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Soil sampling method

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219248/high-performance-method-for-determination-of-pu-isotopes-in-soil-and-sediment-samples-by-sector-field-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#1
Zhongtang Wang, Jian Zheng, Youyi Ni, Wu Men, Keiko Tagami, Shigeo Uchida
Plutonium is extensively studied in radioecology (e.g., soil to plant transfer and radiological assessment) and geochemistry (e.g., sediment dating). Here, we reported a new chemical separation method for rapid determination of Pu in soil and sediment samples, based on the following investigations: extraction behaviors of interfering elements (IEs, for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) measurement) on TEVA resin; decontamination of U using TEVA, UTEVA, and DGA resins; and the impact of coprecipitation on Pu determination...
February 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217901/the-choice-of-the-dna-extraction-method-may-influence-the-outcome-of-the-soil-microbial-community-structure-analysis
#2
Sylwia Zielińska, Piotr Radkowski, Aleksandra Blendowska, Agnieszka Ludwig-Gałęzowska, Joanna M Łoś, Marcin Łoś
Metagenomics approaches and recent improvements in the next-generation sequencing methods, have become a method of choice in establishing a microbial population structure. Many commercial soil DNA extraction kits are available and due to their efficiency they are replacing traditional extraction protocols. However, differences in the physicochemical properties of soil samples require optimization of DNA extraction techniques for each sample separately. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency, quality, and diversity of genetic material extracted with the use of commonly used kits...
February 20, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215804/pyrogenic-carbon-in-australian-soils
#3
Fangjie Qi, Ravi Naidu, Nanthi S Bolan, Zhaomin Dong, Yubo Yan, Dane Lamb, Thomas D Bucheli, Girish Choppala, Luchun Duan, Kirk T Semple
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), the combustion residues of fossil fuel and biomass, is a versatile soil fraction active in biogeochemical processes. In this study, the chemo-thermal oxidation method (CTO-375) was applied to investigate the content and distribution of PyC in 30 Australian agricultural, pastoral, bushland and parkland soil with various soil types. Soils were sampled incrementally to 50cm in 6 locations and at another 7 locations at 0-10cm. Results showed that PyC in Australian soils typically ranged from 0...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214519/detection-and-quantification-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-in-environmental-samples-a-review-of-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Gulshan Singh, Thor Axel Stenström, Poovendhree Reddy
It is estimated that over a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) globally with majority occurring in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworms (Anclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) are the main species infecting people. These infections are mostly gained through exposure to faecally contaminated water, soil or contaminated food and with an increase in the risk of infections due to wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture...
February 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213229/fast-method-to-quantify-pahs-in-contaminated-soils-by-direct-thermodesorption-using-analytical-pyrolysis
#5
C Biache, C Lorgeoux, A Saada, S Colombano, P Faure
A method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification, based on pyrolysis at 450°C combined with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection (Py-GC-MS/FID), was developed and compared to a conventional PAH quantification method using accelerated solvent extraction and GC-MS analyses. The PAH contents of three coking plant soils, one gas plant soil, two wood-treating facility soils and one certified reference material (CRM - BCR 524) were determined using both methods...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211298/kinneretia-thg-sqi4-mediated-biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-its-antimicrobial-efficacy
#6
Hina Singh, Juan Du, Tae-Hoo Yi
Simple, facile, effective approach for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Kinneretia species and its antimicrobial activity against human pathogens has been demonstrated in this study. Kinneretia THG-SQI4 has been isolated from soil sample collected from Shangqui, China. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), elemental mapping, selected area diffraction pattern, and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
May 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206877/the-quechers-approach-for-the-determination-of-pesticide-residues-in-soil-samples-an-overview
#7
Klaudia Pszczolińska, Monika Michel
Soil samples are complex matrixes; therefore, soil sample preparation is a critical step, and one that is usually expensive, time-consuming, and labor intensive. The quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method, originally developed for the determination of pesticides in fruits and vegetables, has been recently modified and adopted for the analysis of pesticides in soil. This paper reviews all aspects of sample preparation, including extraction and clean-up, and describes the applications of conventional and modified QuEChERS techniques...
