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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241374/linking-above-and-belowground-traits-to-soil-and-climate-variables-an-integrated-database-on-china-s-grassland-species
#1
Yan Geng, Wenhong Ma, Liang Wang, Frank Baumann, Peter Kühn, Thomas Scholten, Jin-Sheng He
Knowledge of plant functional traits and trait-environment interactions is important for characterizing species strategies and understanding ecological processes. However, comprehensive field data on both above- and belowground traits, together with their environmental variables are scarce. Biome-scale studies are particularly lacking. Here we present two large-scale datasets that include functional traits of leaves and fine roots and their corresponding soil and climatic variables in China's grasslands. Leaf, fine root and soil samples were collected in three biogeographic regions: temperate grassland on the Inner Mongolia Plateau, alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau, and mountain grassland in the Xinjiang mountain areas...
February 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241042/seeking-the-environmental-source-of-leptospirosis-reveals-durable-bacterial-viability-in-river-soils
#2
Roman Thibeaux, Sophie Geroult, Claire Benezech, Stéphane Chabaud, Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Dominique Girault, Emilie Bierque, Cyrille Goarant
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important re-emerging infectious disease that affects humans worldwide. Infection occurs from indirect environment-mediated exposure to pathogenic leptospires through contaminated watered environments. The ability of pathogenic leptospires to persist in the aqueous environment is a key factor in transmission to new hosts. Hence, an effort was made to detect pathogenic leptospires in complex environmental samples, to genotype positive samples and to assess leptospiral viability over time...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239373/variations-of-soil-microbial-community-structures-beneath-broadleaved-forest-trees-in-temperate-and-subtropical-climate-zones
#3
Sihang Yang, Yuguang Zhang, Jing Cong, Mengmeng Wang, Mengxin Zhao, Hui Lu, Changyi Xie, Caiyun Yang, Tong Yuan, Diqiang Li, Jizhong Zhou, Baohua Gu, Yunfeng Yang
Global warming has shifted climate zones poleward or upward. However, understanding the responses and mechanism of microbial community structure and functions relevant to natural climate zone succession is challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we examined soil microbial community in three broadleaved forests located in the Wulu Mountain (WLM, temperate climate), Funiu Mountain (FNM, at the border of temperate and subtropical climate zones), or Shennongjia Mountain (SNJ, subtropical climate)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239369/plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-associated-with-langsdorffia-hypogaea-rhizosphere-host-biological-interface-a-neglected-model-of-bacterial-prospection
#4
Érica B Felestrino, Iara F Santiago, Luana da Silva Freitas, Luiz H Rosa, Sérvio P Ribeiro, Leandro M Moreira
Soil is a habitat where plant roots and microorganisms interact. In the region of the Brazilian Iron Quadrangle (IQ), studies involving the interaction between microbiota and plants have been neglected. Even more neglected are the studies involving the holoparasite plant Langsdorffia hypogaea Mart. (Balanophoraceae). The geomorphological peculiarities of IQ soil, rich in iron ore, as well as the model of interaction between L. hypogaea, its hosts and the soil provide a unique niche that acts as selective pressure to the evolution of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239226/temperature-and-moisture-dependent-studies-on-alunogen-and-the-crystal-structure-of-meta-alunogen-determined-from-laboratory-powder-diffraction-data
#5
Volker Kahlenberg, Doris E Braun, Hannes Krüger, Daniela Schmidmair, Maria Orlova
Starting from a synthetic sample with composition Al2(SO4)3·16.6H2O, the high-temperature- and moisture-dependent behavior of alunogen has been unraveled by TGA measurements, in situ powder X-ray diffraction as well as by gravimetric moisture sorption/desorption studies. Heating experiments using the different techniques show that alunogen undergoes a first dehydration process already starting at temperatures slightly above 40 °C. The crystalline product of the temperature-induced dehydration corresponds to the synthetic equivalent of meta-alunogen and has the following chemical composition: Al2(SO4)3·13...
2017: Physics and Chemistry of Minerals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239038/effect-of-ageratina-adenophora-invasion-on-the-composition-and-diversity-of-soil-microbiome
#6
Yunhong Kong, James Kong, Dingkang Wang, Heping Huang, Kaiyou Geng, Yonxia Wang, Yun Xia
In the present study, high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to investigate soil invaded by the aggressive weed Ageratina adenophora to determine its effect on the species composition, distribution, and biodiversity of the bacterial communities. Soil samples from 12 micro-sites containing a monoculture of A. adenophora plants, mixtures of A. adenophora and different native plant species, and native species alone were studied. We found that the invasion of this weed resulted in a selection of bacteria belonging to phyla Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and the lack of bacteria belonging to phyla Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes, but did not affect significantly the percentage abundances of members of other phyla...
