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Soil sampling method

Erwann Le Gendre, Erwan Martin, Benoit Villemant, Pierre Cartigny, Nelly Assayag
RATIONALE: The O- and S- isotope compositions of sulfates can be used as key tracers of the fate and sink of sulfate in both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial environments. However, their application remains limited in those geological systems where sulfate occurs in low concentrations. Here we present a simple and reliable method to extract, purify and concentrate sulfate from natural samples. The method allows us to take into account the separation of nitrate, which is known to be an issue in O-isotope analysis...
October 21, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Erik J Oerter, Alexei Perelet, Eric Pardyjak, Gabriel Bowen
RATIONALE: The fast and accurate measurement of H and O stable isotope compositions (δ(2) H and δ(18) O values) of soil and sediment pore water remains an impediment to scaling-up the application of these isotopes in soil and vadose hydrology. Here we describe a method and its calibration to measuring soil and sediment pore water δ(2) H and δ(18) O values using a water vapor-permeable probe coupled to an Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectroscopy analyzer. METHODS: We compare the water vapor probe method with a vapor direct equilibration method, and vacuum extraction with liquid water analysis...
October 20, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Li-Xia Zhu, Qian Xiao, Yu-Fang Shen, Shi-Qing Li
Application of maize straw and biochar can potentially improve soil fertility and sequester carbon (C) in the soil, but little information is available about the effects of maize straw and biochar on the mineralization of soil C and nitrogen (N). We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment with five treatments of a cultivated silty loam, biochar produced from maize straw and/or maize straw: soil only (control), soil + 1 % maize straw (S), soil + 4 % biochar (B1), soil + 4 % biochar + 1 % maize straw (B1S), and soil + 8 % biochar + 1 % maize straw (B2S)...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ilhem Guesmi-Mzoughi, Antonio Archidona-Yuste, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Hajer Regaieg, Najet Horrigue-Raouani, Juan E Palomares-Rius, Pablo Castillo
Spiral nematode species of the genus Rotylenchus have been reported on olive (Olea europaea L.) in several Mediterranean countries (Castillo et al., 2010; Ali et al., 2014). Nematological surveys for plant-parasitic nematodes on olive trees were carried out in Tunisia between 2013 and 2014, and two nematode species of Rotylenchus were collected from the rhizosphere of olive cv. Chemlali in several localities of Tunisia (Tables 1,2 [Table: see text] [Table: see text] ). Twenty-two soil samples of 3 to 4 kg were collected with a shovel from the upper 50 cm of soil from arbitrarily chosen olive trees...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Emmanuel A Tzortzakakis, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Antonio Archidona-Yuste, Juan E Palomares-Rius, Pablo Castillo
Plant-parasitic nematode species have been reported on several occasions from coastal sand dunes, including Longidorus and Rotylenchus species (Vovlas et al., 2008; De Luca et al., 2009; Mateille et al., 2014). In April 2016, 10 soil samples of 3 to 4 kg from the rhizosphere of Tamarix smyrnensis with different vegetation around (viz. Elymus farctus, Lycium schweinfurthii, Crithmum maritimum, and Arthrocnemum sp.) were collected for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. The area of sampling was a coastal sand dune near the archeological site of Komos, southwest of Crete, Greece...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Liu Yang, Jie Zhang, Faqiong Zhao, Baizhao Zeng
In this work, a novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)@Au nanoparticles (PEDOT@AuNPs) hybrid coating was prepared and characterized. Firstly, the monomer 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was self-assembled on AuNPs, and then electropolymerization was performed on a stainless steel wire by cyclic voltammetry. The obtained PEDOT@AuNPs coating was rough and showed cauliflower-like micro-structure with thickness of ∼40μm. It displayed high thermal stability (up to 330°C) and mechanical stability and could be used for at least 160 times of solid phase microextraction (SPME) without decrease of extraction performance...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Lobna A Hussein, Noha F El Azab, Maha F Abdel-Ghany
A sensitive, selective, and validated HPLC-diode-array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five neonicotinoid insecticides-acetamiprid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, flonicamid, and thiacloprid-and their primary metabolite, 6-chloronicotinic acid, in cucumbers and soil based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) technique as a pretreatment procedure. In the QuEChERS procedure, cucumber samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned using C18, whereas soil samples were extracted with an acetonitrile-dichloromethane mixture (1 + 2)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Andrew Olaf Shelton, James Lawrence O'Donnell, Jameal F Samhouri, Natalie Lowell, Gregory D Williams, Ryan P Kelly
