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Soil sampling method

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916299/measurements-of-background-radiation-levels-around-indian-station-bharati-during-33rd-indian-scientific-expedition-to-antarctica
#1
A K Bakshi, Rama Prajith, S Chinnaesakki, Rupali Pal, Deepa Sathian, Ajay Dhar, T Palani Selvam, B K Sapra, D Datta
A comprehensive measurement of radioactivity concentrations of the primordial radionuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K and their decay products in the soil samples collected from the sites of Indian research stations, Bharati and Maitri, at Antarctica was carried out using gamma spectrometric method. The activity concentrations in the soil samples of Bharati site were observed to be few times higher than of Maitri site. The major contributor to radioactivity content in the soil at Bharati site is (232)Th radionuclide in higher concentration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916262/effect-of-co-application-of-nano-zero-valent-iron-and-biochar-on-the-total-and-freely-dissolved-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-removal-and-toxicity-of-contaminated-soils
#2
Patryk Oleszczuk, Michał Kołtowski
The aim of this study was to investigate co-application of biochar and nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) in order to increase the degradation of PAHs and reduce the toxicity of soils historically contaminated with these compounds. To performed the experiment biochar, biochar with nZVI (2 g kg(-1) or 10 g kg(-1) soil), or nZVI alone (2 g kg(-1) or 10 g kg(-1) soil) were added to the PAHs contaminated soils. The soils alone and soils with amendments were aged by mixing for 7 and 30 days. After that the chemical analysis were carried out and total (Ctot) and Cfree PAH content in the samples were determined...
December 1, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916135/integrating-chemical-imaging-of-cationic-trace-metal-solutes-and-ph-into-a-single-hydrogel-layer
#3
Christoph Hoefer, Jakob Santner, Sergey M Borisov, Walter W Wenzel, Markus Puschenreiter
Gel-based, two-dimensional (2D) chemical imaging techniques are versatile methods for investigating biogeochemically active environments at high spatial resolution (sub-mm). State-of-the-art solute imaging techniques, such as diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and planar optodes (PO), employ passive solute sampling or sensing. Combining these methods will provide powerful tools for studying the biogeochemistry of biological niches in soils and sediments. In this study we aimed at developing a combined single-layer gel for direct pH imaging using PO and sampling of anionic and cationic solutes by DGT, with subsequent analysis of the bound solutes by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914031/a-simple-spectrofluorimetric-method-for-iron-determination-with-a-chalcone-based-schiff-base
#4
Nurhayat Özbek, Hakan Alp, Gonca Çelik, Tuğba Ak, Osman Can Çağılcı, Nurettin Yaylı, Ümmühan Ocak, Miraç Ocak
A chalcone-based Schiff base (5), capable of detecting iron (III) in partially aqueous media, has been designed, then synthesized by the condensation of 3-formyl-2-hydroxyquinoline and acetophenone. To determine iron (III) ion, a simple spectrofluorimetric method was developed by using the synthesized Schiff base. The developed method was validated by analyzing the certified reference material (CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil C). During the process of the determination of iron in food samples, satisfactory accuracy was obtained for spinach and rocket...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912914/distribution-and-source-analysis-of-heavy-metals-in-soils-and-sediments-of-yueqing-bay-basin-east-china-sea
#5
Xiaohui Yang, Pengbao Wu, Aijing Yin, Huan Zhang, Ming Zhang, Chao Gao
Concentrations of heavy metals in coastal soils, stream sediments and intertidal sediments of Yueqing Bay basin were analyzed to study their distribution and trace the possible sources. According to various single- and multi-index methods, heavy metal enrichment, especially for Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni in stream sediments, should draw environmental concern. Controlling factors such as inorganic scavengers, organic matter, sample grain size and hydrodynamic conditions were identified to influence the transportation and distribution of metals within coastal soils and sediments...
