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Soil sampling method

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096624/genetic-variability-and-discrimination-of-low-doses-of-toxocara-spp-from-public-areas-soil-inferred-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-as-a-field-friendly-molecular-tool
#1
Maryam Ozlati, Adel Spotin, Abbas Shahbazi, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Teimour Hazratian, Mohammad Adibpor, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Afsaneh Dolatkhah, Paria Khoshakhlagh
ABSTRACT: Aim: One of the main diagnostic problems of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is indiscrimination of low parasitic loads in soil samples. The aim of this study is to determine the genetic diversity and identification of Toxocara spp. from public areas soil inferred by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 180 soil samples were collected from various streets and public parks of northwest Iran. The DNA of recovered Toxocara eggs were extracted and amplified by PCR and LAMP following ZnSO4 flotation technique...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095496/opportunities-for-integrated-ecological-analysis-across-inland-australia-with-standardised-data-from-ausplots-rangelands
#2
Greg R Guerin, Ben Sparrow, Andrew Tokmakoff, Anita Smyth, Emrys Leitch, Zdravko Baruch, Andrew J Lowe
Australian rangelands ecosystems cover 81% of the continent but are understudied and continental-scale research has been limited in part by a lack of precise data that are standardised between jurisdictions. We present a new dataset from AusPlots Rangelands that enables integrative rangelands analysis due to its geographic scope and standardised methodology. The method provides data on vegetation and soils, enabling comparison of a suite of metrics including fractional vegetation cover, basal area, and species richness, diversity, and composition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095187/fast-extraction-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxin-and-polychlorinated-dibenzofuran-in-sewage-sludge-and-soil-samples
#3
Valéria F Andrade, Alisson F S Durães, Douglas L Cassimiro, Gevany P de Pinho, Flaviano O Silvério
The current environmental legislations recommend monitoring chemical contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans before the use of sewage sludge on the agricultural land. In this study, a solid-liquid extraction with low-temperature purification (SLE-LTP) was optimized and validated to determine 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in sewage sludge and soil samples. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operating in the selective ion mode (GC-MS-SIM)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093672/influence-of-quechers-modifications-on-recovery-and-matrix-effect-during-the-multi-residue-pesticide-analysis-in-soil-by-gc-ms-ms-and-gc-ecd-npd
#4
Bożena Łozowicka, Ewa Rutkowska, Magdalena Jankowska
A QuEChERS extraction followed by GC/MS/MS and GC-μECD/NPD for 216 pesticide and metabolites determination in soil simultaneously were developed and compared. Volume of water, volume and polarity of solvent, and cleanup sorbents (C18, GCB, PSA) were optimized. The QuEChERS with and without purification step were applied to estimate effectiveness of the method. The recovery and matrix effect (ME) were critical parameters within each tested procedure. The optimal method without cleanup was validated. Accuracy (expressed as recovery), precision (expressed as RSD), linearity, LOQ, and uncertainty were determined...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093121/phenyltrichlorosilane-functionalized-magnesium-oxide-microspheres-preparation-characterization-and-application-for-the-selective-extraction-of-dioxin-like-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-soils-with-matrix-solid-phase-dispersion
#5
Dongqin Tan, Jing Jin, Fang Li, Xiaoli Sun, Dhanjai, Yuwen Ni, Jiping Chen
Magnesium oxide microspheres functionalized with phenyltrichlorosilane (PTS-MgO) were synthesized by surface modification through silanization reaction, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and N2 adsorption-desorption. The result indicated that PTS-MgO not only possessed the ability of enhancing the retention with PAHs, but also weakening the interference from chlorinated compounds. As a sorbent for the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction, PTS-MgO was used to selectively extract seven dioxin-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (DL-PAHs) from soil samples...
March 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093120/elucidating-rhizosphere-processes-by-mass-spectrometry-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Ariana Rugova, Markus Puschenreiter, Gunda Koellensperger, Stephan Hann
The presented review discusses state-of-the-art mass spectrometric methods, which have been developed and applied for investigation of chemical processes in the soil-root interface, the so-called rhizosphere. Rhizosphere soil's physical and chemical characteristics are to a great extent influenced by a complex mixture of compounds released from plant roots, i.e. root exudates, which have a high impact on nutrient and trace element dynamics in the soil-root interface as well as on microbial activities or soil physico-chemical characteristics...
