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Soil sampling

Maolan Wang, Ronghao Liu, Xiuying Lu, Ziyi Zhu, Hailin Wang, Lei Jiang, Jingjing Liu, Zhihua Wu
Heavy metal are often added to animal fodder and accumulate in the soils with swine manure. In this study, heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Cr) concentrations were determined in agricultural soils irrigated with swine manure in Jiangxi Province, China. Results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, As and Cr (32.8, 93.7, 21.3 and 75.8 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than the background values, while Pb and Cd (15.2 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the background values. Contamination factors [Formula: see text] indicated that they were generally moderate for Cu, Zn, As and Cr and generally low for Pb and Cd...
March 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Sarah Freitas Magalhães, Sofia Calvo-Rodriguez, Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo, Gerardo Arturo Sánchez Azofeifa
Vegetation indices are useful tools to remotely estimate several important parameters related to ecosystem functioning. However, improving and validating estimations for a wide range of vegetation types are necessary. In this study, we provide a methodology for the estimation of the leaf area index (LAI) in a tropical dry forest (TDF) using the light diffusion through the canopy as a function of the successional stage. For this purpose, we estimated the K coefficient, a parameter that relates the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to LAI, based on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and solar radiation...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Xiaohui Zhao, Fuqiang Fan, Huaidong Zhou, Panwei Zhang, Gaofeng Zhao
In-depth understanding of indigenous microbial assemblages resulted from aged contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of vital importance in successful in situ bioremediation treatments. Soil samples of three boreholes were collected at 12 different vertical depths. Overall, the dominating three-ring PAHs (76.2%) were closely related to distribution patterns of soil dehydrogenase activity, microbial cell numbers, and Shannon biodiversity index (H') of indigenous microorganisms. High-molecular-weight PAHs tend to yield more diverse communities...
March 15, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Shumeng Kou, Gilles Vincent, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Frederic E Pitre, Michel Labrecque, Nicholas J B Brereton
Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Congyan Wang, Kun Jiang, Jiawei Zhou, Bingde Wu
Soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities (SNB) can increase the level of available soil N via biological N-fixation to facilitate successful invasion of several invasive plant species (IPS). Meanwhile, landscape heterogeneity can greatly enhance regional invasibility and increase the chances of successful invasion of IPS. Thus, it is important to understand the soil micro-ecological mechanisms driving the successful invasion of IPS in heterogeneous landscapes. This study performed cross-site comparisons, via metagenomics, to comprehensively analyze the effects of Solidago canadensis invasion on SNB in heterogeneous landscapes in urban ecosystems...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Adeline Janus, Christophe Waterlot, Sophie Heymans, Christophe Deboffe, Francis Douay, Aurélie Pelfrêne
Different remediation techniques have been used to restore metal-contaminated sites, including stabilizing metals by adding amendments to the soils. This study experimented three biochars, made from wood and miscanthus, cultivated on contaminated and uncontaminated soils, used as amendments at a 2% application rate on a metal-contaminated soil for 9 months in laboratory-controlled conditions. The objective was to evaluate whether biochars were able to decrease the availability and human oral bioaccessibility of metals in an alkaline soil...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xiang Wu, Yongfeng Wu, Ya Tang, Bingcheng Gan
We isolated a Pseudomonas phage infecting Pseudomonas fluorescens SA1 separated from a soil sample collected in Sichuan Province, China. This phage, which we named PPSC2, has a genome that is composed of a 97,330-bp-long linear double-stranded DNA with 47.51% G+C content and 168 putative protein-coding genes. We identified 20 tRNA genes in the genome of PPSC2, and the tRNA GC content ranged from 44.2% to 58.4%. Phylogenetic and BLASTn analysis revealed that the Pseudomonas phage PPSC2 should be considered a new member of the family Myoviridae...