November 29, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911419/methods-of-soil-resampling-to-monitor-changes-in-the-chemical-concentrations-of-forest-soils
#6
Gregory B Lawrence, Ivan J Fernandez, Paul W Hazlett, Scott W Bailey, Donald S Ross, Thomas R Villars, Angelica Quintana, Rock Ouimet, Michael R McHale, Chris E Johnson, Russell D Briggs, Robert A Colter, Jason Siemion, Olivia L Bartlett, Olga Vargas, Michael R Antidormi, Mary M Koppers
Recent soils research has shown that important chemical soil characteristics can change in less than a decade, often the result of broad environmental changes. Repeated sampling to monitor these changes in forest soils is a relatively new practice that is not well documented in the literature and has only recently been broadly embraced by the scientific community. The objective of this protocol is therefore to synthesize the latest information on methods of soil resampling in a format that can be used to design and implement a soil monitoring program...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907233/forensic-comparison-of-soil-samples-using-nondestructive-elemental-analysis
#7
Stefan Uitdehaag, Wim Wiarda, Timme Donders, Irene Kuiper
Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (Cllr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906146/peanut-skin-extract-mediated-synthesis-of-gold-nanoparticles-silver-nanoparticles-and-gold-silver-bionanocomposites-for-electrochemical-sudan-iv-sensing
#8
Alok Pani, Tran Duy Thanh, Nam Hoon Kim, Joong Hee Lee, Soon-Il Yun
Sustainable methods are needed for rapid and efficient detection of environmental and food pollutants. The Sudan group of dyes has been used extensively as adulterants in food and also are found to be polluting the soil and water bodies. There have been several methods for detection of Sudan dyes, but most of them are not practical enough for common use. In this study, the electrochemical detection efficiency and stability of gold nanoparticle (AuNPs), silver NPs and Au-Ag bionanocomposites, synthesised by peanut skin extract, modified glassy carbon electrode has been investigated...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905626/-study-of-toxocara-sp-eggs-in-soils-of-public-areas-of-the-city-of-chill%C3%A3-n-chile
#9
Millaray Melín-Coloma, Carmen Villaguala-Pacheco, Raúl Lisboa-Navarro, Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque
INTRODUCTION: Squares and public areas are mentioned frequently as source of infections by Toxocara sp. for people. There is no study of the presence of Toxocara sp. eggs in soils of the city of Chillán, Chile. AIMS: To assess the presence of toxocara eggs in the soils of public areas of Chillán. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 43 public areas were studied in January of 2014. Samples were processed by sedimentation-flotation method. In addition, two positive control assays were performed: one with feces contaminated with Toxocara eggs mixed with soil; and the other leaving the feces on the soil and then analyzing this soil...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902214/brevibacillus-halotolerans-sp-nov-isolated-from-saline-soil-sample-collected-from-paddy-field
#10
Jinlong Song, Yanwei Wang, Yi Song, Bingqiang Zhao, Huimin Wang, Shan Zhou, Delong Kong, Xiang Guo, Yanting Li, Mingxiong He, Kedong Ma, Zhiyong Ruan, Yanchun Yan
Two novel aerobic bacteria, designated strains LAM0312T and LAM0313, were isolated from saline soil sample collected from paddy field in Dezhou city, Shandong Province in China. The Cells of these strains were Gram-stain positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped and motile with peritrichous flagella. The optimal growth temperature and pH were 30 ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, repesctively. Strain LAM0312T was found to be able to grow in the presence of 12 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids of strains were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898780/estrogen-transport-in-surface-runoff-from-agricultural-fields-treated-with-two-application-methods-of-dairy-manure
#11
Odette Mina, Heather E Gall, Louis S Saporito, Peter J A Kleinman
This study compares two methods of dairy manure application-surface broadcast and shallow disk injection-on the fate and transport of natural estrogens in surface runoff from 12 field plots in central Pennsylvania. Ten natural surface runoff events were sampled over a 9-mo period after fall manure application. Results show that the range of estrogen concentrations observed in surface runoff from the broadcast plots was several orders of magnitude higher (>5000 ng L) than the concentrations in runoff from the shallow disk injection plots (<10 ng L)...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894832/development-of-a-rapid-one-step-screening-method-for-the-isolation-of-presumptive-proteolytic-enterococci
#12
Ken Graham, Rosemary Rea, Paul Simpson, Helena Stack
Enterococci show higher proteolytic activities than other lactic acid bacteria and thus have received considerable attention in scientific literature in recent years. Proteolytic enzymes of enterococci have warranted the use of some species as starter, adjuncts or protective cultures and as probiotics, while in some strains they have also been linked with virulence. Consequently, the isolation and identification of proteolytic enterococci is becoming of increasing interest and importance. However, current screening methods for proteolytic enterococci can be time consuming, requiring a two-step procedure which may take up to 96h...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892563/using-reference-materials-to-improve-the-quality-of-data-generated-by-usepa-analytical-methods
#13
S J Nagourney, S A Wilson, S E Long