March 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091885/assessing-the-impact-of-preload-on-pyrite-rich-sediment-and-groundwater-quality
#7
Ohene Karikari-Yeboah, Jonas Addai-Mensah
Pyrite-rich sediments would, invariably, undergo redox reactions which would lead to acidic aqueous environment containing solubilized toxic metal species. When such sediments are subjected to preload, a technique employed by geotechnical engineers to improve the load-bearing capacity of highly compressible formation, transient flow of pore water, accompanied by acidity transfer, would occur as a response. Despite the concomitant environmental and socio-economic significance, to date, there has been limited interdisciplinary research on the underpinning geotechnical engineering and geo-environmental science issues for pyrite-rich sediments under preload...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089532/refining-health-risk-assessment-by-incorporating-site-specific-background-concentration-and-bioaccessibility-data-of-nickel-in-soil
#8
Mao-Sheng Zhong, Lin Jiang
Risk assessment of Nickel (Ni) in a brownfield site contaminated was refined by incorporating the site-specific background level (SSBL) derived using multiple lines of evidence technology and bioaccessibility measured by the Unified Bioaccessibility Method (UBM) and Inhalation Bioaccessibility Method (IBM). The results revealed that the SSBL was 80mg/kg, which was much higher than the general soil screening value (GSSL) (50mg/kg) and more than two times regional background level reported for Tianjing (33mg/kg)...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081505/practicability-of-monitoring-soil-cd-hg-and-pb-pollution-based-on-a-geochemical-survey-in-china
#9
Xueqi Xia, Zhongfang Yang, Guocheng Li, Tao Yu, Qingye Hou, Admire Muchimamui Mutelo
Repeated visiting, i.e., sampling and analysis at two or more temporal points, is one of the important ways of monitoring soil heavy metal contamination. However, with the concern about the cost, determination of the number of samples and the temporal interval, and their capability to detect a certain change is a key technical problem to be solved. This depends on the spatial variation of the parameters in the monitoring units. The "National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey" (NMPRGS) project in China, acquired the spatial distribution of heavy metals using a high density sampling method in the most arable regions in China...
December 19, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081124/rapid-genotyping-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-polymorphisms-in-trichuris-trichiura-and-ascaris-lumbricoides
#10
Nour Rashwan, Marilyn Scott, Roger Prichard
BACKGROUND: The benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are the most common drugs used for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Their intensive use increases the possibility that BZ resistance may develop. In veterinary nematodes, BZ resistance is caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codon position 200, 167 or 198, and these SNPs have also been correlated with poor response of human Trichuris trichiura to BZ treatment...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079107/phenotyping-for-the-dynamics-of-field-wheat-root-system-architecture
#11
Xinxin Chen, Qishuo Ding, Zbigniew Błaszkiewicz, Jiuai Sun, Qian Sun, Ruiyin He, Yinian Li
We investigated a method to quantify field-state wheat RSA in a phenotyping way, depicting the 3D topology of wheat RSA in 14d periods. The phenotyping procedure, proposed for understanding the spatio-temporal variations of root-soil interaction and the RSA dynamics in the field, is realized with a set of indices of mm scale precision, illustrating the gradients of both wheat root angle and elongation rate along soil depth, as well as the foraging potential along the side directions. The 70d was identified as the shifting point distinguishing the linear root length elongation from power-law development...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074371/microbial-flora-analysis-for-the-degradation-of-beta-cypermethrin
#12
Zhang Qi, Zhang Wei
In the Xinjiang region of Eurasia, sustained long-term and continuous cropping of cotton over a wide expanse of land is practiced, which requires application of high levels of pyrethroid and other classes of pesticides-resulting in high levels of pesticide residues in the soil. In this study, soil samples were collected from areas of long-term continuous cotton crops with the aim of obtaining microbial resources applicable for remediation of pyrethroid pesticide contamination suitable for the soil type and climate of that area...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074315/the-roundworm-strongyloides-stercoralis-in-children-dogs-and-soil-inside-and-outside-a-segregated-settlement-in-eastern-slovakia-frequent-but-hardly-detectable-parasite
#13
G Štrkolcová, M Goldová, E Bocková, J Mojžišová
A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the Strongyloides stercoralis infections in children and dogs inside and outside the segregated settlement in Medzev, Eastern Slovakia, and a survey of the soil within the settlement was included. Applying the Koga agar plate (KAP) culture method and microscopy examination of stool samples collected from 60 Roma and 21 nonRoma children, no larvae of S. stercoralis were detected but eggs of three nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis) and cysts of two protozoan endoparasites (Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp...
January 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072488/the-influence-of-memory-sample-size-effects-and-filter-paper-material-on-online-laser-based-plant-and-soil-water-isotope-measurements
#14
Jiangpeng Cui, Lide Tian, Cynthia Gerlein-Safdi, Dongmei Qu
RATIONALE: The recent development of isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) was quickly followed by the addition of online extraction and analysis systems, making it faster and easier to measure soil and plant water isotopes. However, memory and sample size effects limit the efficiency and accuracy of these new setups. In response, this study presents a scheme dedicated to estimating and eliminating these two effects. METHODS: Memory effect was determined by injecting two standard waters alternately...
