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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149444/morphology-molecular-structure-and-stable-carbon-isotopic-composition-of-black-carbon-bc-in-urban-topsoils
#1
Yutong Zong, Qing Xiao, Shenggao Lu
Urban soils contain significant amounts of black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion and regard to be a pool of BC. BC in urban soils has multiple effects on environmental processes in urban system, such as global climate change, air quality, and public health. Urban topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected from Anshan, Liaoning Province, northeast China, which is one of the most important old steel industrial bases in China. The BC in urban topsoils was extracted using the density method. Their chemical composition, morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition were examined using elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C)...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147980/a-long-term-comparative-assessment-of-human-health-risk-to-leachate-contaminated-groundwater-from-heavy-metal-with-different-liner-systems
#2
Harshit Mishra, Subhankar Karmakar, Rakesh Kumar, Praneeth Kadambala
The handling and management of municipal solid waste (MSW) are major challenges for solid waste management in developing countries. Open dumping is still the most common waste disposal method in India. However, landfilling also causes various environmental, social, and human health impacts. The generation of heavily polluted leachate is a major concern to public health. Engineered barrier systems (EBSs) are commonly used to restrict potentially harmful wastes by preventing the leachate percolation to groundwater and overflow to surface water bodies...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143886/rapid-in-situ-assessment-for-predicting-soil-quality-using-an-algae-soaked-disc-seeding-assay
#3
Sun-Hwa Nam, Jongmin Moon, Shin Woong Kim, Hakyeong Kim, Seung-Woo Jeong, Youn-Joo An
The soil quality of remediated land is altered and this land consequently exerts unexpected biological effects on terrestrial organisms. Therefore, field evaluation of such land should be conducted using biological indicators. Algae are a promising new biological indicator since they are a food source for organisms in higher soil trophic levels and easily sampled from the soil. Field evaluation of soil characteristics is preferred to be testing in laboratory conditions because many biological effects cannot be duplicated during laboratory evaluations...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143260/combining-stable-carbon-isotope-analysis-and-petroleum-fingerprinting-to-evaluate-petroleum-contamination-in-the-yanchang-oilfield-located-on-loess-plateau-in-china
#4
Yiping Wang, Jidong Liang, Jinxing Wang, Sha Gao
This study evaluated petroleum contamination in the Yanchang (Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) Co., Ltd.) oilfield, located in the loess plateau region of northern Shaanxi, China. Surface soil and sediment samples were collected from the wasteland, farmland, and riverbed in this area to assess the following parameters: total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C). The results showed that TPH and PAH levels in the study area were 907-3447 mg/kg and 103...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136840/assessment-of-cyanide-contamination-in-soils-with-a-handheld-mid-infrared-spectrometer
#5
José M Soriano-Disla, Leslie J Janik, Michael J McLaughlin
We examined the feasibility of using handheld mid-infrared (MIR) Fourier-Transform infrared (FT-IR) instrumentation for detecting and analysing cyanide (CN) contamination in field contaminated soils. Cyanide spiking experiments were first carried out, in the laboratory, to test the sensitivity of infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometry to ferro- and ferricyanide compounds across a range of reference soils and minerals. Both benchtop and handheld diffuse reflectance infrared spectrometers were tested...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136814/polyaniline-dicationic-ionic-liquid-coated-with-magnetic-nanoparticles-composite-for-magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-environmental-samples
#6
Mohamad Shariff Shahriman, Muggundha Raoov Ramachandran, Nur Nadhirah Mohamad Zain, Sharifah Mohamad, Ninie Suhana Abdul Manan, Suhaila Mohd Yaman
In this present study, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) nanocomposites modified with polyaniline (PANI) coated newly synthesised dicationic ionic liquid (DICAT) forming MNP-PANI-DICAT were successfully synthesised as new generation material for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE). MNP-PANI-DICAT was characterised by FT-IR NMR, CHN, BET, SEM, TEM, and VSM techniques and the results were compared with MNP-PANI and native MNP. This new material was applied as a magnetic adsorbent for the pre-concentration and separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to the π-π interaction between polyaniline shell and dicationic ionic liquid (DICAT) with PAHs compounds...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136375/a-modified-sample-preparation-approach-for-the-determination-of-the-phenolic-and-humic-like-substances-in-natural-organic-materials-by-the-folin-ciocalteu-method
#7
Ludovico Pontoni, Antonio Panico, Alessia Matanò, Eric D van Hullebusch, Massimiliano Fabbricino, Giovanni Esposito, Francesco Pirozzi
A novel modification of the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay sample preparation for the determination of total phenolic compounds in natural solid and semi-solid organic materials (e.g., foods, organic solid waste, soils, plant tissues, agricultural residues, manure, etc.) is proposed. In this method the sample is prepared by adding sodium sulfate as solid diluting agent before homogenization. The method allows the determination of total phenols (TP) in samples with high solids content, and it provides good accuracy and reproducibility...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132907/determination-of-3-5-dimethylpyrazolium-glyceroborate-nitrification-inhibitor-in-nitrogen-fertilizer-samples-hplc-dad-method-development-and-validation-for-3-5-dimethylpyrazole
