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Soil sampling method

Qianjun Liu, Di Chen, Jiyuan Wu, Guangcai Yin, Qintie Lin, Min Zhang, Huawen Hu
A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure was designed to extract pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables with a high percentage of water. It has not been used extensively for the extraction of phthalate esters from sediments, soils and sludges. In this work, this procedure was combined with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to determine 16 selected phthalate esters in soil. The extraction efficiency of the samples was improved by ultrasonic extraction and dissolution of the soil samples in ultra-pure water, which promoted the dispersion of the samples...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Corey R Pollock, James T Pokines, Jonathan D Bethard
Determining the depositional environment and the postmortem alterations to a set of remains are necessary aspects of a forensic investigation to explain the circumstances surrounding the death of an individual. The present study examines organic staining as a method for reconstructing the depositional environment of skeletal remains and the taphonomic agents with which they came into contact. Organic staining results largely from tannins leaching from plant materials and therefore can be seen on bone deposited in wooden coffin environments or on terrestrial surfaces...
December 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
Ting-Ting Shi, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Xiao-Bo Qu, Zhi-Dong Qiu, Qiang Zhang, Lan-Ping Guo, Lu-Qi Huang, Qiao-Yan Fu, Zheng Lv, Ya-Li Gong
Due to the particularity of ginseng cultivation, the soil fertility of cultivated ginseng is seriously depleted, so that the cultivated ginseng land can not be reused in the short term, and the land area available for cultivating ginseng becomes less and less with the growth of ginseng cultivation time. Therefore, in order to effectively manage ginseng cultivation, and achieve the sustainable use of ginseng land, it is necessary to obtain accurate information on the distribution of ginseng planting space. In this study, the object-oriented classification method based on rule set was used to extract ginseng planting area based on the ZY-3 satellite data in Fusong county, Jilin province...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ting-Ting Shi, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Lan-Ping Guo, Hui Wang, Zhi-Xian Jing, Lu-Qi Huang
Dao-di herbs are preferred by long-term clinical application of Chinese medicine, they are produced in a specific area and affected by the specific production and processing methods. Dao-di herbs have a high reputation, compared with other regions produced by the same kind of herbs with good quality, good efficacy and stable quality characteristics. Geo-herbal is a unique concept that has been formed by the history of Chinese civilization for thousands of years and the history of Chinese medicine. According to the definition of geo-herbal, it can be seen that there are some differences in the quality and efficacy of the same kind of medicinal herbs in different regions, and there is some similarity in the specific area...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Maurílio Gustavo Nespeca, Gabriel Baroffaldi Piassalonga, José Eduardo de Oliveira
Environmental contamination caused by leakage of fuels and lubricant oils at gas stations is of great concern due to the presence of carcinogenic compounds in the composition of gasoline, diesel, and mineral lubricant oils. Chromatographic methods or non-selective infrared methods are usually used to assess soil contamination, which makes environmental monitoring costly or not appropriate. In this perspective, the present work proposes a methodology to identify the type of contaminant (gasoline, diesel, or lubricant oil) and, subsequently, to quantify the contaminant concentration using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate methods...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Bi-Cheng Yang, Xi-di Wan, Xiao Yang, Yun-Jun Li, Xiao-Ju Wan, Yong Luo, Wei Deng, Feng Wang, Ou-Ping Huang
The determination of pesticide residues is an indispensable task in controlling food safety and environment protection. Carbendazim is one of extensive use of pesticides in the agricultural industry. In this study, a simple method utilizing syringe filter has been applied as electrospray ionization emitter for mass spectrometric identification and quantification of carbendazim in complex matrices including soil, natural water, and fruit juice samples, which contain many insoluble materials. With online syringe filter of the complex samples, most of insoluble materials such as soil were excluded in spray ionization process due to the filter effect, and analytes were subsequently sprayed out from syringe needle for mass spectrometric detection...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Meng Wang, Lan Wu, Qiufen Hu, Yaling Yang