January 10, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068401/advantages-of-synthetic-noise-and-machine-learning-for-analyzing-radioecological-data-sets
#15
Igor Shuryak
The ecological effects of accidental or malicious radioactive contamination are insufficiently understood because of the hazards and difficulties associated with conducting studies in radioactively-polluted areas. Data sets from severely contaminated locations can therefore be small. Moreover, many potentially important factors, such as soil concentrations of toxic chemicals, pH, and temperature, can be correlated with radiation levels and with each other. In such situations, commonly-used statistical techniques like generalized linear models (GLMs) may not be able to provide useful information about how radiation and/or these other variables affect the outcome (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063656/effect-of-cyclic-redox-oscillations-on-water-quality-in-freshwater-acid-sulfate-soil-wetlands
#16
Niloofar Karimian, Scott G Johnston, Edward D Burton
Restoration of acid sulfate soil (ASS) wetlands by freshwater re-flooding can lead to the reformation of various Fe(II) and reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) species in surface soil layers. However, in many locations, wetland water levels undergo large seasonal fluctuations that drive extreme redox oscillations. Newly formed RIS species [e.g. greigite, mackinawite, nano-pyrite and S(0)] and Fe(II) are vulnerable to rapid oxidation during dry periods and may generate substantial acidity. Rainfall following a dry period may then mobilise acidity and metal cations in surface waters prior to eventual recovery in pH by re-establishment of reducing conditions...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063128/improved-production-of-doubled-haploids-of-winter-and-spring-triticale-hybrids-via-combination-of-colchicine-treatments-on-anthers-and-regenerated-plants
#17
Aurelia Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, Hanna Pudelska, Jolanta Woźna, Tomasz Pniewski
Double haploids (DH), obtained during androgenesis in vitro or by genome diploidisation in regenerated haploids, are one type of basic materials used in triticale breeding programmes. The aim of this study was to improve DH production by a combination of colchicine treatment methods on a sample of five winter and five spring triticale hybrids. Colchicine was applied in vitro either in the C17 medium to induce embryo-like structures (ELS) or in the 190-2 medium for green plant (GP) development. Regenerants which remained haploid were immersed in a colchicine solution either when placed on the medium prior to transferring to soil or when growing in pots, followed by the application or absence of cooling...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043561/identification-of-different-subtypes-of-rapid-growing-atypical-mycobacterium-from-water-and-soil-sources-using-pcr-rflp-using-hsp65-and-rrna-16s-23s-genes
#18
Mohammad Varahram, Parissa Farnia, Shima Saif, Mehran Marashian, Poopak Farnia, Jaladein Ghanavi, Ali Akbar Velayati
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans including skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tract infection. Generally, NTM are classified into two categories: rapid (<7days) and slow growing (>7days). In this study, we aimed to investigate NTM frequency and prevalence in environmental samples. Additionally, we tried to identify various subtypes of isolated rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041855/study-of-a-remediated-coal-ash-depository-from-a-radiological-perspective
#19
Jácint Jónás, János Somlai, Edit Tóth-Bodrogi, Miklós Hegedűs, Tibor Kovács
Coal-fired power plants play a significant role in the production of electricity. The Ra-226 concentration of coals mined in the Ajka region can reach up to 3000 Bq/kg. This study focuses on the effects of a Hungarian (Ajka) remediated coal ash depository on the environment and the effectiveness of the cover layer. During the remediation, a method patented in Hungary was used, in which the upper layer of the depository, which had settled like concrete, was ploughed and mixed with woodchips before being planted with vegetation...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040209/modeling-and-mapping-of-cadmium-in-soils-based-on-qualitative-and-quantitative-auxiliary-variables-in-a-cadmium-contaminated-area
#20
Shanshan Cao, Anxiang Lu, Jihua Wang, Lili Huo
The aim of this study was to measure the improvement in mapping accuracy of spatial distribution of Cd in soils by using geostatistical methods combined with auxiliary factors, especially qualitative variables. Significant correlations between Cd content and correlation environment variables that are easy to obtain (such as topographic factors, distance to residential area, land use types and soil types) were analyzed systematically and quantitatively. Based on 398 samples collected from a Cd contaminated area (Hunan Province, China), we estimated the spatial distribution of Cd in soils by using spatial interpolation models, including ordinary kriging (OK), and regression kriging (RK) with each auxiliary variable, all quantitative variables (RKWQ) and all auxiliary variables (RKWA)...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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