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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550453/exchange-of-genetic-sequences-between-viruses-and-hosts
#1
Robin A Weiss
Although genetic transfer between viruses and vertebrate hosts occurs less frequently than gene flow between bacteriophages and prokaryotes, it is extensive and has affected the evolution of both parties. With retroviruses, the integration of proviral DNA into chromosomal DNA can result in the activation of adjacent host gene expression and in the transduction of host transcripts into retroviral genomes as oncogenes. Yet in contrast to lysogenic phage, there is little evidence that viral oncogenes persist in a chain of natural transmission or that retroviral transduction is a significant driver of the horizontal spread of host genes...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550284/multiple-viral-infections-in-agaricus-bisporus-characterisation-of-18-unique-rna-viruses-and-8-orfans-identified-by-deep-sequencing
#2
Gregory Deakin, Edward Dobbs, Julie M Bennett, Ian M Jones, Helen M Grogan, Kerry S Burton
Thirty unique non-host RNAs were sequenced in the cultivated fungus, Agaricus bisporus, comprising 18 viruses each encoding an RdRp domain with an additional 8 ORFans (non-host RNAs with no similarity to known sequences). Two viruses were multipartite with component RNAs showing correlative abundances and common 3' motifs. The viruses, all positive sense single-stranded, were classified into diverse orders/families. Multiple infections of Agaricus may represent a diverse, dynamic and interactive viral ecosystem with sequence variability ranging over 2 orders of magnitude and evidence of recombination, horizontal gene transfer and variable fragment numbers...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550060/surface-sensing-for-flagellar-gene-expression-on-solid-media-in-paenibacillus-sp-naist15-1
#3
Kazuo Kobayashi, Yu Kanesaki, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
A rhizosphere Gram-positive bacterial isolate, Paenibacillus sp. NAIST15-1, exhibits intriguing motility behavior on hard agar media. Paenibacillus sp. shows increased transcription of flagellar genes and hyperflagellation when transferred from liquid to solid media. Hyperflagellated cells form wandering colonies that are capable of moving around on the surface of media containing ≥1.5% agar. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify genes critical for motility. In addition to flagellar genes, this mutagenesis identified five non-flagellar structural genes that were important for motility...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550056/biofilm-formation-potential-of-heat-resistant-escherichia-coli-dairy-isolates-and-complete-genome-of-mdr-heat-resistant-strain-fam21845
#4
Roger Marti, Michael Schmid, Sandra Kulli, Kerstin Schneeberger, Javorka Naskova, Susanne Knøchel, Christian H Ahrens, Jörg Hummerjohann
We tested the biofilm formation potential of 30 heat resistant and six heat sensitive E. coli dairy isolates. The production of curli and cellulose, static biofilm formation on polystyrene (PS) and stainless steel, formation of biofilm under dynamic conditions (Bioflux), and initial adhesion rates (IAR) were evaluated. Biofilm formation varied greatly between strains, media and assay. Our results highlight the importance of the experimental setup to determine biofilm formation under conditions of interest, as correlation between different assays was often not given...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550044/t-cells-lacking-hdac11-have-increased-effector-functions-and-mediate-enhanced-alloreactivity-in-a-murine-model
#5
David M Woods, Karrune V Woan, Fengdong Cheng, Andressa L Sodré, Dapeng Wang, Yongxia Wu, Zi Wang, Jie Chen, John Powers, Javier Pinilla-Ibarz, Yu Yu, Ya Zhang, Xuefeng Wu, Xiaoyan Zheng, Jeffrey Weber, Wayne Hancock, Edward Seto, Alejandro Villagra, Xue-Zhong Yu, Eduardo M Sotomayor
Histone acetylation and the families of enzymes responsible for controlling these epigenetic marks have been implicated in regulating T-cell maturation and phenotype. Here, we demonstrate a previously undefined role of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11) in regulating T-cell effector functions. Using EGFP-HDAC11 transgenic reporter mice, we found that HDAC11 expression was lower in effector relative to naïve and central memory T-cell populations, and activation of resting T-cells resulted in its decreased expression...
May 26, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549926/comparison-of-biofilm-formation-and-antibiotic-resistance-pattern-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-human-and-environmental-isolates
#6
Sayyad Gholami, Mohammad Tabatabaei, Nasrollah Sohrabi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen especially in patients with underlying diseases such as cyctic fibrosis and has been established as a model organism to study bacterial biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to compare the biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in human and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates. Numbers of positive samples for algD and algU genes in human samples were 98% and the positive samples for algD and algU genes in the environmental samples were 80% and 70%, respectively...
