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Soil sampling method

Xiaowen Zhang, Shuai Wei, Qianqian Sun, Syed Abdul Wadood, Boli Guo
Characterizing the distribution and defining potential sources of arsenic and heavy metals are the basic preconditions for reducing the contamination of heavy metals and metalloids. 71 topsoil samples and 61 subsoil samples were collected by grid method to measure the concentration of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). Principle components analysis (PCA), GIS-based geo-statistical methods and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) were applied. The results showed that the mean concentrations were 9...
May 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Cong Ma, Zhongdong Liu, Yan Qi, Shanshan Wang, Xiaolin Cao, Jing Wang, Yongxin She, Yong Shao, Jitai Shen, Chao Zhang, Zejun Jiang
In the present work, the dissipation kinetics and final residue levels of thifluzamide in the maize field ecosystem were investigated. Using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS), a rapid, sensitive, efficient, and reliable method for extraction and quantitative analysis of thifluzamide residues in maize grain, maize plant, and soil was developed. Satisfactory recoveries of 78.7-97.0% were achieved with relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 1...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Elżbieta Gębarowska, Wojciech Pusz, Jolanta Kucińska, Włodzimierz Kita
The aim of this work was to determine the genera or species composition and the number of colony forming units of airborne bacteria and fungi, respectively, in two salt mines in Poland "Wieliczka" (Lesser Poland) and "Polkowice-Sieroszowice" (Lower Silesia). Both of them are working environments characterized by extreme conditions, and additionally "Wieliczka," officially placed on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites' list, plays a role of tourist attraction. There are also some curative chambers located in this mine...
2018: Aerobiologia
Jianshu Lv, Yuanhe Yu
In this study, 234 soil samples were recently collected from Gaoqing County (a typical area of the lower Yellow River) to determine the contents of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Multivariate statistical analyses such as correlation analysis, principal components analysis, and one-way ANOVA were applied to identify the source of metals in the soil. Geostatistical methods were used to analyze the spatial structure and distribution of the metals. The results indicated that the mean contents of all metals exceeded the background value of the lower Yellow River, especially for As, Cu, and Hg (1...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Li Shan-Shan, Luo Fei, Xie Jun, Yuan Yi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemic of major human parasitic diseases in Chongqing City, so as to provide a reference for developing prevention and control strategies. METHODS: According to the unified methods formulated by the national investigation scheme and stratified cluster random sampling, 36 rural pilots and 50 urban pilots were selected in Chongqing City. The number of the objects investigated in individual pilot was defined over 250. RESULTS: Totally 22 263 residents were detected...
March 2, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
D Briassoulis, A Mistriotis
Biodegradation of plastics in soil is currently tested by international standard testing methods (e.g. ISO 17556-12 or ASTM D5988-12). Although these testing methods have been developed for plastics, it has been shown in project KBBPPS that they can be extended also to lubricants with small modifications. Reproducibility is a critical issue regarding biodegradation tests in the laboratory. Among the main testing variables are the soil types and nutrients available (mainly nitrogen). For this reason, the effect of the soil type on the biodegradation rates of various bio-based materials (cellulose and lubricants) was tested for five different natural soil types (loam, loamy sand, clay, clay-loam, and silt-loam organic)...
