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Risk factor for STHs

Fabio Macchioni, Higinio Segundo, Valentina Totino, Simona Gabrielli, Patricia Rojas, Mimmo Roselli, Grover Adolfo Paredes, Mario Masana, Alessandro Bartoloni, Gabriella Cancrini
INTRODUCTION: In 2013 a coproparasitological survey was carried out in two rural communities of the Bolivian Chaco to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and to investigate on possible infection drivers through a questionnaire interview. METHODOLOGY: Faecal samples were examined by microscopy. Samples positive for Entamoeba histolytica complex and Blastocystis were molecularly examined to identify the species/subtypes involved. RESULTS: The overall infection rate was 86%, identical in both communities and mostly due to protozoa...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Ali Rostami, Maryam Ebrahimi, Saeed Mehravar, Vahid Fallah Omrani, Shirzad Fallahi, Hamed Behniafar
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are responsible for significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consumption of raw vegetables without proper washing is one of the major routes of such infections. We evaluate the prevalence of STH contamination in commonly used vegetables in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. A total of 772 fresh raw vegetables were obtained from retail markets. Each sample was divided into two groups. One group was used as the unwashed sample and the second group was washed with standard washing procedures...
May 16, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Zerihun Zerdo, Tsegaye Yohanes, Befikadu Tariku
Mass drug administration (MDA) to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC) is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool...
2016: Journal of Parasitology Research
Katie Greenland, Ruth Dixon, Shabbir Ali Khan, Kithsiri Gunawardena, Jimmy H Kihara, Jennifer L Smith, Lesley Drake, Prerna Makkar, Sri Raman, Sarman Singh, Sanjay Kumar
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infect over a billion individuals worldwide. In India, 241 million children are estimated to need deworming to avert the negative consequences STH infections can have on child health and development. In February-April 2011, 17 million children in Bihar State were dewormed during a government-led school-based deworming campaign. Prior to programme implementation, a study was conducted to assess STH prevalence in the school-age population to direct the programme...
May 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jonathan W Andereck, Aaron M Kipp, Michael Ondiek, Sten H Vermund
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) prevalence in children is high in rural southwestern Kenya, but adult prevalence data are scarce. A 2010 study of a village in Nyanza province found a pediatric STH prevalence of 44% using a direct stool-smear method. Adult STH prevalence and associated predictors was measured in the same village. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years) presenting at the out-patient department of the small hospital or community outreach events completed a short questionnaire and provided stool samples...
December 2014: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Luzivalda D Couto, Sandra H C Tibiriça, Izabella O Pinheiro, Adalberto Mitterofhe, Adilson C Lima, Milton F Castro, Murilo Gonçalves, Marcio R Silva, Ricardo J P S Guimarães, Florence M Rosa, Elaine S Coimbra
BACKGROUND: Among the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), schistosomiasis and the three main soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs), i.e., ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection, represent the most common infections in developing countries. In Brazil, there is a lack of epidemiological data in many parts of the country, which favors the unawareness of the real situation concerning these diseases. Due to this, we investigated the occurrence of schistosomiasis and STHs in a region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil...
June 2014: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Suzanne D van der Werff, Kim Vereecken, Kim van der Laan, Maiza Campos Ponce, Raquel Junco Díaz, Fidel A Núñez, Lázara Rojas Rivero, Mariano Bonet Gorbea, Katja Polman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole on soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Cuban schoolchildren. METHODS: We followed up a cohort of 268 STH-positive schoolchildren, aged 5-14 years at baseline, at six-month intervals for two years and a final follow-up after three years. Kato-Katz stool examination was used to detect infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Common risk factors related to STHs were assessed by parental questionnaire...
June 2014: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ashenafi Abossie, Mohammed Seid
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infection is the most prevalent among rural communities in warm and humid regions and where water, hygiene and sanitation facilities are inadequate. Such infection occurs in rural areas where water supplies are not enough to drink and use, and in the absence of environmental sanitation, when the rubbish and other wastes increased, and sewage and waste water are not properly treated. Hence the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and associated risk factors...
2014: BMC Public Health
Biniam Mathewos, Abebe Alemu, Desalegn Woldeyohannes, Agersew Alemu, Zelalem Addis, Moges Tiruneh, Mulugeta Aimero, Afework Kassu
BACKGROUND: School age children are one of the groups at high risk for intestinal parasitic infections especially in developing countries like Ethiopia as the supply of good quality drinking water and latrine coverage are poor. Though there are previous data on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma mansoni infection among these high risk groups current status in the study area is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the current prevalence and associated risk factors of STHs and S...
2014: BMC Research Notes
Ricardo J Soares Magalhães, Antonio Langa, João Mário Pedro, José Carlos Sousa-Figueiredo, Archie C A Clements, Susana Vaz Nery
Anaemia is known to have an impact on child development and mortality and is a severe public health problem in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the consistency between ecological and individual-level approaches to anaemia mapping by building spatial anaemia models for children aged ≤15 years using different modelling approaches. We aimed to (i) quantify the role of malnutrition, malaria, Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in anaemia endemicity; and (ii) develop a high resolution predictive risk map of anaemia for the municipality of Dande in northern Angola...
May 2013: Geospatial Health
Xiaobing Wang, Linxiu Zhang, Renfu Luo, Guofei Wang, Yingdan Chen, Alexis Medina, Karen Eggleston, Scott Rozelle, D Scott Smith
We conducted a survey of 1707 children in 141 impoverished rural areas of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces in Southwest China. Kato-Katz smear testing of stool samples elucidated the prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections in pre-school and school aged children. Demographic, hygiene, household and anthropometric data were collected to better understand risks for infection in this population. 21.2 percent of pre-school children and 22.9 percent of school aged children were infected with at least one of the three types of STH...