February 24, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238755/application-of-a-stir-bar-sorptive-extraction-sample-preparation-method-with-hplc-for-soil-fungal-biomass-determination-in-soils-from-a-detrital-manipulation-study
#7
Áron Beni, Kate Lajtha, János Kozma, István Fekete
Ergosterol is a sterol found ubiquitously in cell membranes of filamentous fungi. Although concentrations in different fungal species span the range of 2.6 to 42μg/ml of dry mass, many studies have shown a strong correlation between soil ergosterol content and fungal biomass. The analysis of ergosterol in soil therefore could be an effective tool for monitoring changes in fungal biomass under different environmental conditions. Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) is a new sample preparation method to extract and concentrate organic analytes from liquid samples...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238285/urogenital-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-sth-in-cameroon-an-epidemiological-update-at-barombi-mbo-and-barombi-kotto-crater-lakes-assessing-prospects-for-intensified-control-interventions
#8
Suzy J Campbell, J Russell Stothard, Faye O'Halloran, Deborah Sankey, Timothy Durant, Dieudonné Eloundou Ombede, Gwladys Djomkam Chuinteu, Bonnie L Webster, Lucas Cunningham, E James LaCourse, Louis-Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté
BACKGROUND: The crater lakes of Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto are well-known transmission foci of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis having had several important control initiatives previously. To collect contemporary epidemiological information, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken inclusive of: signs and symptoms of disease, individual treatment histories, local water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)-related factors and malacological surveillance, with molecular characterisation of specimens...
February 27, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238016/seasonal-pattern-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-the-causative-agent-of-buruli-ulcer-in-the-environment-in-ghana
#9
Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Kobina Assan Ampah, Amanda Ross, Prince Asare, Isaac Darko Otchere, Janet Fyfe, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
This study aimed to contribute to the understanding of Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) ecology by analysing both clinical and environmental samples collected from ten communities along two major river basins (Offin and Densu) associated with Buruli ulcer (BU) at different seasons. We collected clinical samples from presumptive BU cases and environmental samples from ten communities. Following DNA extraction, clinical samples were confirmed by IS2404 PCR and environmental samples were confirmed by targeting MU-specific genes, IS2404, IS2606 and the ketoreductase (KR) using real-time PCR...
February 25, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237778/genome-of-a-giant-bacteriophage-from-a-decaying-trichodesmium-bloom
#10
Ulrike Pfreundt, Dina Spungin, Shengwei Hou, Björn Voß, Ilana Berman-Frank, Wolfgang R Hess
De-novo assembly of a metagenomic dataset obtained from a decaying cyanobacterial Trichodesmium bloom from the New Caledonian lagoon resulted in a complete giant phage genome of 257,908bp, obtained independently with multiple assembly tools. Noteworthy, gammaproteobacteria were an abundant fraction in the sequenced samples. Mapping of the raw reads with 99% accuracy to the giant phage genome resulted in an average coverage of 262X. The closest sequenced relatives, albeit still distant, are the Pseudomonas phages PaBG from Lake Baikal and Lu11 isolated from a soil sample from the Philippines...
February 22, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237600/chromium-concentrations-in-ruminant-feed-ingredients
#11
J W Spears, K E Lloyd, K Krafka
Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237467/storage-and-stability-of-biochar-derived-carbon-and-total-organic-carbon-in-relation-to-minerals-in-an-acid-forest-soil-of-the-spanish-atlantic-area
#12
Oihane Fernández-Ugalde, Nahia Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Javier Arostegi, Lur Moragues, Ander Arias-González
Biochar can largely contribute to enhance organic carbon (OC) stocks in soil and improve soil quality in forest and agricultural lands. Its contribution depends on its recalcitrance, but also on its interactions with minerals and other organic compounds in soil. Thus, it is important to study the link between minerals, natural organic matter and biochar in soil. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of biochar-derived carbon (biochar-C) into various particle-size fractions with contrasting mineralogy and the effect of biochar on the storage of total OC in the particle-size fractions in an acid loamy soil under Pinus radiata (C3 type) in the Spanish Atlantic area...