#8
Serkan Şahan, Uğur Şahin, Mustafa Başaran, Oğuzhan Uzun, Adem Güneş
3,5 - Dimethylpyrazolium glyceroborate is a nitrification inhibitor (a member of pyrazole derivatives) used for the fixation of nitrogen into the soil. In this study, an HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for determination of 3,5 - dimethylpyrazole in order to determine 3,5 - dimethylpyrazolium glyceroborate in fertilizer samples. For method development, analytical parameters like type of eluent solution and column filling material and device parameters like eluent flow rate, column oven temperature and measurement wavelength were all optimized...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132022/determination-of-perfluoroalkyl-acid-isomers-in-biosolids-biosolids-amended-soils-and-plants-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
Hongna Zhang, Bei Wen, Wen Wen, Yibing Ma, Xiaoyu Hu, Yali Wu, Lei Luo, Shuzhen Zhang
Isomer-specific analysis of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is important to accurately assess their environmental source, fate, and human risks. In this study, a method was developed for the determination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) isomers in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils and plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The separation efficiencies of two chromatographic columns and extraction capacities of different methods were tested...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131928/n-and-o-isotope-%C3%AE-15-n-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-15-n-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-18-o-%C3%AE-17-o-analyses-of-dissolved-no3-and-no2-by-the-cd-azide-reduction-method-and-n2-o-laser-spectrometry
#10
Leonard I Wassenaar, Cedric Douence, Mark Altabet, Pradeep Aggarwal
RATIONALE: The nitrogen and oxygen (δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(17) O) isotopic compositions of NO3(-) and NO2(-) are important tracers of nutrient dynamics in soil, rain, groundwater and the oceans. The Cd-azide method was used to convert NO3 or NO2 to N2 O for N and triple-O isotopic analyses by N2 O-laser spectrometry. A protocol for laser-based headspace isotope analyses was compared with isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Lasers provide the ability to directly measure (17) O anomalies which can help discern atmospheric N sources...
November 13, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127892/estimation-of-the-late-postmortem-interval-using-ftir-spectroscopy-and-chemometrics-in-human-skeletal-remains
#11
Qi Wang, Yinming Zhang, Hancheng Lin, Shuai Zha, Ruoxi Fang, Xin Wei, Shuanliang Fan, Zhenyuan Wang
Due to a lack of reliable and accurate methods, determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains is one of the most important and challenging tasks in forensic medicine. In this paper, we studied the changes to bone chemistry with increasing PMI in two different experimental conditions using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics methods Paired bone samples collected from 56 human corpses were buried (placed in soil) and unburied (exposed to the air) for intervals between 76 and 552 days...
November 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127788/rapid-prediction-of-total-petroleum-hydrocarbons-concentration-in-contaminated-soil-using-vis-nir-spectroscopy-and-regression-techniques
#12
R K Douglas, S Nawar, M C Alamar, A M Mouazen, F Coulon
Visible and near infrared spectrometry (vis-NIRS) coupled with data mining techniques can offer fast and cost-effective quantitative measurement of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soils. Literature showed however significant differences in the performance on the vis-NIRS between linear and non-linear calibration methods. This study compared the performance of linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) with a nonlinear random forest (RF) regression for the calibration of vis-NIRS when analysing TPH in soils...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124425/steroid-hormones-in-environmental-matrices-extraction-method-comparison
#13
Gangadhar Andaluri, Rominder P S Suri, Kendon Graham
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed methods for the analysis of steroid hormones in water, soil, sediment, and municipal biosolids by HRGC/HRMS (EPA Method 1698). Following the guidelines provided in US-EPA Method 1698, the extraction methods were validated with reagent water and applied to municipal wastewater, surface water, and municipal biosolids using GC/MS/MS for the analysis of nine most commonly detected steroid hormones. This is the first reported comparison of the separatory funnel extraction (SFE), continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE), and Soxhlet extraction methods developed by the U...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124424/effects-of-gravel-sand-mulching-on-soil-bacterial-community-and-metabolic-capability-in-the-semi-arid-loess-plateau-china
#14
Haiting Hao, Xia Zhao, Yun Wang, Yubao Zhang, Zhongkui Xie, Zhihong Guo, Ruoyu Wang
Gravel and sand mulching is an indigenous technology used for the crop yield for at least 300 years in the loess area of northwest China; however, little is known about the changes of soil bacterial community and metabolic capability under the mulching. In this study, we investigated the soil microbial community structure and metabolic functional diversity during mulching using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and Biolog ECO method. Totally, 9417 OTUs were classified at 97% similarity level for soil samples after 0 (control), 4, 7, and 10 years of mulching...
