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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778501/the-discrimination-of-geoforensic-trace-material-from-close-proximity-locations-by-organic-profiling-using-hplc-and-plant-wax-marker-analysis-by-gc
#1
G McCulloch, L A Dawson, J M Ross, R M Morgan
There is a need to develop a wider empirical research base to expand the scope for utilising the organic fraction of soil in forensic geoscience, and to demonstrate the capability of the analytical techniques used in forensic geoscience to discriminate samples at close proximity locations. The determination of wax markers from soil samples by GC analysis has been used extensively in court and is known to be effective in discriminating samples from different land use types. A new HPLC method for the analysis of the organic fraction of forensic sediment samples has also been shown recently to add value in conjunction with existing inorganic techniques for the discrimination of samples derived from close proximity locations...
May 16, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778166/morphological-and-molecular-diversity-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-revegetated-iron-mining-site-has-the-same-magnitude-of-adjacent-pristine-ecosystems
#2
Caroline Krug Vieira, Matheus Nicoletti Marascalchi, Arthur Vinicius Rodrigues, Rafael Dutra de Armas, Sidney Luiz Stürmer
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important during revegetation of mining sites, but few studies compared AMF community in revegetated sites with pristine adjacent ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess AMF species richness in a revegetated iron-mining site and adjacent ecosystems and to relate AMF occurrence to soil chemical parameters. Soil samples were collected in dry and rainy seasons in a revegetated iron-mining site (RA) and compared with pristine ecosystems of forest (FL), canga (NG), and Cerrado (CE)...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778047/source-identification-and-spatial-distribution-of-arsenic-and-heavy-metals-in-agricultural-soil-around-hunan-industrial-estate-by-positive-matrix-factorization-model-principle-components-analysis-and-geo-statistical-analysis
#3
Xiaowen Zhang, Shuai Wei, Qianqian Sun, Syed Abdul Wadood, Boli Guo
Characterizing the distribution and defining potential sources of arsenic and heavy metals are the basic preconditions for reducing the contamination of heavy metals and metalloids. 71 topsoil samples and 61 subsoil samples were collected by grid method to measure the concentration of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). Principle components analysis (PCA), GIS-based geo-statistical methods and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) were applied. The results showed that the mean concentrations were 9...
May 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778012/reactive-oxygen-species-ros-activity-of-ambient-fine-particles-pm-2-5-measured-in-seoul-korea
#4
Jieun Park, Eun Ha Park, James J Schauer, Seung-Muk Yi, Jongbae Heo
Substantial increase in level of particulate matter has raised concerns in South Korea recently. Ambient particulate matter is classified as Group I carcinogen (IARC, 2013) and multiple epidemiological studies has demonstrated adverse health effects due to exposure of particulate matter. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) which has a diameter <2.5 μm is likely to penetrate deeply into lung and is known to be eliciting adverse health effects. A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted on adverse health effects of PM-related diseases and mortality rate, yet particulate matter (PM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity at the cellular level has not been actively studied in Korea...
May 16, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777494/residue-behavior-and-risk-assessment-of-thifluzamide-in-the-maize-field-ecosystem
#5
Cong Ma, Zhongdong Liu, Yan Qi, Shanshan Wang, Xiaolin Cao, Jing Wang, Yongxin She, Yong Shao, Jitai Shen, Chao Zhang, Zejun Jiang
In the present work, the dissipation kinetics and final residue levels of thifluzamide in the maize field ecosystem were investigated. Using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS), a rapid, sensitive, efficient, and reliable method for extraction and quantitative analysis of thifluzamide residues in maize grain, maize plant, and soil was developed. Satisfactory recoveries of 78.7-97.0% were achieved with relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 1...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775843/transfer-of-radionuclides-and-dose-assessment-to-ants-and-anthills-in-a-swedish-forest-ecosystem
#6
K Rosén, L Lenoir, K Stark, M Vinichuk, S Sundell-Bergman
In forest ecosystems soil organisms are important for immobilization, translocation and recycling of radionuclides. Still, there is a lack of studies on the role of insects such as ants in the turnover of radionuclides and how radioactivity affects an ant community. In this study seven anthills were sampled in an area that was heavily contaminated after the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Samples of ant and anthill materials were taken from different depths of the anthills as well as from the surrounding soil and the activity concentrations of 137 Cs were determined...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775830/characterization-of-metals-in-indoor-dusts-from-electronic-workshops-cybercaf%C3%A3-s-and-offices-in-southern-nigeria-implications-for-on-site-human-exposure
#7
Chukwujindu M A Iwegbue, Grace Obi, Onoriode O Emoyan, Eze W Odali, Francis E Egobueze, Godswill O Tesi, Godwin E Nwajei, Bice S Martincigh
The levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Ba, Mn, Zn, Al and Fe were evaluated in indoor dusts from electronic workshops, cybercafés and offices in southern Nigeria. The study was aimed at providing information on the distribution patterns, and the associated risks that may arise from exposure of humans to these metals in indoor dusts from the three work environments. The dust samples were digested with aqua-regia and analyzed for the metal concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)...