A rapid, sensitive, precise, and accurate dispersive-magnetic solid-phase extraction technique combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry was established for pre-concentration and separation of Pd (II) in soil samples. In the developed system, 5-amine-1,10-phenanthroline was used as synergistic complexant; sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl aminophenol ligand coated on magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical precipitation method, and then employed as the efficient magnetic adsorbent with good magnetic properties and dispersibility...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S Mohammad Modarresi, S Farhad Masoudi
The relative discrepancies between the gamma spectrometry efficiency of RGU, RGTh, RGK reference materials and some soil samples have been studied using a MCNP model of a real HPGe detector. It has been shown that, in a specified geometry, efficiencies differences depend on the sample elemental composition. The elemental compositions of RGU-1, RGTh-1 reference materials and a soil sample have been evaluated using X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) method and used in the MCNP simulation along with RGK-1 and six other soil samples with different elemental compositions to calculate their efficiencies in different gamma ray energies...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Genevieve Marchand, Judith Lord, Carole Pépin, Nancy Lacombe
Legionella has a global distribution, mainly in aquatic and man-made environments. Under the right conditions, this bacterium is a notorious human pathogen responsible for severe pulmonary illnesses. Legionellosis outbreaks are reported around the world, and exposure to water droplet aerosols containing Legionella pneumophila is usually the mechanism of its transmission. Even if L. pneumophila causes most outbreaks, Legionella longbeachae also accounts for some cases. Unlike most other Legionella strains, L...
January 3, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
O S Humphrey, S D Young, E H Bailey, N M J Crout, E L Ander, M J Watts
Iodine is an essential micronutrient for human health: insufficient intake can have multiple effects on development and growth, affecting approximately 1.9 billion people worldwide. Previous reviews have focussed on iodine analysis in environmental and biological samples, however, no such review exists for the determination of iodine fractionation and speciation in soils. This article reviews the geodynamics of both stable 127I and the long-lived isotope 129I (t1/2 = 15.7 million years), alongside the analytical methods for determining iodine concentrations in soils, including consideration of sample preparation...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
I Ghiaie Asl, M Motamedi, G R Shokuhi, N Jalalizand, A Farhang, H Mirhendi
Background and Purpose: Cladosporium species are ubiquitous, saprobic, dematiaceous fungi, only infrequently associated with human and animal opportunistic infections. Materials and Methods: Airborne samples were collected using the settle plate method, and soil samples were obtained from a depth of 5-10 cm of the superficial soil layer. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) plates, incubated at 25°C, and examined daily for fungal colonies for two to three weeks...
March 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
An-Dong Li, Jacob W Metch, Yulin Wang, Emily Garner, An Ni Zhang, Maria V Riquelme, Peter J Vikesland, Amy Pruden, Tong Zhang
With the growing application of high-throughput sequencing-based metagenomics for profiling antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), comparison of sample pretreatment and DNA extraction methods are needed to move towards standardized comparisons among laboratories. Three widely employed DNA extraction methods (FastDNA® Spin Kit for Soil, PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit, and ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep™), with and without preservation in 50% ethanol and freezing, were applied to the influent, activated sludge and effluent of two WWTPs, in Hong Kong and in the USA...
December 27, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Christopher A Bell, Howard J Atkinson, Alan C Andrade, Hoa X Nguyen, I Gede Swibawa, Catherine Lilley, James McCarthy, Peter Urwin
Coffee yields are adversely affected by plant-parasitic nematodes and the pathogens are largely under-reported because a simple and reliable identification method is not available. We describe a PCR-based approach to rapidly detect and quantify the major Pratylenchus and Meloidogyne nematode species that are capable of parasitising coffee. The procedure was applied to soil samples obtained from a number of coffee farms in Brazil, Vietnam and Indonesia to assess the prevalence of these species associated both with coffee (Coffea arabica and C...
