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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821187/genetic-dissection-of-seedling-stage-salinity-tolerance-in-rice-using-introgression-lines-of-a-salt-tolerant-landrace-nona-bokra
#1
Venkata Ramana Rao Puram, John Ontoy, Steven Linscombe, Prasanta K Subudhi
Salinity is an important abiotic stress affecting rice production worldwide. Development of salt tolerant varieties is the most feasible approach for improving rice productivity in salt affected soils. In rice, seedling stage salinity tolerance is crucial for better crop establishment. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping using introgression lines (ILs) is useful for identification and simultaneous transfer of desirable alleles into elite genetic background. In the present study, 138 ILs derived from the cross between a high yielding elite salt susceptible japonica rice cultivar Jupiter and a salt tolerant indica landrace Nona Bokra were evaluated for salt tolerance at seedling stage in a hydroponics experiment and were genotyped using 126 simple sequence repeat markers...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820387/infectious-polymorphic-toxins-delivered-by-outer-membrane-exchange-discriminate-kin-in-myxobacteria
#2
Christopher N Vassallo, Pengbo Cao, Austin Conklin, Hayley Finkelstein, Christopher S Hayes, Daniel Wall
Myxobacteria are known for complex social behaviors including outer membrane exchange (OME), in which cells exchange large amounts of outer membrane lipids and proteins upon contact. The TraA cell surface receptor selects OME partners based on a variable domain. However, traA polymorphism alone is not sufficient to precisely discriminate kin. Here, we report a novel family of OME-delivered toxins that promote kin discrimination of OME partners. These SitA lipoprotein toxins are polymorphic and widespread in myxobacteria...
August 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820323/non-surgical-model-for-alveolar-bone-regeneration-by-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-7-gene-therapy
#3
Mariko Kawai, Yo-Hei Kataoka, Junya Sonobe, Hiromitsu Yamamoto, Masakazu Inubushi, Takuya Ishimoto, Takayoshi Nakano, Hiroki Maruyama, Jun-Ichi Miyazaki, Toshio Yamamoto, Kazuhisa Bessho, Kiyoshi Ohura
BACKGROUND: Alveolar bone is a critical tissue for tooth retention; however, once alveolar bone is lost, it may not spontaneously regenerate. Currently, bone grafts or artificial bone are commonly used for alveolar bone regeneration therapy. However, these therapies require surgical procedures, which present risks, particularly in aged patients. Therefore, the development of alveolar bone regeneration techniques that do not require surgical procedures is critical. It is well known that stem cells present in the periosteal and periodontal ligament may be induced to differentiate into osteogenic cells...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819320/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-e2-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzymes-in-tomato
#4
Bhaskar Sharma, Tarun Kumar Bhatt
The ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation mechanism has gained the attention over the past decade. The E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes are the crucial part of ubiquitination mechanism and they are believed to hold imperative association for plant development. It accepts ubiquitin from the E1 enzyme and interacts with the E3 ligase to transfer ubiquitin or directly transfers ubiquitin to the substrate. The functional aspects of E2 ubiquitin enzymes in plant systems are unclear. Tomato is being used as a model plant and rarely explored to study E2 ubiquitin enzyme...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818861/auxin-signaling
#5
Ottoline Leyser
Auxin acts as a general co-ordinator of plant growth and development, transferring information over both long and short ranges. Auxin famously appears to be extraordinarily multi-functional, with different cells responding very differently to changes in auxin levels. There has been considerable progress over recent years in understanding how this complexity is encoded in the cellular auxin response machinery. Of central importance is an elegantly short but versatile signaling pathway through which auxin triggers changes in gene expression...
August 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818623/leptospira-species-molecular-epidemiology-in-the-genomic-era
#6
K Caimi, S Repetto, V Varni, P Ruybal
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease which global burden is increasing often related to climatic change. Hundreds of whole genome sequences from worldwide isolates of Leptospira spp. are available nowadays, together with online tools that permit to assign MLST sequence types (STs) directly from raw sequence data. In this work we have applied R7L-MLST to near 500 genomes and strains collection globally distributed. All 10 pathogenic species as well as intermediate were typed using this MLST scheme. The correlation observed between STs and serogroups in our previous work, is still satisfied with this higher dataset sustaining the implementation of MLST to assist serological classification as a complementary approach...