November 1, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205438/generation-of-volatile-cadmium-and-zinc-species-based-on-solution-anode-glow-discharge-induced-plasma-electrochemical-processes
#8
Xing Liu, Zhifu Liu, Zhenli Zhu, Dong He, Siqi Yao, Hongtao Zheng, Shenghong Hu
In this study, a novel high efficiency vapor generation strategy was proposed based on solution anode glow discharge for the determination of Cd and Zn by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. In this approach, a glow discharge microplasma was acted as a gaseous cathode to initiate the plasma electrochemical vapor generation of Cd and Zn. Cadmium/Zinc ions could be converted into molecular species efficiently at the plasma-liquid interface from a supporting electrolyte (HCl, pH=3.2). It was found that the overall efficiency of the plasma electrochemical vapor generation (PEVG) system was much higher than the conventional electrochemical hydride generation (EcHG) and HCl-KBH4 system...
February 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204952/a-preliminary-report-of-indigenous-fungal-isolates-from-contaminated-municipal-solid-waste-site-in-india
#9
Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Akhilesh Kumar Pandey, Jamaluddin Khan
Municipal solid waste (MSW) containing harmful substances is a major concern in waste management and can cause adverse effects on diversity of fungi in soil. The main objective was to evaluate the fungal diversity inhabiting in the soil nearby MSW disposal site. The fungal strains were isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA), media at temperatures 28 ± 1 °C by using standard serial dilution pour plate method, and appeared fungal colonies identified based on morphological characteristics. The overall most fungal diversity was found in soil sample collected from S5, followed by S4, S3, S1, and least in S2 site...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204888/ultra-high-sensitive-pah-analysis-of-certified-reference-materials-and-environmental-samples-by-gc-apli-ms
#10
Sigrid Große Brinkhaus, Jan B Thiäner, Christine Achten
Due to several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) being highly carcinogenic and at the same time occurring at very low environmental concentrations up to the microgram per kilogram range, highly sensitive chemical analysis in various matrices is needed. Here, for the first time, a method using gas chromatography (GC) and atmospheric pressure laser ionization-mass spectrometry (APLI-MS), which is much more sensitive compared to common GC-MS, proved to produce reliable (certified reference materials) and comparable (GC-MS) results...
February 15, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203533/modification-of-extraction-method-for-community-dna-isolation-from-salt-affected-compact-wasteland-soil-samples
#11
Purvi Zaveri, Rushika Patel, Meghavi Patel, Devki Sarodia, Nasreen S Munshi
To overcome the issue of interferences by salt and compactness in release of bacterial cell required for lysis, method described by Yeates et al. (1998), was optimized for isolation of genomic material (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid, DNA) from soil microbial community by addition of Al(NH4)SO4. Very low total viable count was observed in the samples tested and hence use of higher amount of soil is required primarily for DNA isolation from wasteland soils. The method proves itself efficient where commercially available bead beating and enzymatic lysis methods could not give isolation of any amount of community genomic DNA due to compact nature and salt concentrations present in soil...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198802/ecological-risk-assessment-on-heavy-metals-in-soils-use-of-soil-diffuse-reflectance-mid-infrared-fourier-transform-spectroscopy
#12
Cheng Wang, Wei Li, Mingxing Guo, Junfeng Ji
The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil is controlled by their concentrations and soil properties. Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is capable of detecting specific organic and inorganic bonds in metal complexes and minerals and therefore, has been employed to predict soil composition and heavy metal contents. The present study explored the potential of DRIFTS for estimating soil heavy metal bioavailability. Soil and corresponding wheat grain samples from the Yangtze River Delta region were analyzed by DRIFTS and chemical methods...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192905/extracting-metallic-nanoparticles-from-soils-for-quantitative-analysis-method-development-using-engineered-silver-nanoparticles-and-sp-icp-ms
#13
D M Schwertfeger, Jessica R Velicogna, Alexander H Jesmer, Selin Saatcioglu, Heather McShane, Richard P Scroggins, Juliska I Princz
The lack of an efficient and standardized method to disperse soil particles and quantitatively subsample the nanoparticulate fraction for characterization analyses is hindering progress in assessing the fate and toxicity of metallic engineered nanomaterials in the soil environment. This study investigates various soil extraction and extract preparation techniques for their ability to remove nanoparticulate Ag from a field soil amended with biosolids contaminated with engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), while presenting a suitable suspension for quantitative single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (SP-ICP-MS) analysis...