May 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Ying Zhang, Xiaohu Wu, Tingting Duan, Jun Xu, Fengshou Dong, Xingang Liu, Xiaogang Li, Pengqiang Du, Yongquan Zheng
An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry residue method for the quantification and identification of dinotefuran and its main metabolites 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) urea and 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) guanidine in fruit (watermelon), vegetable (cucumber), cereal (rice), animal-derived foods (milk, egg, and pork), soil and water was developed and validated. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile containing 15% v/v acetic acid and purified with dispersive solid-phase extraction with octadecylsilane, primary secondary amine, graphitized carbon black, or zirconia-coated silica prior to analysis...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Justyna Paluch, Raquel B R Mesquita, Víctor Cerdà, Joanna Kozak, Marcin Wieczorek, António O S S Rangel
A sequential injection (SI) system equipped with in-line solid phase extraction column and in-line soil mini-column is proposed for determination of zinc and copper in soil leachates. The spectrophotometric determination (560 nm) is based on the reaction of both analytes with 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). Zinc is determined after retaining copper on a cationic resin (Chelex100) whereas copper is determined from the difference of the absorbance measured for both analytes, introduced into the system with the use of a different channel, and zinc absorbance...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Mariangela Donati, Chantal de Fouquet
The heavy-tailed distribution of the data of organic pollution in soils can raise specific problems in estimating and mapping the concentrations. Some high values often highly impact the sample variogram and extend the pollution hot-spots on the estimation maps. Non-linear geostatistical models, such as the anamorphosed Gaussian model, have been proposed in the 70's. They allow a consistent estimate of the concentrations and the probability that the concentrations exceed a cut-off. These well-founded methods are rarely used by environmental consultants, mainly because of time constraints and because the hypotheses of the models are not always satisfied...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Svetlana Sushkova, Irina Deryabkina, Elena Antonenko, Ridvan Kizilkaya, Vishnu Rajput, Galina Vasilyeva
The involvement of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) one of the most toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil-plant system causes its potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity for human health. The aim of this article is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) degradation and bioaccumulation in soil-plant system under artificial contamination in model experiment with Haplic Chernozem and that spiked with various doses of BaP (20, 200, 400 and 800μgkg-1 ) equivalent to 1, 10, 20 and 40 levels of maximal permissible concentrations (MPC) planted with spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum)...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elizabeth A Bowman, A Elizabeth Arnold
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding distributions of plant-symbiotic fungi is important for projecting responses to environmental change. Many coniferous trees host ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) in association with roots and foliar endophytic fungi (FE) in leaves. We examined how EM and FE associated with Pinus ponderosa each vary in abundance, diversity, and community structure over a spatially constrained elevation gradient that traverses four plant communities, 4°C in mean annual temperature, and 15 cm in mean annual precipitation...
May 13, 2018: American Journal of Botany
A R Ghiasvand, N Heidari, S Abdolhosseini, A Hamdi, P R Haddad
A low-cost and reliable cooling/heating-assisted microextraction (CHaME) instrument was designed and fabricated for use in different modes of microextraction methods. The CHaME setup is able to cool down the sorbent and simultaneously heat the sample in a wide temperature range. Consequently, it can create a large thermal gap between the sorbent and the sample matrix, to promote the release of analytes from the sample tissue and enhance their effective trapping on the microextraction phase. The primary versions of the instrument have previously been evaluated, coupled with different modes of solid- and liquid-phase microextraction strategies...
May 14, 2018: Analyst
Tatiana M Minkina, Saglara S Mandzhieva, Marina V Burachevskaya, Tatiana V Bauer, Svetlana N Sushkova
Method of determination of heavy metals loosely bound compounds in the soil was developed using three separate extractions. The group of loosely bound compounds of metals includes exchangeable, complexed, and specifically adsorbed forms. This method is available, rapid and not expensive. Extraction takes less than 24 h. Sample procedure preparation is simple, and the analysis consists of only three steps, which can be performed simultaneously. The parallel extraction gives reliable and reproducible results and provides a relatively complete idea of the metals mobility in the soil, their availability to plants, migratory capacity, and transformation...
2018: MethodsX
Biji Shibulal, Saif N Al-Bahry, Yahya M Al-Wahaibi, Abdulkadir E Elshafie, Ali S Al-Bemani, Sanket J Joshi
The identification of potential hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria is an essential requirement in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Molecular approaches like proteomic and genomic characterization of the isolates are replacing the traditional method of identification with systemic classification. Genotypic profiling of the isolates includes fingerprint or pattern-based technique and sequence-based technique. Understanding community structure and dynamics is essential for studying diversity profiles and is challenging in the case of microbial analysis...