Environmental DNA (eDNA), genetic material recovered from an environmental medium such as soil, water, or feces, reflects the membership of the ecological community present in the sampled environment. As such, eDNA is a potentially rich source of data for basic ecology, conservation, and management, because it offers the prospect of quantitatively reconstructing whole ecological communities from easily obtained samples. However, like all sampling methods, eDNA sequencing is subject to methodological limitations that can generate biased descriptions of ecological communities...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Suchawan Pornsukarom, Siddhartha Thakur
Land application of swine manure in commercial hog farms is an integral part of their waste management system which recycles the nutrients back to the soil. However, manure application can lead to the dissemination of bacterial pathogens in the environment and pose a serious public health threat. The aim of this study was to determine the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in the environment due to manure application in commercial swine farms in North Carolina (n = 6) and Iowa (n = 7), two leading pork producing states in the US...
2016: PloS One
M'hamed Seklaoui, Abdelhak Boutaleb, Hanafi Benali, Fadila Alligui, Walter Prochaska
To date, there have been few detailed studies regarding the impact of mining and metallogenic activities on solid fractions in the Azzaba mercurial district (northeast Algeria) despite its importance and global similarity with large Hg mines. To assess the degree, distribution, and sources of pollution, a physical inventory of apparent pollution was developed, and several samples of mining waste, process waste, sediment, and soil were collected on regional and local scales to determine the concentration of Hg and other metals according to their existing mineralogical association...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Habteab Habtom, Sandrine Demanèche, Lorna Dawson, Chen Azulay, Ofra Matan, Patrick Robe, Ron Gafny, Pascal Simonet, Edouard Jurkevitch, Zohar Pasternak
The ubiquity and transferability of soil makes it a resource for the forensic investigator, as it can provide a link between agents and scenes. However, the information contained in soils, such as chemical compounds, physical particles or biological entities, is seldom used in forensic investigations; due mainly to the associated costs, lack of available expertise, and the lack of soil databases. The microbial DNA in soil is relatively easy to access and analyse, having thus the potential to provide a powerful means for discriminating soil samples or linking them to a common origin...
October 6, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Fabrício de Oliveira Ferreira, Caio Rodrigues-Silva, Susanne Rath
Avermectins and milbemycin are widely used as veterinary drugs and as agricultural pesticides, and their residues have been detected in soil. This study reports a simple and high-throughput method for determining ivermectin (IVER), abamectin (ABA), doramectin (DORA), eprinomectin (EPRI), and moxidectin (MOXI) residues in soils, employing an on-line solid-phase extraction technique coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS). The method was validated and applied for the determination of ABA in soils from an orange plantation treated with this pesticide...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
D Lee Taylor, William A Walters, Niall J Lennon, James Bochicchio, Andrew Krohn, J Gregory Caporaso, Taina Pennanen
: While high-throughput-sequencing methods are revolutionizing fungal ecology, recovering accurate estimates of species richness and abundance has proven elusive. We sought to design ITS primers and an Illumina protocol that would maximize coverage of the kingdom Fungi while minimizing non-target eukaryotes. We inspected alignments of the 5.8S and LSU ribosomal genes and evaluated potential primers using PrimerProspector. We tested the resulting primers using tiered-abundance mock communities and five previously characterized soil samples...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Joseph M Matong, Luthando Nyaba, Philiswa N Nomngongo
A rapid, simple and green ultrasound-assisted extraction method using deep eutectic solvents (DES) for extraction of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in soil samples, has been developed. Choline chloride-oxalic acid based DES was used as a solvent. The target analytes were subsequently quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP OES). The parameters that affect the extraction of the target analytes was optimized using standard reference material of San Joaquin soil (SRM 2709a). In the optimization step, a two-level full factorial experimental design was used...
