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Soil sampling method

Jiang Long-Zhi
OBJECTIVE: To understand the current status of key parasitic diseases in Tongcheng City, so as to provide an epidemiological reference for formulating the scientific planning for "13th Five-year" parasitic diseases prevention and control. METHODS: The villages of different levels in Tongcheng City were sampled to investigate the infection of parasitic diseases of residents aged three or more years. Soil-transmitted nemathelminth, intestinal protozoa and Enterobius vermicularis were investigated by the Kato-Katz technique (a fecal sample seized two), iodine smear method and cellophane tape method, respectively...
October 24, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Ying Zhou, Xiaoxia Lu, Xiaofang Fu, Bo Yu, Dan Wang, Cheng Zhao, Qi Zhang, Ying Tan, Xinyi Wang
A method for simultaneous measure of nine neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soil was developed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with a quick pretreatment procedure. The soil was extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile and dichloromethane (1:2, v:v) and cleaned up with Primary Secondary Amine (PSA). Matrix-matched standards were prepared to eliminate the interference of the matrix. The LC-MS/MS conditions were optimized to separate the nine neonicotinoids within 6...
August 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
J R Bowers, K L Parise, E J Kelley, D Lemmer, J M Schupp, E M Driebe, D M Engelthaler, P Keim, B M Barker
Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are soil fungi endemic to desert regions of the southwestern United States, and the causative agents of valley fever, or coccidioidomycosis. Studies have shown that the distribution of Coccidioides in soils is sporadic and cannot be explained by soil characteristics alone, suggesting that biotic and other abiotic factors should be examined. However, tools to reliably and robustly screen the large number of soils needed to investigate these potential associations have not been available...
March 8, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
A S Varela-Stokes, S H Park, J V Stokes, N A Gavron, S I Lee, G M Moraru, S C Ricke
Our objective of this study was to explore the bacterial microbiome in fresh or fresh-frozen adult Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast ticks) using extracts enriched for microbial DNA. We collected 100 questing adult A. maculatum, surface disinfected them, and extracted DNA from individual ticks collected the same day or after storage at -80 °C. Because only extracts with microbial DNA concentrations above 2 ng/μL were considered suitable for individual analysis, we expected fewer samples to meet these requirements...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Benjamin M Delory, Emanuela W A Weidlich, Richard van Duijnen, Loïc Pagès, Vicky M Temperton
In this chapter, we present methods that we routinely use to measure plant root traits in the field and under controlled environmental conditions (using rhizoboxes). We describe procedures to (1) collect, wash, and store root samples, (2) acquire images of washed root samples, and (3) measure root traits using image analysis. In addition, we also describe sampling methods for studying belowground productivity, soil exploration, and root distribution in the first soil layers at the community level (soil coring and ingrowth core method)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Giovanni De Feo, Sabino De Gisi, Sabato De Vita, Michele Notarnicola
The main aim of this study was to define and apply a multidisciplinary and multi-criteria approach to sustainability in evaluating alternative end-uses for disused areas. Taking into account the three pillars of sustainability (social, economic and environmental dimension) as well as the need for stakeholders to have new practical instruments, the innovative approach consists of four modules stated (i) sociological, (ii) economic, (iii) environmental and (iv) multi-criteria assessment. By means of a case study on a small Municipality in Southern Italy, three end-uses alternatives, representing three essential services for citizens, were selected: Municipal gym; Market area; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) separate collection centre...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Siqi Li, Xunhua Zheng, Chunyan Liu, Zhisheng Yao, Wei Zhang, Shenghui Han
Quantifications of soil dissolvable organic carbon concentrations, together with other relevant variables, are needed to understand the carbon biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil dissolvable organic carbon can generally be grouped into two incomparable categories. One is soil extractable organic carbon (EOC), which is measured by extracting with an aqueous extractant (distilled water or a salt solution). The other is soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is measured by sampling soil water using tension-free lysimeters or tension samplers...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alessandra H Ide, José Manuel F Nogueira
A new hybrid microextraction technique (hollow fiber microextraction) is presented that uses the main concepts and advantages of the modern miniaturized devices used for trace analysis. This novel analytical approach uses devices made of polypropylene membranes (10.0 mm long and 0.6 mm internal diameter) in which convenient organic solvents are embedded that promote fast kinetics during the enrichment process, using the floating sampling technology concept. An innovative analytical cycle is also proposed by use of low-cost disposable devices during the microextraction stage together with a user-friendly ("single liquid desorption step") back-extraction stage in compliance with green analytical chemistry principles...
March 10, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Guogang Jia
A new method has been developed for determination of210 Pb and a simultaneous determination of210 Po and210 Pb was performed in solid samples.210 Po and210 Pb were sequentially leached at 250 °C with HNO3 +HF, HClO4 and HCl. Twenty percent of the leaching solution was used for210 Po determination by α-spectrometry after210 Po spontaneous deposition on a silver disc from a weak HCl solution that containing hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium citrate and209 Po tracer. The remains of the leaching solution were used for determination of210 Pb, conducted by precipitation as PbCrO4 at about pH < 4, purification with an anion-exchange resin column, source preparation as PbSO4 , and measurement with a β-counter...
February 22, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Thaís Maylin Sobjak, Silvia Romão, Luisa Helena Cazarolli, Silvio César Sampaio, Marcelo Bevilacqua Remor, Ana Tereza Bittencourt Guimarães
The use of multiple biomarkers has been shown to be an efficient method for evaluating environmental contamination. In this work, we evaluate neurotoxic effects and the antioxidant system responses of the R. branneri collected in two streams of lower Iguazu River basin, relating them with different percentage of vegetation coverture, presence of pesticides and fall and winter seasons. The biological samples were collected in March and August of 2015, from two streams that belong to the lower Iguazu River basin (Brazil): the Manoel Gomes River and the Arquimedes Stream...