March 14, 2018: Archives of Virology
Shuai Zhao, Jun-Jie Liu, Samiran Banerjee, Na Zhou, Zhen-Yong Zhao, Ke Zhang, Chang-Yan Tian
While saline soils account for 6.5% of the total land area globally, it comprises about 70% of the area in northwestern China. Microbiota in these saline soils are particularly important because they are critical to maintaining ecosystem services. However, little is known about the microbial diversity and community composition in saline soils. To investigate the distribution patterns and edaphic determinants of bacterial communities in saline soils, we collected soil samples across the hypersaline Ebinur Lake shoreline in northwestern China and assessed soil bacterial communities using bar-coded pyrosequencing...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dilruba Sharmin, Yong Guo, Tomoyasu Nishizawa, Shoko Ohshima, Yoshinori Sato, Yusuke Takashima, Kazuhiko Narisawa, Hiroyuki Ohta
Endohyphal bacteria (EHB), dwelling within fungal hyphae, markedly affect the growth and metabolic potential of their hosts. To date, two EHB belonging to the family Burkholderiaceae have been isolated and characterized as new taxa, Burkholderia rhizoxinica (HKI 454T ) and Mycoavidus cysteinexigens (B1-EBT ), in Japan. Metagenome sequencing was recently reported for Mortierella elongata AG77 together with its endosymbiont M. cysteinexigens (Mc-AG77) from a soil/litter sample in the USA. In the present study, we elucidated the complete genome sequence of B1-EBT and compared it with those of Mc-AG77 and HKI 454T ...
March 14, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Xin-Li An, Qing-Lin Chen, Dong Zhu, Jian-Qiang Su
Struvite recovered from wastewater is promising for recycling phosphorus into soil as fertilizers. However, struvite application may prompt the proliferation of antibiotic resistance in soil and plant. This study examined the impacts of struvite application and biochar amendment on integrons abundance and gene cassette contexts in rhizosphere soil and phyllosphere using quantitative PCR and clone library analysis. Microcosm experiments revealed that class 1 integron was the most prevalent in all samples, with higher concentration and higher relative abundance in rhizosphere than those in phyllosphere...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xuhong Song, Yuan Pan, Longyun Li, Xiaoli Wu, Yu Wang
In this study, effects of continuous cropping on soil properties, enzyme activities, and relative abundance, community composition and diversity of fungal taxa were investigated. Rhizosphere soil from field continuously cropped for one-year, three-year and five-year by Coptis chinensis Franch. was collected and analyzed. Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis showed that continuous cropping of C. chinensis resulted in a significant and continuous decline in the richness and diversity of soil fungal population...
2018: PloS One
Min-Jiao Liu, Chun-Zhi Jin, Mipeshwaree Devi Asem, Yoon-Jung Ju, Dong-Jin Park, Nimaichand Salam, Min Xiao, Wen-Jun Li, Chang-Jin Kim
A Gram-stain negative, strictly aerobic and non-motile bacterium, designated strain BN130233T , was isolated from a soil sample collected from Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea. Colonies were orange in colour, with wet and smooth surfaces. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in strain BN130233T forming a cluster with members of the family ChitinophagaceaeKämpfer et al. 2011, while sharing the highest sequence identity of 91.2 % with Chitinophaga niastensis JS16-4T . Good growth was observed at 20-28 °C, pH 7...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Ram Hari Dahal, Jaisoo Kim
A novel α-proteobacterium, designated strain S-54T , was isolated from forest soil sampled at Kyonggi University and subjected to polyphasic study. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. Strain S-54T assimilated lactic acid, d-glucose and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Strain S-54T tolerated 4 % NaCl (w/v), and grew optimally at 45 °C and pH 10.5. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data revealed that strain S-54T formed a lineage within the class Alphaproteobacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria that was distinct from various members of the genus Altererythrobacter, including Altererythrobacter troitsensis JCM 17037T (96...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Alain Manceau, Jianxu Wang, Mauro Rovezzi, Pieter Glatzel, Xinbin Feng
Plant leaves serve both as a sink for gaseous elemental mercury (Hg) from the atmosphere and a source of toxic mercury to terrestrial ecosystems. Litterfall is the primary deposition pathway of atmospheric Hg to vegetated soils, yet the chemical form of this major Hg input remains elusive. We report the first observation of in vivo formation of mercury sulfur nanoparticles in intact leaves of 22 native plants from six different species across two sampling areas from China. The plants grew naturally in soils from a mercury sulfide mining and retorting region at ambient-air gaseous-Hg concentrations ranging from 131 ± 19 to 636 ± 186 ng m-3 and had foliar Hg concentration between 1...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jiang Long-Zhi
OBJECTIVE: To understand the current status of key parasitic diseases in Tongcheng City, so as to provide an epidemiological reference for formulating the scientific planning for "13th Five-year" parasitic diseases prevention and control. METHODS: The villages of different levels in Tongcheng City were sampled to investigate the infection of parasitic diseases of residents aged three or more years. Soil-transmitted nemathelminth, intestinal protozoa and Enterobius vermicularis were investigated by the Kato-Katz technique (a fecal sample seized two), iodine smear method and cellophane tape method, respectively...