November 9, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122351/macroaggregation-and-soil-organic-carbon-restoration-in-a-highly-weathered-brazilian-oxisol-after-two-decades-under-no-till
#15
Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira, João Carlos de Moraes Sá, Rattan Lal, Florent Tivet, Clever Briedis, Thiago Massao Inagaki, Daniel Ruiz Potma Gonçalves, Jucimare Romaniw
Conclusions based on studies of the impacts of soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions and soil texture on macroaggregation and SOC stabilization in long-term (>20years) no-till (NT) fields remain debatable. This study was based on the hypothesis that the amount and frequency of biomass-C input associated with NT can be a pathway to formation of macroaggregates and to SOC buildup. The objectives were to: 1) assess the macroaggregate distribution (proportional mass, class mass) and the SOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks of extra-large (8-19mm), large (2-8mm) and small (0...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120115/quantitative-determination-of-acidic-hydrolysis-products-of-chemical-weapons-convention-related-chemicals-from-aqueous-and-soil-samples-using-ion-pair-solid-phase-extraction-and-in-situ-butylation
#16
Suresh Pal Anagoni, Asma Kauser, Gopal Maity, Vijayasarathi V R Upadhyayula
Chemical warfare agents such as organophospshorus nerve agents, mustard agents, and psychotomimetic agent like 3-quinuclidinylbenzilate degrade in the environment and form acidic degradation products the analysis of which is difficult under normal analytical conditions. In the present work a simultaneous extraction and derivatization method in which the analytes are butylated followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric identification of the analytes from aqueous and soil samples was carried out. The extraction was carried out using ion-pair solid-phase extraction with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the electron ionization mode...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118739/resolving-species-level-changes-in-a-representative-soil-bacterial-community-using-microfluidic-quantitative-pcr
#17
Hannah Kleyer, Robin Tecon, Dani Or
Rapid advances in genome sequencing technologies enable determination of relative bacterial abundances and community composition, yet, changes at the species level remain difficult to detect despite importance for certain ecological inferences. We present a method for extraction and direct quantification of species composition of a predefined multispecies bacterial community using microfluidic-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). We employ a nested PCR approach based on universal 16S rRNA gene pre-amplification followed by detection and quantification of absolute abundance of bacterial species using microfluidic array of parallel singleplex qPCR reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118113/measurement-of-micro-scale-soil-deformation-around-roots-using-four-dimensional-synchrotron-tomography-and-image-correlation
#18
S D Keyes, L Cooper, S Duncan, N Koebernick, D M McKay Fletcher, C P Scotson, A van Veelen, I Sinclair, T Roose
This study applied time lapse (four-dimensional) synchrotron X-ray computed tomography to observe micro-scale interactions between plant roots and soil. Functionally contrasting maize root tips were repeatedly imaged during ingress into soil columns of varying water content and compaction. This yielded sequences of three-dimensional densiometric data, representing time-resolved geometric soil and root configurations at the micronmetre scale. These data were used as inputs for two full-field kinematic quantification methods, which enabled the analysis of three-dimensional soil deformation around elongating roots...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117632/living-quarters-of-a-living-fossil-uncovering-the-current-distribution-pattern-of-the-rediscovered-hula-painted-frog-latonia-nigriventer-using-environmental-dna
#19
Sharon Renan, Sarig Gafny, R G Bina Perl, Uri Roll, Yoram Malka, Miguel Vences, Eli Geffen
One of the greatest challenges of effective conservation measures is the correct identification of sites where rare and elusive organisms reside. The recently rediscovered Hula painted frog (Latonia nigriventer) has not been seen for many decades, and was therefore categorized extinct. Since its rediscovery in 2011, individuals from the critically endangered species have been found, with great effort, only in four restricted sites. We applied the environmental DNA (eDNA) approach to search for new populations of the Hula painted frog in suitable aquatic habitats...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113048/the-application-of-em38-determination-of-soil-parameters-selection-of-soil-sampling-points-and-use-in-agriculture-and-archaeology
#20
REVIEW
Kurt Heil, Urs Schmidhalter
Fast and accurate assessment of within-field variation is essential for detecting field-wide heterogeneity and contributing to improvements in the management of agricultural lands. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of field scale characterization by electromagnetic induction, firstly with a focus on the applications of EM38 to salinity, soil texture, water content and soil water turnover, soil types and boundaries, nutrients and N-turnover and soil sampling designs. Furthermore, results concerning special applications in agriculture, horticulture and archaeology are included...
November 4, 2017: Sensors
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