October 10, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Masami Shibukawa, Daiki Nobushima, Shoko Sakuma, Mari Sasaki, Keisuke Nakamura, Yuma Matsutani, Kazunori Saitoh, Shingo Saito
A green extraction spectrophotometric method was presented for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium in soil and sediment samples. This method is based on the selective extraction of cadmium as its iodide complex by aqueous biphasic extraction composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sodium sulfate, and a subsequent sensitive determination by spectrophotometry using 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-n-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol. This extraction method is simple and environmentally benign, since the organic solvents used for the traditional liquid-liquid extractions are replaced by the non-toxic polymer and inorganic salt...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
James C Stegen, Allen H Hurlbert, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Xingyuan Chen, Carolyn G Anderson, Rosalie K Chu, Francisco Dini-Andreote, Sarah J Fansler, Nancy J Hess, Malak Tfaily
The number of microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within a community is akin to species richness within plant/animal ("macrobial") systems. A large literature documents OTU richness patterns, drawing comparisons to macrobial theory. There is, however, an unrecognized fundamental disconnect between OTU richness and macrobial theory: OTU richness is commonly estimated on a per-individual basis, while macrobial richness is estimated per-area. Furthermore, the range or extent of sampled environmental conditions can strongly influence a study's outcomes and conclusions, but this is not commonly addressed when studying OTU richness...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stefano Mammola, Pier Mauro Giachino, Elena Piano, Alexandra Jones, Marcel Barberis, Giovanni Badino, Marco Isaia
The term Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) has been used since the early 1980s in subterranean biology to categorize an array of different hypogean habitats. In general terms, a MSS habitat represents the underground network of empty air-filled voids and cracks developing within multiple layers of rock fragments. Its origins can be diverse and is generally covered by topsoil. The MSS habitat is often connected both with the deep hypogean domain-caves and deep rock cracks-and the superficial soil horizon. A MSS is usually characterized by peculiar microclimatic conditions, and it can harbor specialized hypogean, endogean, and surface-dwelling species...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Jianguo Zhang, Xinwen Xu, Shengyu Li, Ying Zhao, Afeng Zhang, Tibin Zhang, Rui Jiang
Freshwater resources are scarce in desert regions. Highly saline groundwater of different salinity is being used to drip irrigate the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt with a double-branch-pipe system controlling the irrigation cycles. In this study, to evaluate the dynamics of soil moisture and salinity under the current irrigation system, soil samples were collected to a 2-m depth in the shelterbelt planted for different years and irrigated with different groundwater salinities, and soil moisture and salinity were analyzed...
2016: PloS One
J K Böhlke, Stanley J Mroczkowski, Neil C Sturchio, Linnea J Heraty, Kent W Richman, Donald B Sullivan, Kris N Griffith, Baohua Gu, Paul B Hatzinger
RATIONALE: Perchlorate (ClO4(-) ) is a common trace constituent of water, soils, and plants; it has both natural and synthetic sources and is subject to biodegradation. The stable isotope ratios of Cl and O provide three independent quantities for ClO4(-) source attribution and natural attenuation studies: δ(37) Cl, δ(18) O, and δ(17) O (or Δ(17) O or (17) Δ) values. Documented reference materials, calibration schemes, methods, and interferences will improve the reliability of such studies...
October 3, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Pauline Della Rossa, Magalie Jannoyer, Charles Mottes, Joanne Plet, Abderazak Bazizi, Luc Arnaud, Alexandra Jestin, Thierry Woignier, Jean-Marie Gaude, Philippe Cattan
Persistent organic pollutants like organochlorine pesticides continue to contaminate large areas worldwide raising questions concerning their management. We designed and tested a method to link soil and water pollution in the watershed of the Galion River in Martinique. We first estimated the risk of soil contamination by chlordecone by referring to past use of land for banana cultivation and took 27 soil samples. We then sampled surface waters at 39 points and groundwater at 16 points. We tested three hypotheses linked to the source of chlordecone pollution at the watershed scale: (i) soils close to the river, (ii) soils close to the sampling point, (iii) throughout the sub-watershed generated at the sampling point...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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