August 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818555/pyridoxine-5-phosphate-oxidase-pnpo-deficiency-clinical-and-biochemical-alterations-associated-with-the-c-347g-a-p-%C3%A2-arg116gln-mutation
#7
Martino L di Salvo, Mario Mastrangelo, Isabel Nogués, Manuela Tolve, Alessandro Paiardini, Carla Carducci, Davide Mei, Martino Montomoli, Angela Tramonti, Renzo Guerrini, Roberto Contestabile, Vincenzo Leuzzi
BACKGROUND: Pyridoxal-5(')-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency presents as a severe neonatal encephalopathy responsive to pyridoxal-5(')-phosphate (PLP) or pyridoxine. Recent studies widened the phenotype of this condition and detected genetic variants on PNPO gene whose pathogenic role and clinical expression remain to be established. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to characterize the functional effects of the c.347G>A (p.Arg116Gln) mutation in the PNPO gene in order to define its pathogenicity and describe the clinical features of new patients with epilepsy carrying this mutation...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818301/in-vitro-fertilization-and-adverse-obstetric-and-perinatal-outcomes
#8
Chantae S Sullivan-Pyke, Suneeta Senapati, Monica A Mainigi, Kurt T Barnhart
Most IVF-conceived children are healthy, but IVF has also been associated with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes as well as congenital anomalies. There is also literature suggesting an association between IVF and neurodevelopmental disorders as well as potentially long-term metabolic outcomes. The main driver for adverse outcomes is the higher risk of multiple gestations in IVF, but as the field moves toward single embryo transfer, the rate of multiple gestations is decreasing. Studies have shown that singleton IVF pregnancies still have a higher incidence of adverse outcomes compared to unassisted singleton pregnancies...
August 14, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817787/evaluation-of-the-electron-transfer-flavoprotein-etf-as-an-antibacterial-target-in-burkholderia-cenocepacia
#9
Maria S Stietz, Christina Lopez, Osasumwen Osifo, Marcelo Tolmasky, Silvia T Cardona
There are hundreds of essential genes in multidrug resistant bacterial genomes, but only a few of their products are exploited as antibacterial targets. An example is the electron flavoprotein (ETF) which is required for growth and viability in <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i>. Here, we evaluated ETF as an antibiotic target for <i>Burkholderia cepacia</i> complex (Bcc). Depletion of the bacterial ETF during infection of <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> significantly extended survival of the nematodes, proving that ETF is essential for survival of <i>B...
August 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817344/a-guide-to-approaching-regulatory-considerations-for-lentiviral-mediated-gene-therapies
#10
Michael White, Roger Whittaker, Carolina Gándara, Elizabeth A Stoll
Lentiviral vectors are increasingly the gene transfer tool of choice for gene or cell therapies, with multiple clinical investigations showing promise for this viral vector in terms of both safety and efficacy. The third-generation vector system is well characterized, effectively delivers genetic material and maintains long-term stable expression in target cells, delivers larger amounts of genetic material than other methods, is nonpathogenic, and does not cause an inflammatory response in the recipient. This report aims to help academic scientists and regulatory managers negotiate the governance framework to achieve successful translation of a lentiviral vector-based gene therapy...
August 2017: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816422/dolichol-kinase-deficiency-dolk-cdg-two-new-cases-and-expansion-of-phenotype
#11
Eric T Rush, Craig V Baker, William B Rizzo
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a group of genetic diseases caused by mutations in genes that are necessary for the addition of oligosaccharides to acceptor proteins or lipids. An early step in this process requires dolichol kinase (DK) to catalyze the formation of dolichyl phosphate, which acts as a membrane anchor for initial attachment of sugar residues that are subsequently built up to oligosaccharides and transferred to acceptor proteins and lipids for further processing. Biallelic mutations in DOLK, the gene for DK, result in human in a CDG with variable symptoms, ranging from nonsyndromic dilated cardiomypopathy to severe multiorgan involvement...
September 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816358/trpc3-mediated-ca-2-signals-as-a-promising-strategy-to-boost-therapeutic-angiogenesis-in-failing-hearts-the-role-of-autologous-endothelial-colony-forming-cells
#12
REVIEW
Francesco Moccia, Angela Lucariello, Germano Guerra
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a sub-population of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells that are released in circulation to restore damaged endothelium during its physiological turnover or rescue blood perfusion after an ischemic insult. Additionally, they may be mobilized from perivascular niches located within larger arteries' wall in response to hypoxic conditions. For this reason, EPCs have been regarded as an effective tool to promote revascularization and functional recovery of ischemic hearts, but clinical application failed to exploit the full potential of patients-derived cells...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815907/t7-rna-polymerase-driven-inducible-cell-lysis-for-dna-transfer-from-escherichia-coli-to-bacillus-subtilis
#13
Mario Juhas, James W Ajioka
The majority of the good DNA editing techniques have been developed in Escherichia coli; however, Bacillus subtilis is better host for a plethora of synthetic biology and biotechnology applications. Reliable and efficient systems for the transfer of synthetic DNA between E. coli and B. subtilis are therefore of the highest importance. Using synthetic biology approaches, such as streamlined lambda Red recombineering and Gibson Isothermal Assembly, we integrated genetic circuits pT7L123, Repr-ts-1 and pLT7pol encoding the lysis genes of bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and lambda, the thermosensitive repressor and the T7 RNA polymerase into the E...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815531/mitochondria-endoplasmic-reticulum-contact-sites-mediate-innate-immune-responses
#14
Takuma Misawa, Michihiro Takahama, Tatsuya Saitoh
Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are fundamental organelles that coordinate high-order cell functions. Mitochondria are centers of energy production, whereas the ER is responsible for folding, transport, and degradation of proteins. In addition to their specific functions, mitochondria and ER actively communicate with each other to promote a variety of cellular events, such as material transfer and signal transduction. Recent studies have shown the critical involvement of these organelles in regulation of the innate immune system, which functions in host defense...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815481/gene-delivery-approaches-for-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-strategies-to-increase-efficiency-and-specificity
#15
REVIEW
Gopi Suresh Oggu, Shyama Sasikumar, Nirosha Reddy, Kranthi Kiran Reddy Ella, Ch Mohan Rao, Kiran Kumar Bokara
A significant number of clinical trials have been undertaken to explore the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of several diseases such as Crohn's disease, diabetes, bone defects, myocardial infarction, stroke etc., Due to their efficiency in homing to the tissue injury sites, their differentiation potential, the capability to secrete a large amount of trophic factors and their immunomodulatory effects, MSCs are becoming increasingly popular and expected to be one of the promising therapeutic approaches...