May 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549621/let-the-core-microbiota-be-functional
#7
REVIEW
Philippe Lemanceau, Manuel Blouin, Daniel Muller, Yvan Moënne-Loccoz
The microbial community that is systematically associated with a given host plant is called the core microbiota. The definition of the core microbiota was so far based on its taxonomic composition, but we argue that it should also be based on its functions. This so-called functional core microbiota encompasses microbial vehicles carrying replicators (genes) with essential functions for holobiont (i.e., plant plus microbiota) fitness. It builds up from enhanced horizontal transfers of replicators as well as from ecological enrichment of their vehicles...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549325/graphene-oxide-in-the-water-environment-could-affect-tetracycline-antibiotic-resistance
#8
Mei-Ting Guo, Guo-Sheng Zhang
In recent years, the influence of new materials like nanoparticles in the water environment on biological substances has been widely studied. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) represent a new type of pollutant in the environment. Graphene oxide (GO), as a nano material, because of its unique structure, may have an impact on antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) and ARGs; however the research in this area is rarely reported. Therefore, this study mainly investigated the effects of GO on bacterial antibiotic resistance...
May 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548657/the-endobacterium-of-an-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-modulates-the-expression-of-its-toxin-antitoxin-systems-during-the-life-cycle-of-its-host
#9
Alessandra Salvioli di Fossalunga, Justine Lipuma, Francesco Venice, Laurence Dupont, Paola Bonfante
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread root symbionts that perform important ecological services, such as improving plant nutrient and water acquisition. Some AMF from the Gigasporaceae family host a population of endobacteria, Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum (Cagg). The analysis of the Cagg genome identified six putative toxin-antitoxin modules (TAs), consisting of pairs of stable toxins and unstable antitoxins that affect diverse physiological functions. Sequence analysis suggested that these TA modules were acquired by horizontal transfer...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548042/new-insights-into-reovirus-evolution-implications-from-a-newly-characterized-mycoreovirus
#10
Lijiang Liu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Huiquan Liu, Daohong Jiang, Jiatao Xie
We performed molecular cloning and complete genome sequencing of a novel mycoreovirus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorumreovirus 1 (SsReV1), isolated from an isolate of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. SsReV1 has a genome of 28 055 bp and is composed of 11 double-stranded RNA segments. With a combination of unique molecular features, virion shape and composition, and phylogenetic analysis, SsReV1 is significantly distinct from all known reoviruses and defines a novel genus in the family Reoviridae...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546457/amino-acid-homeostasis-and-signalling-in-mammalian-cells-and-organisms
#11
REVIEW
Stefan Bröer, Angelika Bröer
Cells have a constant turnover of proteins that recycle most amino acids over time. Net loss is mainly due to amino acid oxidation. Homeostasis is achieved through exchange of essential amino acids with non-essential amino acids and the transfer of amino groups from oxidised amino acids to amino acid biosynthesis. This homeostatic condition is maintained through an active mTORC1 complex. Under amino acid depletion, mTORC1 is inactivated. This increases the breakdown of cellular proteins through autophagy and reduces protein biosynthesis...
May 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546318/an-environment-dependent-transcriptional-network-specifies-human-microglia-identity
#12
David Gosselin, Dylan Skola, Nicole G Coufal, Inge R Holtman, Johannes C M Schlachetzki, Eniko Sajti, Baptiste N Jaeger, Carolyn O'Connor, Conor Fitzpatrick, Martina P Pasillas, Monique Pena, Amy Adair, David G Gonda, Michael L Levy, Richard M Ransohoff, Fred H Gage, Christopher K Glass
Microglia play essential roles in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and influence diverse aspects of neuronal function. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that specify human microglia phenotypes are largely unknown. We examined the transcriptomes and epigenetic landscapes of human microglia isolated from surgically resected brain tissue ex vivo and following transition to an in vitro environment. Transfer to a tissue culture environment results in rapid and extensive downregulation of microglia-specific genes that are induced in primitive mouse macrophages following migration into the fetal brain...
May 25, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546004/a-transfer-rna-gene-rearrangement-in-the-lepidopteran-mitochondrial-genome
#13
Qiu-Ning Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Xiao-Yu Zhu, Xin-Yue Chai, Xiao-Ming Zhao, Chun-Lin Zhou, Bo-Ping Tang
Gene arrangements in the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of insects are conserved across the major lineages, but can be rearranged within derived groups and may provide valuable phylogenetic characters. In this study, we sequenced the entire mitogenome of Parasa consocia, a moth of the family Limacodidae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea). Compared with other lepidopterans and ancestral insects, the P. consocia mitogenome features a transfer RNA gene arrangement novel among lepidopterans between the ND3 and ND5 genes: RANSEF (the underline signifies an inverted gene), which differs from the ARNSEF arrangement of ancestral insects...