February 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237311/residues-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-surface-soil-and-raw-foods-from-rural-areas-of-the-republic-of-tajikistan
#13
Mace G Barron, Zebunisso J Ashurova, Mukhamadcho A Kukaniev, Hakbarqul K Avloev, Karim K Khaidarov, Jamshed N Jamshedov, Oygul S Rahmatullova, Sunbula S Atolikshoeva, Sakina S Mamadshova, Oksana Manzenyuk
The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods in four rural areas of Tajikistan. Study areas included the pesticide burial sites of Konibodom and Vakhsh, and family farms of Garm and Chimbuloq villages. These areas were selected to represent a diversity of pesticide disposal histories and to allow assessment of local pesticide contamination in Tajikistan...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237310/sampling-design-and-required-sample-size-for-evaluating-contamination-levels-of-137-cs-in-japanese-fir-needles-in-a-mixed-deciduous-forest-stand-in-fukushima-japan
#14
Yurika Oba, Toshihiro Yamada
We estimated the sample size (the number of samples) required to evaluate the concentration of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in Japanese fir (Abies firma Sieb. & Zucc.), 5 years after the outbreak of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We investigated the spatial structure of the contamination levels in this species growing in a mixed deciduous broadleaf and evergreen coniferous forest stand. We sampled 40 saplings with a tree height of 150 cm-250 cm in a Fukushima forest community. The results showed that: (1) there was no correlation between the (137)Cs concentration in needles and soil, and (2) the difference in the spatial distribution pattern of (137)Cs concentration between needles and soil suggest that the contribution of root uptake to (137)Cs in new needles of this species may be minor in the 5 years after the radionuclides were released into the atmosphere...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237220/impacts-of-iron-and-steelmaking-facilities-on-soil-quality
#15
Vladimir Strezov, Chandrakant Chaudhary
Iron and steel are highly important materials used in a wide range of products with important contribution to the economic development. The processes for making iron and steel are energy intensive and known to contribute to local pollution. Deposition of the metals may also have adverse impacts on soil quality, which requires detailed assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of iron and steelmaking facilities on the local soil quality. Soil samples were collected in the vicinity of two steelmaking sites in Australia, one based on blast furnace steelmaking operation, while the second site was based on electric arc furnace steel recycling...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236730/development-of-a-highly-sensitive-radon-222-amplifier-hisra-for-low-level-atmospheric-measurements
#16
Sylvain Topin, Patrick Richon, Vincent Thomas, Claire Gréau, Julie Pujos, Julien Moulin, Alexandre Hovesepian, Ludovic Deliere
Radon ((222)Rn), a radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.82 days, is continuously emanated from soil, rocks, and water by the radioactive decay of (226)Ra. Radon-222 is released from the ground into the atmosphere, where it is transported mainly by turbulent diffusion or convection. For precise measurement of radon-222 atoms in the atmosphere, the detectors typically used present a small volume or surface area and are therefore not very sensitive, especially for online measurements and short sample intervals (<1 h)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236479/glyphosate-binding-in-soil-as-revealed-by-sorption-experiments-and-quantum-chemical-modeling
#17
Peter Gros, Ashour Ahmed, Oliver Kühn, Peter Leinweber
The herbicide glyphosate (GLP) is supposed to be rapidly degraded or adsorbed strongly by soil solids but findings in soil years after application and concentrations in waters above legal limits question a harmless disappearance. Therefore, we conducted batch sorption experiments with 23 thoroughly characterized arable surface soils, correlated isotherm coefficients with numerous inorganic and organic soil parameters, and investigated GLP-SOM-complexes by quantum-chemical modeling. The Freundlich sorption model yielded the best fits, and coefficients Kf and nf were correlated positively with the contents of clay/silt...
February 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236200/evaluation-of-black-crust-formation-and-soiling-process-on-historical-buildings-from-the-bilbao-metropolitan-area-north-of-spain-using-sem-eds-and-raman-microscopy
#18
Estefanía Calparsoro, Maite Maguregui, Anastasia Giakoumaki, Héctor Morillas, Juan Manuel Madariaga
In the present work, several building materials suffering from black crusts and soiled surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The goal was to examine the elemental and molecular composition, the distribution on the samples, and the morphology of endogenous and exogenous compounds on those black crusts and soiled surfaces. The black crusts were deposited over different building materials such as limestone, sandstone, and brick that constitute a small construction called "malacate" as well as over a limestone substrate of a cemetery gate...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235993/a-novel-two-step-sequential-bioaccessibility-test-for-potentially-toxic-elements-in-inhaled-particulate-matter-transported-into-the-gastrointestinal-tract-by-mucociliary-clearance
#19
Jawad Ali Hussein Alpofead, Christine M Davidson, David Littlejohn
A novel two-step sequential extraction has been developed to assess the bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in airborne particulate matter following inhalation and transport into the human gastrointestinal tract by mucociliary clearance. A new artificial mucus fluid (AMF) was used to determine the bioaccessible potentially toxic element (PTE) fraction in the upper airways, in sequence with the simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) or the stomach phase of the unified bioaccessibility method (gastric fluid only) (UBMG)...
February 24, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231155/correlations-between-polyacetylene-concentrations-in-carrot-daucus-carota-l-and-various-soil-parameters
#20
Lars Kjellenberg, Eva Johansson, Karl-Erik Gustavsson, Artur Granstedt, Marie E Olsson
This study assessed the concentrations of three falcarinol-type polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol, falcarindiol-3-acetate) in carrots and the correlations between these and different soil traits. A total of 144 carrot samples, from three different harvests taken a single season, were analysed in terms of their polyacetylene concentrations and root development. On one of the harvesting occasions, 48 soil samples were also taken and analysed. The chemical composition of the soil was found to influence the concentrations of falcarinol-type polyacetylenes in carrots...
August 31, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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