January 1, 2018: Phytopathology
Andrea Hevia, Raúl Sánchez-Salguero, J Julio Camarero, Allan Buras, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, J Diego Galván, Emilia Gutiérrez
Dendrochemical studies in old forests are still underdeveloped. Old trees growing in remote high-elevation areas far from direct human influence constitute a promising biological proxy for the long-term reconstructions of environmental changes using tree-rings. Furthermore, centennial-long chronologies of multi-elemental chemistry at inter- and intra-annual resolution are scarce. Here, we use a novel non-destructive method by applying Micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) to wood samples of old Pinus uncinata trees from two Pyrenean high-elevation forests growing on acidic and basic soils...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tom Topaz, Roey Egozi, Gil Eshel, Benny Chefetz
Cultivated land is a major source of pesticides, which are transported with the runoff water and eroded soil during rainfall events and pollute riverine and estuarine environments. Common ecotoxicological assessments of riverine systems are mainly based on water sampling and analysis of only the dissolved phase, and address a single pesticide's toxicological impact under laboratory conditions. A clear overview of mixtures of pesticides in the adsorbed and dissolved phases is missing, and therefore the full ecotoxicological impact is not fully addressed...
December 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Chasity Bagsby, Anita Saha, Granville Goodin, Sheeba Siddiqi, Mary Farone, Anthony Farone, Paul C Kline
Intravenous injection of barbiturates, particularly pentobarbital (5-ethyl-5-pentan-2-yl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,5-trione), is a widely used method to euthanize large animals such as horses. However, one concern with this method is the fate of pentobarbital after the disposal of the carcass. As tissues decompose, pentobarbital may leach into the soil and from there migrate to groundwater. A method using methanol extraction, solid phase concentration, and liquid chromatography (LC/MS) has been developed to measure pentobarbital in soils...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Samira Mohammadi, Bahram Nasr Esfahani, Sharareh Moghim, Hossein Mirhendi, Fatemeh Riyahi Zaniani, Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei, Hossein Fazeli, Mahshid Salehi
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of opportunistic pathogens and these are widely dispersed in water and soil resources. Identification of mycobacteria isolates by conventional methods including biochemical tests, growth rates, colony pigmentation, and presence of acid-fast bacilli is widely used, but these methods are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and may sometimes remain inconclusive. Materials and Methods: The DNA was extracted from NTM cultures using CTAB, Chelex, Chelex + Nonidet P-40, FTA® Elute card, and boiling The quantity and quality of the DNA extracted via these methods were determined using UV-photometer at 260 and 280 nm, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the heat-shock protein 65 gene with serially diluted DNA samples...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
Zhenyi Jia, Shenglu Zhou, Quanlong Su, Haomin Yi, Junxiao Wang
Soil pollution by metal(loid)s resulting from rapid economic development is a major concern. Accurately estimating the spatial distribution of soil metal(loid) pollution has great significance in preventing and controlling soil pollution. In this study, 126 topsoil samples were collected in Kunshan City and the geo-accumulation index was selected as a pollution index. We used Kriging interpolation and BP neural network methods to estimate the spatial distribution of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) pollution in the study area...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
H Velasco, R Torres Astorga, D Joseph, J S Antoine, L Mabit, A Toloza, G Dercon, Des E Walling
Large-scale deforestation, intensive land use and unfavourable rainfall conditions are responsible for significant continuous degradation of the Haitian uplands. To develop soil conservation strategies, simple and cost-effective methods are needed to assess rates of soil loss from farmland in Haiti. The fallout radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) provides one such means of documenting medium-term soil redistribution rates. In this contribution, the authors report the first use in Haiti of 137Cs measurements to document soil redistribution rates and the associated pattern of erosion/sedimentation rates along typical hillslopes within a traditional upland Haitian farming area...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Byung-Jae Park, Ramachandran Chelliah, Shuai Wei, Joong-Hyun Park, Fereidoun Forghani, Youn-Seo Park, Min-Seok Cho, Dong-Suk Park, Deog-Hwan Oh
The aim of the study was to develop unique biomarkers for qPCR detection of Bacillus cereus group. Clinical and soil isolates were identified by specifically designed biomarkers - Lipoprotein (OPL-114-lipo), Methyltransferase (MT-17) and S-layer homology domain protein (151-1BC). In order to design biomarkers, we used 120 bacterial strains grouped into B. cereus and non-Bacillus group. The B. cereus group was confirmed by 108 strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis (30 reference and 78 wild), along with 3 strains of B...
December 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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