The quality of data generated for the analysis of environmental samples is critical to State and Federal regulatory agencies to ensure that decisions based upon the amounts of contaminants in environmental samples are truly protective of public health. The quality and validation of these measurements using the approved analytical methodology could be significantly enhanced by incorporating certified reference materials as part of the quality control protocols, yet this has not been widely implemented. Data from certified reference materials can provide critical information that can impact assessments regarding data use that is unavailable by other means...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889893/monitoring-and-distribution-patterns-of-pesticide-residues-in-soil-from-cotton-wheat-fields-of-pakistan
#14
Nazia Rafique, Saadia R Tariq, Dildar Ahmed
The excessive use of hazardous pesticides for massive cotton and wheat production has deteriorated the quality of Okara district's soil. Thus, in order to sustain the production of good-quality food, it is essential to determine the residue levels of pesticides in the agricultural soil and define their possible sources. Thus, the present study focused on the determination of selected pesticides in the soil samples obtained from cotton/wheat fields by using the modified multi-residue pesticide analysis method based on GCMS and HPLC-UV...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888481/rapid-bacteria-identification-from-environmental-mining-samples-using-maldi-tof-ms-analysis
#15
Ingrid Regina Avanzi, Louise Hase Gracioso, Marcela Dos Passos Galluzzi Baltazar, Bruno Karolski, Elen Aquino Perpetuo, Claudio Augusto Oller do Nascimento
Copper mining has polluted soils and water, causing a reduction of the microbial diversity and a change in the structure of the resident bacterial communities. In this work, selective isolation combined with MALDI-TOF MS and the 16S rDNA method were used for characterizing cultivable bacterial communities from copper mining samples. The results revealed that MALDI-TOF MS analysis can be considered a reliable and fast tool for identifying copper-resistant bacteria from environmental samples at the genera level...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888372/effect-of-oil-pollution-on-function-of-sandy-soils-in-protected-deserts-and-investigation-of-their-improvement-guidelines-case-study-kalmand-area-iran
#16
Mohammad Saberian, Mohammad Mehdi Khabiri
Soil pollution is one of the most dangerous sorts of environmental pollutions because of waste materials, fossil fuels, etc. Unfortunately in developing countries, there are very few arrangements to prevent soil pollution due to the fossil fuels and to improve polluted soil. In this research, influences of gas oil on properties of Kalmand protected area's sandy soil near Yazd, Iran, were studied. It was found that gas oil constituted 5.25% of soil weight in the refueling station in the region. Therefore, cleaning and strengthening of the soil by adding cement rather than expensive and complicated methods were the most important goals of this research...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885396/the-effect-of-liming-and-sewage-sludge-application-on-heavy-metal-speciation-in-soil
#17
Elżbieta Malinowska
The aim of this paper is to assess the effect of liming and low doses of municipal sewage sludge (5%, 10%, 15% of the soil mass) on lead, chromium and nickel speciation in soil. The 420-day experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions. In all the samples lead, chromium and nickel concentration was determined with the ICP-AES method, while the content of those metals in different fractions was measured with the seven-step Zeien and Brümmer method, on the 30th and 420th days of the experiment. Sewage sludge doses significantly diversified lead, chromium and nickel amounts in the soil...
November 24, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883983/loss-and-replacement-of-small-particles-on-the-contact-surfaces-of-footwear-during-successive-exposures
#18
David A Stoney, Andrew M Bowen, Paul L Stoney
On the contact surfaces of footwear loosely, moderately and strongly held particle fractions were separated and analyzed in an effort to detect different particle signals. Three environmental exposure sites were chosen to have different, characteristic particle types (soil minerals). Shoes of two types (work boots and tennis shoes) were tested, accumulating particles by walking 250m in each environment. Some shoes were exposed to only one environment; others were exposed to all three, in one of six different sequences...
December 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878453/evaluation-of-stability-and-validation-of-reference-genes-for-rt-qpcr-expression-studies-in-rice-plants-under-water-deficit
#19
Priscila Ariane Auler, Letícia Carvalho Benitez, Marcelo Nogueira do Amaral, Isabel Lopes Vighi, Gabriela Dos Santos Rodrigues, Luciano Carlos da Maia, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel Braga
Many studies use strategies that allow for the identification of a large number of genes expressed in response to different stress conditions to which the plant is subjected throughout its cycle. In order to obtain accurate and reliable results in gene expression studies, it is necessary to use reference genes, which must have uniform expression in the majority of cells in the organism studied. RNA isolation of leaves and expression analysis in real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were carried out...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872571/weed-species-composition-and-distribution-pattern-in-the-maize-crop-under-the-influence-of-edaphic-factors-and-farming-practices-a-case-study-from-mardan-pakistan
#20
Zeeshan Ahmad, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah, Abdulaziz Abdullah Alqarawi, Abeer Hashem
Weeds are unwanted plant species growing in ordinary environment. In nature there are a total of 8000 weed species out of which 250 are important for agriculture world. The present study was carried out on weed species composition and distribution pattern with special reference to edaphic factor and farming practices in maize crop of District Mardan during the months of August and September, 2014. Quadrates methods were used to assess weed species distribution in relation to edaphic factor and farming practices...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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