October 24, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Vladica Stevanović, Ljiljana Gulan, Biljana Milenković, Aleksandar Valjarević, Tijana Zeremski, Ivana Penjišević
Activity levels of natural and artificial radionuclides and content of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) were investigated in 41 soil samples collected from Toplica region located in the south part of Serbia. Radioactivity was determined by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector. The obtained mean activity concentrations ± standard deviations of radionuclides226 Ra,232 Th,40 K and137 Cs were 29.9 ± 9.4, 36.6 ± 11.5, 492 ± 181 and 13.4 ± 18.7 Bq kg-1 , respectively...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Inam Ullah Khan, Neeli Habib, Min Xiao, Xing Huang, Nasr Ullah Khan, Wan-Taek Im, Iftikhar Ahmed, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Wen-Jun Li
A Gram-stain negative, aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated YIM 730227T , was isolated from a soil sample, collected from Karak district, Khyber-Pakhtun-Khwa, Pakistan. The bacterium was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Pairwise comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 730227T is closely related to Phenylobacterium lituiforme FaiI3T (97.5% sequence similarity), Phenylobacterium muchangponense A8T (97.4%), Phenylobacterium panacis DCY109T (97...
March 14, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Gregory Douglas, Jeffery Hardenstine, Shahrokh Rouhani, Deyuan Kong, Ray Arnold, Will Gala
Site investigations require the collection and analysis of representative environmental samples to delineate impacts, risks, and remediation options. When environmental samples are collected, concentrations of semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) begin to change due to several processes, such as evaporation, adsorption, precipitation, photo, and microbial degradation. Preservation techniques are used to minimize these changes between collection and analysis. The most common techniques are refrigeration, freezing, and acidification...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
M S Maboeta, O G Oladipo, S M Botha
Earthworms are bioindicators of soil pollution. The ecotoxicity of tailings from selected gold mines in South Africa was investigated utilizing Eisenia andrei bioassays and biomarkers. Samples were obtained from unrehabilitated, rehabilitated and naturally vegetated sites. Biomass, neutral red retention time (NRRT), survival and reproduction were assessed using standardized protocols. Earthworm biomass, NRRT and reproductive success in rehabilitated tailings (comparable to naturally vegetated site) were significantly higher (p < 0...
March 13, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shamsollah Ayoubi, Zeynab Soltani, Hossein Khademi
This study was conducted to explore the relationships between magnetic susceptibility and some soil heavy metals concentrations in various particle sizes in an industrial site, central Iran. Soils were partitioned into five fractions (< 28, 28-75, 75-150, 150-300, and 300-2000 µm). Heavy metals concentrations including Zn, Pb, Fe, Cu, Ni and Mn and magnetic susceptibility were determined in bulk soil samples and all fractions in 60 soil samples collected from the depth of 0-5 cm. The studied heavy metals except for Pb and Fe displayed a substantial enrichment in the < 28 µm...
March 13, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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