August 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814758/targeted-insertion-of-an-anti-cd2-monoclonal-antibody-transgene-into-the-ggta1-locus-in-pigs-using-foki-dcas9
#16
Mark B Nottle, Evelyn J Salvaris, Nella Fisicaro, Stephen McIlfatrick, Ivan Vassiliev, Wayne J Hawthorne, Philip J O'Connell, Jamie L Brady, Andrew M Lew, Peter J Cowan
Xenotransplantation from pigs has been advocated as a solution to the perennial shortage of donated human organs and tissues. CRISPR/Cas9 has facilitated the silencing of genes in donor pigs that contribute to xenograft rejection. However, the generation of modified pigs using second-generation nucleases with much lower off-target mutation rates than Cas9, such as FokI-dCas9, has not been reported. Furthermore, there have been no reports on the use of CRISPR to knock protective transgenes into detrimental porcine genes...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814578/genetic-human-prion-disease-modelled-in-prp-transgenic-drosophila
#17
Alana M Thackray, Alzbeta Cardova, Hanna Wolf, Lydia Pradl, Ina Vorberg, Walker S Jackson, Raymond Bujdoso
Inherited human prion diseases, such as FFI and familial CJD (fCJD), are associated with autosomal dominant mutations in the human prion protein gene PRNP and accumulation of PrPSc, an abnormal isomer of the normal host protein PrPC, in the brain of affected individuals. PrPSc is the principal component of the transmissible neurotoxic prion agent. It is important to identify molecular pathways and cellular processes that regulate prion formation and prion-induced neurotoxicity. This will allow identification of possible therapeutic interventions for individuals with, or at risk from, genetic human prion disease...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814477/iodine-excess-exposure-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-impairs-maternal-thyroid-function-in-rats
#18
Caroline Serrano-Nascimento, Rafael Salgueiro, Kaio Vitzel, Thiago Urgal Pantaleao, Vania Maria Correa da Costa, Maria Tereza Nunes
Adequate maternal iodine consumption during pregnancy and lactation guarantees normal thyroid hormones (TH) production, which is crucial to the development of the fetus. Indeed, iodine deficiency is clearly related to maternal hypothyroidism and deleterious effects in the fetal development. Conversely, the effects of iodine excess (IE) consumption on maternal thyroid function are still controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of IE exposure during pregnancy and lactation periods on maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis...
August 16, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813510/construction-of-novel-pjrd215-derived-plasmids-using-chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase-cat-gene-as-a-selection-marker-for-acidithiobacillus-caldus
#19
Rui Wang, Chunmao Lin, Jianqiang Lin, Xin Pang, Xiangmei Liu, Chengjia Zhang, Jianqun Lin, Linxu Chen
BACKGROUND: Acidithiobacillus caldus, a Gram-negative, chemolithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, is widely applied in bioleaching. The absence of an ideal selection marker has become a major obstacle to achieve high efficiency of the gene transfer system for A. caldus. Plasmid pJRD215, widely used in Acidithiobacillus spp., has severe drawbacks in molecular manipulations and potential biosafety issues due to its mobility. Therefore, finding a new selection marker and constructing new plasmids have become an urgent and fundamental work for A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812563/multicopy-plasmids-potentiate-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-bacteria
#20
Alvaro San Millan, Jose Antonio Escudero, Danna R Gifford, Didier Mazel, R Craig MacLean
Plasmids are thought to play a key role in bacterial evolution by acting as vehicles for horizontal gene transfer, but the role of plasmids as catalysts of gene evolution remains unexplored. We challenged populations of Escherichia coli carrying the blaTEM-1 β-lactamase gene on either the chromosome or a multicopy plasmid (19 copies per cell) with increasing concentrations of ceftazidime. The plasmid accelerated resistance evolution by increasing the rate of appearance of novel TEM-1 mutations, thereby conferring resistance to ceftazidime, and then by amplifying the effect of TEM-1 mutations due to the increased gene dosage...
November 7, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
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