May 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775821/vermiremediation-of-metal-loid-s-via-eichornia-crassipes-phytomass-extraction-a-sustainable-technique-for-plant-amelioration
#8
Arnab Majumdar, Anil Barla, Munish Kumar Upadhyay, Dibyarpita Ghosh, Punarbasu Chaudhuri, Sudhakar Srivastava, Sutapa Bose
Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), imparts deficiency of soluble arsenic and other toxic metal (loid)s through rhizofiltration and phytoaccumulation. Without proper management strategy, this phytoremediation of metal (loid)s might fail and get reverted back to the environment, contaminating the nearby water bodies. This study, focused on bio-conversion of phytoremediating hyacinths, spiked with 100 times and greater arsenic, lead and cadmium concentrations than the average water contamination, ranging in 58...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774289/high-prevalence-of-intestinal-worms-in-children-up-to-5-years-of-age-in-huaphan-province-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-pdr
#9
Naphavanh Nanthavong, Antony P Black, Phonepadith Khattignavong, Lavy Lorphachan, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Sylvie Goossens, Yves Buisson, Fabrice Quet, Claude P Muller, Satoshi Nakamura
Background: The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection is high in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), reaching 62% among school-children. However, this prevalence presents wide regional variations, due to differences in healthcare access and environmental factors. Curiously, there are few studies on helminth infections in pre-school children - an age group targeted by the national de-worming campaign. Therefore, a preliminary study was conducted in a remote region of Huaphan Province, North Laos, to determine the prevalence of helminth infections in pre-school children...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774211/3d-printed-e-tongue
#10
Gabriel Gaál, Tatiana A da Silva, Vladimir Gaál, Rafael C Hensel, Lucas R Amaral, Varlei Rodrigues, Antonio Riul
Nowadays, one of the biggest issues addressed to electronic sensor fabrication is the build-up of efficient electrodes as an alternative way to the expensive, complex and multistage processes required by traditional techniques. Printed electronics arises as an interesting alternative to fulfill this task due to the simplicity and speed to stamp electrodes on various surfaces. Within this context, the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printing is an emerging, cost-effective and alternative technology to fabricate complex structures that potentiates several fields with more creative ideas and new materials for a rapid prototyping of devices...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773926/comparative-analysis-of-airborne-bacteria-and-fungi-in-two-salt-mines-in-poland
#11
Elżbieta Gębarowska, Wojciech Pusz, Jolanta Kucińska, Włodzimierz Kita
The aim of this work was to determine the genera or species composition and the number of colony forming units of airborne bacteria and fungi, respectively, in two salt mines in Poland "Wieliczka" (Lesser Poland) and "Polkowice-Sieroszowice" (Lower Silesia). Both of them are working environments characterized by extreme conditions, and additionally "Wieliczka," officially placed on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites' list, plays a role of tourist attraction. There are also some curative chambers located in this mine...
2018: Aerobiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773383/superabsorbent-nanocomposite-from-sugarcane-bagasse-chitin-and-clay-synthesis-characterization-and-swelling-behaviour
#12
Maya Sharma, Anjali Bajpai
A nanocomposite comprising crosslinked hybrid polymer network was prepared using chitin and sugarcane bagasse in presence of montmorillonite clay. Chitin and sugarcane bagasse were micro-fibrillated by ultrasonication of their suspension in an ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium formate. Optimum reaction conditions were established by variation of amounts of initiator, monomer and crosslinker, and microwave irradiation to obtain nanocomposite with swelling degree above 1000% in 24 h. Slow and steady swelling was observed and the sample swelled to about 15,000% to form a hydrogel in 15 days...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772427/the-dif2ferent-behaviors-of-glyphosate-and-ampa-in-compost-amended-soil
#13
Tomas Erban, Martin Stehlik, Bruno Sopko, Martin Markovic, Marcela Seifrtova, Tatana Halesova, Pavel Kovaricek
The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate is one of the most widely used pesticides. Both glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), persist in waters; thus, their environmental fates are of interest. We investigated the influence of compost dose, sampling depth, moisture and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks ) on the persistence of these substances. The amounts of AMPA quantified by triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) using isotopically labeled extraction standards were higher than those of glyphosate and differed among the samples...