March 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Carolina Valença Barbosa, Magali Muniz Barreto, Rosemary de Jesus Andrade, Fernando Sodré, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy, José Mauro Peralta, Ricardo Pereira Igreja, Heloisa Werneck de Macedo, Helena Lucia Carneiro Santos
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
2018: PloS One
Mohd Farhan Siddiqui, Soocheol Kim, Hyoil Jeon, Taeho Kim, Chulmin Joo, Seungkyung Park
Conventional methods for analyzing heavy metal contamination in soil and water generally require laboratory equipped instruments, complex procedures, skilled personnel and a significant amount of time. With the advancement in computing and multitasking performances, smartphone-based sensors potentially allow the transition of the laboratory-based analytical processes to field applicable, simple methods. In the present work, we demonstrate the novel miniaturized setup for simultaneous sample preparation and smartphone-based optical sensing of arsenic As(III) in the contaminated soil...
March 4, 2018: Sensors
Yuhan Sun, Peipei Qi, Tao Cang, Zhiwei Wang, Xiangyun Wang, Xuewei Yang, Lidong Wang, Xiahong Xu, Qiang Wang, Xinquan Wang, Changshan Zhao
As a key representative organism, earthworms can directly illustrate the influence of pesticides on environmental organisms in soil ecosystems. The present work aimed to develop a high-throughput multi-pesticide residue analytical method for earthworms using solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile as the solvent and magnetic material-based dispersive solid-phase extraction for purification. Magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were modified with a thin silica layer to form Fe3 O4 -SiO2 nanoparticles, which were fully characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Helena Banning, Monika Stelling, Stephan König, Ronny Schoenberg, Thomas Neumann
Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient but also a strong toxin with a narrow tolerance range for many organisms. As such, a globally heterogeneous Se distribution in soils is responsible for various disease patterns (i.e. Se excess and deficiency) and environmental problems, whereby plants play a key role for the Se entrance into the biosphere. Selenium isotope variations were proved to be a powerful tracer for redox processes and are therefore promising for the exploration of the species dependent Se metabolism in plants and the Se cycling within the Critical Zone...
2018: PloS One
Xiangjun Liao, Chao Zhang, Guangyi Sun, Zhonggen Li, Lihai Shang, Yangrong Fu, Yusheng He, Yi Yang
The characterization of the concentrations and sources of metals and metalloids in soils is necessary to establish quality standards on a regional level and to assess the potential threat of metals to food safety and human health. A total of 8713 soil samples throughout Hainan Island, China were collected at a density of one sample per 4 km², and concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn were analyzed. The geometric mean values of the elements were 2.17, 0.60, 26.5, 9.43, 0.033, 8.74, 22.2, 0...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Qing Liao, Yaping Deng, Xiaoqing Shi, Yuanyuan Sun, Weidong Duan, Jichun Wu
Precise delineation of contaminant plume distribution is essential for effective remediation of contaminated sites. Traditional in situ investigation methods like direct-push (DP) sampling are accurate, but are usually intrusive and costly. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, as a non-invasive geophysical technique to map spatiotemporal changes in resistivity of the subsurface, is becoming increasingly popular in environmental science. However, the resolution of ERT for delineation of contaminant plumes still remains controversial...
March 3, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ana Montoya, Guadalupe Miró, José María Saugar, Beatriz Fernández, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Begoña Bailo, Valentina Marino, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Isabel Fuentes
Acanthamoeba spp. is a widespread protozoan that has been isolated from air, dust, soil, water and biological samples. An opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals, it may cause ocular keratitis, encephalitis, and even multisystem disease. The frequency of Acanthamoeba in animals is unknown. The aim of present study was determine the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in immunocompromised stray cats - animals possibly more likely to harbour the infection given their immunocompromised status and frequenting of contaminated environments...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
I Rehan, M A Gondal, K Rehan
A detection system based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was designed, optimized, and successfully employed for the estimation of lead (Pb) content in drilling fueled soil (DFS) collected from oil field drilling areas in Pakistan. The concentration of Pb was evaluated by the standard calibration curve method as well as by using an approach based on the integrated intensity of strongest emission of an element of interest. Remarkably, our investigation clearly demonstrated that the concentration of Pb in drilling fueled soil collected at the exact drilling site was greater than the safe permissible limits...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Haizhen Zhang, Min Huang, Weiwei Yu, A'wei Zhang, Kankan Zhang, Deyu Hu
A simple and rapid method for enantioselective determination of dufulin in cucumber and soil was developed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The enantiomers were separated on a Superchiral S-OD chiral cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) column at 20 °C, with a mixture of acetonitrile and water (0.1% formic acid) (52:48, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.65 mL/min. The pretreatment conditions were optimized using an orthogonal test, and the optimized method showed good linearity and sensitivity...
March 3, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Jie Wang, Allison Taylor, Daniel Schlenk, Jay Gan
Risk assessment of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) using the total chemical concentration following exhaustive extraction may overestimate the actual availability of HOCs to non-target organisms. Existing methods for estimating HOC bioavailability in soil have various operational limitations. In this study, we explored the application of isotope dilution method (IDM) to quantify the accessible fraction (E) of DDTs and PCBs in both historically-contaminated and freshly-spiked soils. After addition of13 C or deuterated analogues to a soil sample, the phase distribution of isotope-labeled and native chemicals reached an apparent equilibrium within 48 h of mixing...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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