2012: PloS One
Pauline N M Mwinzi, Susan P Montgomery, Chrispin O Owaga, Mariam Mwanje, Erick M Muok, John G Ayisi, Kayla F Laserson, Erick M Muchiri, W Evan Secor, Diana M S Karanja
BACKGROUND: Schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are recognized as major global public health problems, causing severe and subtle morbidity, including significant educational and nutritional effects in children. Although effective and safe drugs are available, ensuring access to these drugs by all those at risk of schistosomiasis and STHs is still a challenge. Community-directed intervention (CDI) has been used successfully for mass distribution of drugs for other diseases such as onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis...
2012: Parasites & Vectors
Nicholas Midzi, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Munyaradzi P Mapingure, Noah H Paul, Davison Sangweme, Gibson Hlerema, Masceline J Mutsaka, Farisai Tongogara, Godfrey Makware, Vivian Chadukura, Kimberly C Brouwer, Francisca Mutapi, Nirbhay Kumar, Takafira Mduluza
BACKGROUND: Helminth infection rates in grade three children are used as proxy indicators of community infection status and to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. However knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of this target age group (8-10 years) in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) and malaria is not known at a time when integrated plasmodium - helminth control strategies are being advocated. This study sought to assess KAP of grade 3 children in relation to schistosomiasis, STHs and malaria in order to establish an effective school based health education for disease transmission control...
2011: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rachel L Pullan, Peter W Gething, Jennifer L Smith, Charles S Mwandawiro, Hugh J W Sturrock, Caroline W Gitonga, Simon I Hay, Simon Brooker
BACKGROUND: Implementation of control of parasitic diseases requires accurate, contemporary maps that provide intervention recommendations at policy-relevant spatial scales. To guide control of soil transmitted helminths (STHs), maps are required of the combined prevalence of infection, indicating where this prevalence exceeds an intervention threshold of 20%. Here we present a new approach for mapping the observed prevalence of STHs, using the example of Kenya in 2009. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Observed prevalence data for hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were assembled for 106,370 individuals from 945 cross-sectional surveys undertaken between 1974 and 2009...
2011: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sengchanh Kounnavong, Manithong Vonglokham, Keonakhone Houamboun, Peter Odermatt, Boungnong Boupha
The current widespread school-based control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is also advocated for preschool children. The objective of this study was to assess infection with STHs as well as their determinants in preschool children (<60 months) in southern rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). A cluster survey was carried out from October to December 2006 in three districts of Savannakhet Province. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura was 27.4% (95% CI 27...
March 2011: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yeshambel Belyhun, Girmay Medhin, Alemayehu Amberbir, Berhanu Erko, Charlotte Hanlon, Atalay Alem, Andrea Venn, John Britton, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are widespread in underdeveloped countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence and distribution of helminth infection varies by place and with age. We therefore investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for STH infection in mothers and their one year-old children living in Butajira town and surrounding rural areas in southern Ethiopia. METHODS: In 2005-2006, 1065 pregnant women were recruited in their third trimester of pregnancy...
2010: BMC Public Health
Gerito Augusto, Rassul Nalá, Verónica Casmo, Acácio Sabonete, Lourenço Mapaco, Judite Monteiro
Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are most prevalent in developing countries. In Mozambique, the first and only national survey of the distribution and prevalence of schistosomiasis and STHs was conducted in 1952 and 1957. Only occasional surveys in restricted areas have been conducted since the 1950s. The objective of our survey was to update information on the geographic distribution and prevalence of schistosomiasis and STHs in this country. During August 2005-June 2007, the Schistosomiasis and STH Laboratory of National Institutes of Health of the Ministry of Health undertook an epidemiologic survey among schoolchildren...
November 2009: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Andreas P Michaelides, Ilias Stamatopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades, Aris Anastasakis, Christina Kotsiopoulou, Artemisia Theopistou, Maria Misailidou, Christos Fourlas, Perry M Elliott, Christodoulos Stefanadis
BACKGROUND: The appearance of a discrete upward deflection of the ST segment termed "the ST hump sign" (STHS) during exercise testing has been associated with resting hypertension and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of this sign in a population of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Eighty-one patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing were followed in a retrospective cohort study for a mean period of 5...
April 2009: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
P Kirwan, S O Asaolu, T C Abiona, A L Jackson, H V Smith, C V Holland
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in children aged 0-25 months and to identify the associated risk factors for Ascaris lumbricoides infections. The study was conducted in three villages outside Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria in May/June 2005. Stool samples (369) were processed by formol-ether concentration. Ascaris lumbricoides (12.2%) was the dominant infection. Age, father's occupation and dog ownership were identified as the significant risk factors in the minimal adequate model for A...
September 2009: Journal of Helminthology
Ana Lucia Moncayo, Maritza Vaca, Leila Amorim, Alejandro Rodriguez, Silvia Erazo, Gisela Oviedo, Isabel Quinzo, Margarita Padilla, Martha Chico, Raquel Lovato, Eduardo Gomez, Mauricio L Barreto, Philip J Cooper
BACKGROUND: Control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections relies on the periodic and long-term administration of anthelmintic drugs to high-risk groups, particularly school-age children living in endemic areas. There is limited data on the effectiveness of long-term periodic anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of STHs, particularly from operational programmes. The current study investigated the impact of 15 to 17 years of treatment with the broad-spectrum anthelmintic ivermectin, used for the control of onchocerciasis, on STH prevalence and intensity in school-age and pre-school children...
2008: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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