January 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188208/quantitative-detection-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-in-soil-samples-using-multiple-gene-targets-in-real-time-pcr
#14
A Göhler, T T Trung, V Hopf, C Kohler, J Hartleib, V Wuthiekanun, S J Peacock, D Limmathurotsakul, A Tuanyok, I Steinmetz
Burkholderia pseudomallei is present in the environment in many parts of the world and causes the often-fatal disease melioidosis. The sensitive detection and quantification of B. pseudomallei in the environment is a prerequisite to assess the risk of infection. We recently reported the direct detection of B. pseudomallei in soil samples using a qPCR targeting a single type three secretion system 1 (TTSS1) gene. Here, we extend the qPCR-based analysis of B. pseudomallei in soil by validating novel qPCR gene targets selected from comparative genomic analysis...
February 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184370/metaproteomics-as-a-complementary-approach-to-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Bernardo A Petriz, Octávio L Franco
Classic studies on phylotype profiling are limited to the identification of microbial constituents, where information is lacking about the molecular interaction of these bacterial communities with the host genome and the possible outcomes in host biology. A range of OMICs approaches have provided great progress linking the microbiota to health and disease. However, the investigation of this context through proteomic mass spectrometry-based tools is still being improved. Therefore, metaproteomics or community proteogenomics has emerged as a complementary approach to metagenomic data, as a field in proteomics aiming to perform large-scale characterization of proteins from environmental microbiota, such as the human gut...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183013/base-driven-sunlight-oxidation-of-silver-nanoprisms-for-label-free-visual-colorimetric-detection-of-hexahydro-1-3-5-trinitro-1-3-5-triazine-explosive
#16
Yi He, Li Wang
Here we report a label-free method for visual colorimetric detection of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (HTT) explosive based on base-driven sunlight oxidation of silver nanoprisms (AgNPRs). Under natural sunlight illumination, the surface plasmon of AgNPRs is excited, which populates O2 antibonding orbitals to generate negative-ion state (O2(-)). The resultant O2(-) with a strong oxidation activity can etch AgNPRs to smaller nanodisks with the aid of NaOH aqueous solution, leading to a blue shift of the absorption peak and color change from blue to pink...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178583/detection-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-medicago-sativa-l-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#17
Wilber S Alves, Evelin A Manoel, Noemi S Santos, Rosane O Nunes, Giselli C Domiciano, Marcia R Soares
Green technologies, such as phytoremediation, are effective for removing organic pollutants derived from oil and oil products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the increasing popularity of these sustainable remediation techniques, methods based on fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for the environmental monitoring of such pollutants have emerged in recent decades as effective tools for phytoremediation studies aimed at understanding the fate of these contaminants in plants...
January 19, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177416/effects-of-biochar-on-dispersibility-of-colloids-in-agricultural-soils
#18
K G I D Kumari, Per Moldrup, Marcos Paradelo, Lars Elsgaard, Lis W de Jonge
The mobility of water-dispersible colloids (WDCs) in soil may be influenced by soil management practices such as organic soil amendments. Biochar has recently been promoted as a useful soil amendment, and extensive research has been devoted to investigating its effects on soil macroscopic properties and functions. However, there is limited understanding of the effects of biochar application on micro-scale particle dynamics. We conducted a field study to investigate the effects of the application of birch ( spp...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167597/epidemiology-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-and-intestinal-protozoan-infections-in-preschool-aged-children-in-the-amhara-region-of-ethiopia
#19
Kristen Aiemjoy, Sintayehu Gebresillasie, Nicole E Stoller, Ayalew Shiferaw, Zerihun Tadesse, Melsew Chanyalew, Solomon Aragie, Kelly Callahan, Jeremy D Keenan
Intestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165035/microbial-nitrification-denitrification-and-respiration-in-the-leached-cinnamon-soil-of-the-upper-basin-of-miyun-reservoir
#20
Wen Xu, Yan-Peng Cai, Zhi-Feng Yang, Xin-An Yin, Qian Tan
Leached cinnamon soil is the main agricultural soil distributed in the North China Plain. In this research, leached cinnamon soil samples were collected in the upper basin of Miyun Reservoir (northeast of Beijing, China). The BaPS method (Barometric Process Separation) was applied to measure nitrification, denitrification and respiration rates. The rates of nitrification, denitrification and respiration were 0-120.35 μg N/kg SDW h, 0-246.86 μg N/kg SDW h and 0.17-225.85 μg C/kg SDW h (Soil Dry Weight, SDW), respectively...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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