May 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545516/improving-the-regenerative-potential-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-by-overexpressing-prostacyclin-synthetase-and-its-application-in-spinal-cord-repair
#14
May-Jywan Tsai, Chi-Ting Huang, Yong-San Huang, Ching-Feng Weng, Song-Kun Shyue, Ming-Chao Huang, Dann-Ying Liou, Yan-Ru Lin, Chu-Hsun Cheng, Huai-Sheng Kuo, Yilo Lin, Meng-Jen Lee, Wen-Hung Huang, Wen-Cheng Huang, Henrich Cheng
BACKGROUND: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), specialized glia that ensheathe bundles of olfactory nerves, have been reported as a favorable substrate for axonal regeneration. Grafting OEC to injured spinal cord appears to facilitate axonal regeneration although the functional recovery is limited. In an attempt to improve the growth-promoting properties of OEC, we transduced prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) to OEC via adenoviral (Ad) gene transfer and examined the effect of OEC with enhanced prostacyclin synthesis in co-culture and in vivo...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545148/mitochondrial-genome-evolution-in-alismatales-size-reduction-and-extensive-loss-of-ribosomal-protein-genes
#15
Gitte Petersen, Argelia Cuenca, Athanasios Zervas, Gregory T Ross, Sean W Graham, Craig F Barrett, Jerrold I Davis, Ole Seberg
The order Alismatales is a hotspot for evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes characterized by remarkable differences in genome size, substitution rates, RNA editing, retrotranscription, gene loss and intron loss. Here we have sequenced the complete mitogenomes of Zostera marina and Stratiotes aloides, which together with previously sequenced mitogenomes from Butomus and Spirodela, provide new evolutionary evidence of genome size reduction, gene loss and transfer to the nucleus. The Zostera mitogenome includes a large portion of DNA transferred from the plastome, yet it is the smallest known mitogenome from a non-parasitic plant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545122/spot-a-novel-and-streamlined-microarray-platform-for-observing-cellular-trna-levels
#16
Simon Grelet, Ariel McShane, Eveline Hok, Jensen Tomberlin, Philip H Howe, Renaud Geslain
Recent studies have placed transfer RNA (tRNA), a housekeeping molecule, in the heart of fundamental cellular processes such as embryonic development and tumor progression. Such discoveries were contingent on the concomitant development of methods able to deliver high-quality tRNA profiles. The present study describes the proof of concept obtained in Escherichia coli (E. coli) for an original tRNA analysis platform named SPOt (Streamlined Platform for Observing tRNA). This approach comprises three steps. First, E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544786/mir-122-modification-enhances-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-liver-fibrosis
#17
Guohua Lou, Ying Yang, Feifei Liu, Bingjue Ye, Zhi Chen, Min Zheng, Yanning Liu
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation alone may be insufficient for treatment of liver fibrosis because of complicated histopathological changes in the liver. Given that miR-122 plays an essential role in liver fibrosis by negatively regulating the proliferation and transactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), this study investigated whether miR-122 modification can improve the therapeutic efficacy of adipose tissue-derived MSCs in treating liver fibrosis. MiR-122-modified AMSCs (AMSC-122) were constructed through lentivirus-mediated transfer of pre-miR-122...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544569/maintenance-of-the-contractile-phenotype-in-corpus-cavernosum-smooth-muscle-cells-by-myocardin-gene-therapy-ameliorates-erectile-dysfunction-in-bilateral-cavernous-nerve-injury-rats
#18
H-B Zhang, Z-Q Wang, F-Z Chen, W Ding, W-B Liu, Z-R Chen, S-H He, A-Y Wei
The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction post radical prostatectomy is not clearly clarified, and the low efficacy of traditional PDE5i treatment remains a major complaint in contemporary practice. This study aimed to demonstrate phenotypic modulation in bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) rats within 7 days, and subsequently validate gene therapy with Myocardin (Mycod) by maintaining a contractile phenotype in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells. Initially, 36 male rats were randomly divided into BCNI and negative control (NC) groups for histological and phenotypic molecular measurements at 3, 5, and 7 days...
May 23, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544449/metagenomic-based-impact-study-of-transgenic-grapevine-rootstock-on-its-associated-virome-and-soil-bacteriome
#19
Jean-Michel Hily, Sandrine Demanèche, Nils Poulicard, Mélanie Tannières, Samia Djennane, Monique Beuve, Emmanuelle Vigne, Gérard Demangeat, Véronique Komar, Claude Gertz, Aurélie Marmonier, Caroline Hemmer, Sophie Vigneron, Armelle Marais, Thierry Candresse, Pascal Simonet, Olivier Lemaire
For some crops, the only possible approach to gain a specific trait requires genome modification. The development of virus-resistant transgenic plants based on the pathogen-derived resistance strategy has been a success story for over three decades. However, potential risks associated with the technology, such as horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of any part of the transgene to an existing gene pool, have been raised. Here, we report no evidence of any undesirable impacts of genetically modified (GM) grapevine rootstock on its biotic environment...
May 25, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544240/cell-cycle-synchronization-and-analysis-of-apoptosis-related-gene-in-skin-fibroblasts-from-domestic-cat-felis-silvestris-catus-and-kodkod-leopardus-guigna
#20
D Veraguas, P F Gallegos, F O Castro, L Rodriguez-Alvarez
The kodkod population is in constant decrease and the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) might help to preserve the genetic pool of this species. The cell cycle synchronization of donor cells plays a crucial role in SCNT. The objective of this research was to evaluate two different methods for quiescence induction, serum starvation (SS) and contact inhibition (CI), both for 1, 3 and 5 days, on skin fibroblast from domestic cat and kodkod. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that in domestic cat, SS and CI, both at 3 and 5 days, increased the percentage of fibroblasts in G0/G1 compared to growing cells (GC) (p < ...
May 22, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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