2018: Scientifica
Andrea Paul, Lukas Wander, Roland Becker, Caroline Goedecke, Ulrike Braun
The increasing pollution of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with plastic debris leads to the accumulation of microscopic plastic particles of still unknown amount. To monitor the degree of contamination, analytical methods are urgently needed, which help to quantify microplastics (MP). Currently, time-costly purified materials enriched on filters are investigated both by micro-infrared spectroscopy and/or micro-Raman. Although yielding precise results, these techniques are time consuming, and are restricted to the analysis of a small part of the sample in the order of few micrograms...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Er-Ping Cui, Feng Gao, Yuan Liu, Xiang-Yang Fan, Zhong-Yang Li, Zhen-Jie Du, Chao Hu, Andrew L Neal
The spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has become a cause for serious concern because of its potential risk to public health. The use of unconventional water resources (e.g., reclaimed water or piggery wastewater) in agriculture to relieve groundwater shortages may result in an accumulation of ARGs in soil. Biochar addition has been proven to be a beneficial method to alleviate the pollution of ARGs in manure-amended soil. However, the role of biochar on ARGs in soil-plant systems repeatedly irrigated with unconventional water resources is unknown...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Hang Lv, Xiaosi Su, Yan Wang, Zhenxue Dai, Mingyao Liu
This study applied an integrated method for evaluating the effectiveness and mechanism of natural attenuation (NA) of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater. Site groundwater and soil samples were analysed to characterize spatial and temporal variations in petroleum hydrocarbons, geochemical indicators, microbial diversity and isotopes. The results showed that the area of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination plume decreased almost 60% in four years, indicating the presence of natural attenuation. The 14 C content and sequence analysis indicate that there are more relatively 'old' HCO3 - that have been produced from petroleum hydrocarbons in the upgradient portion of the contaminated plume, confirming that intrinsic biodegradation was the major factor limiting spread of the contaminated plume...
May 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Yong He, Xiaodan Liu, Yangyang Lv, Fei Liu, Jiyu Peng, Tingting Shen, Yun Zhao, Yu Tang, Shaoming Luo
Rapid detection of soil nutrient elements is beneficial to the evaluation of crop yield, and it's of great significance in agricultural production. The aim of this work was to compare the detection ability of single-pulse (SP) and collinear double-pulse (DP) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for soil nutrient elements and obtain an accurate and reliable method for rapid detection of soil nutrient elements. 63 soil samples were collected for SP and collinear DP signal acquisition, respectively. Macro-nutrients (K, Ca, Mg) and micro-nutrients (Fe, Mn, Na) were analyzed...
May 11, 2018: Sensors
Dejan Krčmar, Slaven Tenodi, Nenad Grba, Djurdja Kerkez, Malcolm Watson, Srdjan Rončević, Božo Dalmacija
Most regional municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia are operated without control of landfill leachate and gas or with no regard for implementation of national and European legislation. For the first time in Serbia, groundwater and soil at a landfill were subject to systematic annual monitoring according to national, European legislation and adopted methodologies. Characterisation of the groundwater and soil samples from the landfill included ten metals (Fe, Mn, As, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu and Hg), 16 EPA PAHs, nutrients and certain physicochemical parameters, in order to assess the risks such poorly controlled landfills pose to the environment...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jing Chen, Liantao Liu, Zhanbiao Wang, Hongchun Sun, Yongjiang Zhang, Zhanyuan Lu, Cundong Li
Cotton root growth can be affected by different nitrogen fertilizer rates. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of nitrogen fertilization rate on cotton root growth and distribution using minirhizotron and soil coring methods. A secondary objective was to evaluate the minirhizotron method as a tool for determining nitrogen application rates using the root distribution as an index. This study was conducted on a Bt cotton cultivar (Jimian 958) under four nitrogen fertilization rates, i...
2018: PloS One
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