May 4, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772019/the-effect-of-abandonment-on-vegetation-composition-and-soil-properties-in-molinion-meadows-sw-poland
#14
Grzegorz Swacha, Zoltán Botta-Dukát, Zygmunt Kącki, Daniel Pruchniewicz, Ludwik Żołnierz
Intermittently wet meadows of the Molinion alliance, as with many other grasslands of high-nature value, have become increasingly exposed to abandonment due to their low economic value. The potential consequences of land abandonment are the decrease in species diversity and environmental alterations. The issue of land-use induced changes in plant species composition and soil physico-chemical parameters have been rarely studied in species-rich intermittently wet grasslands. In this study we attempt to i) to identify determinants of plant species composition patterns and ii) to investigate the effect of cessation of mowing on vegetation composition and soil properties...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771979/spatial-pattern-of-soil-organic-carbon-and-total-nitrogen-and-analysis-of-related-factors-in-an-agro-pastoral-zone-in-northern-china
#15
Xuyang Wang, Yuqiang Li, Yinping Chen, Jie Lian, Yongqing Luo, Yayi Niu, Xiangwen Gong
The spatial pattern of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) densities plays a profound important role in estimating carbon and nitrogen budgets. Naiman Banner located in northern China was chosen as research site, a total of 332 soil samples were taken in a depth of 100 cm from the low hilly land in the southern part, sandy land in the middle part and an alluvial plain in the northern part of the county. The results showed that SOC and TN density initially decreased and then increased from the north to the south, The highest densities, were generally in the south, with the lowest generally in the middle part...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770936/source-identification-and-spatial-distribution-of-metals-in-soils-in-a-typical-area-of-the-lower-yellow-river-eastern-china
#16
Jianshu Lv, Yuanhe Yu
In this study, 234 soil samples were recently collected from Gaoqing County (a typical area of the lower Yellow River) to determine the contents of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Multivariate statistical analyses such as correlation analysis, principal components analysis, and one-way ANOVA were applied to identify the source of metals in the soil. Geostatistical methods were used to analyze the spatial structure and distribution of the metals. The results indicated that the mean contents of all metals exceeded the background value of the lower Yellow River, especially for As, Cu, and Hg (1...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770890/the-effects-of-gypsum-and-mulch-applications-on-reclamation-parameters-and-physical-properties-of-an-alkali-soil
#17
Cagla Temiz, Gokhan Cayci
Alkali soils have undesirable properties for crop production. However, these problematic areas can be reclaimed and regained for cultivation. Mulch materials have been used in the past to decrease salinity damage in saline soils. But information about using mulch materials for alkali soil reclamation is rare. The aim of this study was to determine the combined effects of different levels of gypsum applied with straw or pumice mulch materials on the reclamation of an alkali soil. Results obtained from soil extracts during the leaching water cycles showed that gypsum and mulch materials caused significant differences in sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) values...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770841/arsenic-in-playground-soils-from-kindergartens-and-green-recreational-areas-of-bratislava-city-slovakia-occurrence-and-gastric-bioaccessibility
#18
Edgar Hiller, Lenka Filová, Ľubomír Jurkovič, Lucia Lachká, Tatsiana Kulikova, Mária Šimurková
In this study, playground soils of kindergartens and green recreational zones in Bratislava were investigated for the occurrence and gastric bioaccessibility of arsenic (As) in the < 150 μm soil size fraction. Eighty topsoil (0-10 cm) samples were collected from playgrounds in kindergartens and green recreational zones throughout the urban area. Bioaccessibility measurements of As were performed using the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test that mimics the human gastric environment, and resulting extracts were analyzed by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry to assess bioaccessible As concentrations in the collected playground soils...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770664/-survey-and-analysis-of-major-human-parasitic-diseases-in-chongqing-city
#19
Li Shan-Shan, Luo Fei, Xie Jun, Yuan Yi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemic of major human parasitic diseases in Chongqing City, so as to provide a reference for developing prevention and control strategies. METHODS: According to the unified methods formulated by the national investigation scheme and stratified cluster random sampling, 36 rural pilots and 50 urban pilots were selected in Chongqing City. The number of the objects investigated in individual pilot was defined over 250. RESULTS: Totally 22 263 residents were detected...
March 2, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767618/hymenobacter-pedocola-sp-nov-a-novel-bacterium-isolated-from-soil
#20
Soo-Jeong Lim, Leonid N Ten, Byung-Oh Kim, In-Kyu Kang, Hee-Young Jung
Strain S12-2-1T was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Gyeongsangnam-do province of the Republic of Korea. The isolate is a Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, short, rod-shaped bacterium, and its colonies are red to pink in colour. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene identified strain S12-2-1T as a member of the genus Hymenobacter in the family Cytophagaceae, with high levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Hymenobacter arizonensis OR362-8T (97.7 %), Hymenobacter sedentarius DG5BT (97.4 %) and Hymenobacter humi DG31AT (97...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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