin Pei, Jun Cui, Ming Nie, Changming Fang
The turnover of soil organic carbon (SOC) in cropland plays an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling, but little is known about the temperature sensitivity (Q 10) of SOC decomposition below the topsoil layer of arable soil. Here, samples of topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) layers were obtained from paddy fields and upland croplands in two regions of China. Using a sequential temperature changing method, soil respiration rates were calculated at different temperatures (8 °C to 28 °C) and fitted to an exponential equation to estimate Q 10 values...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700972/evaluating-the-use-of-in-situ-turbidity-measurements-to-quantify-fluvial-sediment-and-phosphorus-concentrations-and-fluxes-in-agricultural-streams
#18
Marc Stutter, Julian J C Dawson, Miriam Glendell, Fiona Napier, Jacqueline M Potts, James Sample, Andrew Vinten, Helen Watson
Accurate quantification of suspended sediments (SS) and particulate phosphorus (PP) concentrations and loads is complex due to episodic delivery associated with storms and management activities often missed by infrequent sampling. Surrogate measurements such as turbidity can improve understanding of pollutant behaviour, providing calibrations can be made cost-effectively and with quantified uncertainties. Here, we compared fortnightly and storm intensive water quality sampling with semi-continuous turbidity monitoring calibrated against spot samples as three potential methods for determining SS and PP concentrations and loads in an agricultural catchment over two-years...
July 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697451/reduced-efficacy-of-albendazole-against-ascaris-lumbricoides-in-rwandan-schoolchildren
#19
Jürgen Krücken, Kira Fraundorfer, Jean Claude Mugisha, Sabrina Ramünke, Kevin C Sifft, Dominik Geus, Felix Habarugira, Jules Ndoli, Augustin Sendegeya, Caritas Mukampunga, Claude Bayingana, Toni Aebischer, Janina Demeler, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
Control of human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) relies on preventive chemotherapy of schoolchildren applying the benzimidazoles (BZ) albendazole or mebendazole. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is a common problem in nematodes of veterinary importance but for human STHs, information on drug efficacy is limited and routine monitoring is rarely implemented. Herein, the efficacy of single dose albendazole (400 mg) was evaluated in 12 schools in the Huye district of Rwanda where Ascaris is the predominant STH. Ascaris eggs were detected by wet mount microscopy and the Mini-FLOTAC method to assess cure rate (CR) and faecal egg count reduction (FECR)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697382/bacterial-mobilization-and-transport-through-manure-enriched-soils-experiment-and-modeling
#20
N Sepehrnia, L Memarianfard, A A Moosavi, J Bachmann, G Guggenberger, F Rezanezhad
A precise evaluation of bacteria transport and mathematical investigations are useful for best management practices in agroecosystems. In this study, using laboratory experiments and modeling approaches, we assess the transport of bacteria released from three types of manure (cow, sheep, and poultry) to find the importance of the common manures in agricultural activities in soil and water pollution. Thirty six intact soil columns with different textures (sandy, loamy, and silty clay loam) were sampled. Fecal coliform leaching from layers of the manures on the soil surface was conducted under steady-state saturated flow conditions at 20 °C for up to four Pore Volumes (PVs)...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
keyword
keyword
57824
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"