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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338328/avoidance-meaning-and-grief-psychosocial-factors-influencing-engagement-in-hiv-care
#1
Georgia J Michlig, Ryan P Westergaard, Yukyan Lam, Azal Ahmadi, Gregory D Kirk, Andrew Genz, Jeanne Keruly, Heidi Hutton, Pamela J Surkan
Although the introduction of antiretroviral therapy has rendered HIV a chronic illness, inconsistent engagement in HIV care by key populations limits its public health impact. Poor engagement in care is especially prevalent among vulnerable populations with mental health and substance use disorders. Beyond structural and health system considerations, psychosocial factors may present challenges to sustained engagement. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 31 primarily African American, urban-based individuals, many with past or current drug use and mental disorders, living with HIV...
January 17, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335920/clergy-s-beliefs-about-mental-illness-and-their-perception-of-its-treatability-experience-from-a-church-based-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-pmtct-trial-in-nigeria
#2
Theddeus Iheanacho, Elina Stefanovics, Echezona E Ezeanolue
Clergy participating in the Healthy Beginning Initiative (N = 45), a program utilizing church workers to integrate packages of care into church activities, completed a 43-item self-administered questionnaire assessing their attitudes and beliefs about mental disorders and perception of their treatability. A majority believed that drug/alcohol use, stress and genetic inheritance could cause mental illness and that society needed to adopt more tolerant attitude toward people with mental disorders. Clergy with contact with people with mental disorders were more likely to perceive depression as treatable...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316883/active-ingredients-of-a-person-centred-intervention-for-people-on-hiv-treatment-analysis-of-mixed-methods-trial-data
#3
Keira Lowther, Richard Harding, Victoria Simms, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Nancy Gikaara, Lorraine Sherr, Hellen Kariuki, Irene J Higginson, Lucy Ellen Selman
BACKGROUND: A new model of care is required to meet the changing needs of people living with HIV (PLWH), particularly in low and middle-income countries, where prevalence is highest. We evaluated a palliative care intervention for PLWH in Mombasa, Kenya. Although we found no effect on pain (primary outcome), there was a positive effect on mental health (secondary outcome) in the intervention group. To inform replication and implementation, we have determined the active ingredients of the intervention and their mechanisms of action...
January 10, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297407/pregnancy-and-the-global-disease-burden
#4
Barbara J Sina
Pregnant women experience unique physiological changes pertinent to the effective prevention and treatment of common diseases that affect their health and the health of their developing fetuses. In this paper, the impact of major communicable (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, helminth infections, emerging epidemic viral infections) as well as non-communicable conditions (mental illness, substance abuse, gestational diabetes, eclampsia) on pregnancy is discussed. The current state of research involving pregnant women in these areas is also described, highlighting important knowledge gaps for the management of key illnesses that impact pregnancy globally...
December 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287239/association-between-virus-exposure-and-depression-in-us-adults
#5
Shawn D Gale, Andrew N Berrett, Lance D Erickson, Bruce L Brown, Dawson W Hedges
Mood disorders are common mental illnesses. Among the factors associated with major depression are exposures to infectious diseases including hepatitis C, influenza, varicella-zoster, and herpes viruses. In this study, we sought to evaluate further associations between viral exposure and depression. From the US Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we obtained data about depression status, antidepressant use, exposure to hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, human immunodeficiency virus, and cytomegalovirus, and sociodemographic variables and evaluated associations between depression and viral exposure in adjusted multivariable models...
December 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232248/endocarditis-in-the-setting-of-idu-multidisciplinary-management
#6
Bobby Yanagawa, Anees Bahji, Wiplove Lamba, Darrell H Tan, Asim Cheema, Ishba Syed, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the medical and surgical management of infective endocarditis secondary to IDU, with a focus on the underlying substance use disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with infective endocarditis secondary to IDU are often young with unique comorbidities including mental illness, chronic hepatitis C, HIV infection, which are often compounded by limited social and familial supports. The focus of management has been treatment of endocarditis using IV antibiotics alongside surgery...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209931/co-morbid-non-communicable-diseases-and-associated-health-service-use-in-african-and-caribbean-immigrants-with-hiv
#7
Khatundi-Irene Masindi, Nathaniel Jembere, Claire E Kendall, Ann N Burchell, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Mona Loutfy, Janet Raboud, Sean B Rourke, Henry Luyombya, Tony Antoniou
We sought to characterize non-communicable disease (NCD)-related and overall health service use among African and Caribbean immigrants living with HIV between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2013. We conducted two population-based analyses using Ontario's linked administrative health databases. We studied 1525 persons with HIV originally from Africa and the Caribbean. Compared with non-immigrants with HIV (n = 11,931), African and Caribbean immigrants had lower rates of hospital admissions, emergency department visits and non-HIV specific ambulatory care visits, and higher rates of health service use for hypertension and diabetes...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153630/increasing-hiv-testing-in-inpatient-psychiatry
#8
Martha Shumway, Christina Mangurian, Noah Carraher, Amanda Momenzadeh, Mark Leary, Emily K Lee, James W Dilley
BACKGROUND: People with serious mental illness (SMI) are at elevated risk of HIV infection, but do not receive HIV tests regularly. Inpatient psychiatric admissions provide opportunities for HIV testing. OBJECTIVE: This study retrospectively examined the impact of three sequential interventions designed to increase HIV testing on an acute inpatient psychiatry service: (1) advocacy by an administrative champion, (2) an on-site HIV counselor, and (3) a clinician championing HIV testing...
October 23, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119865/exercise-and-mental-health-of-people-living-with-hiv-a-systematic-review
#9
Sanaz Nosrat, James W Whitworth, Joseph T Ciccolo
Objective Mental illness is highly prevalent among people living with HIV. Poor mental health is linked to HIV disease progression, making the treatment of mental illness alongside HIV essential. While the benefits of exercise on the physical health of people living with HIV are well established, the effect of exercise on mental health in this population is less examined. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a systematic literature review of the effects of exercise on mental health in people living with HIV...
December 2017: Chronic Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111893/-psychological-health-of-children-with-chronic-physical-illness-and-their-parents-results-from-meta-analyses
#10
Martin Pinquart
Psychological Health of Children with Chronic Physical Illness and their Parents - Results from Meta-Analyses The present paper summarizes results from meta-analyses on psychological well-being of children with chronic physical illnesses and their parents. At the beginning, we discuss potential reasons for psychological effects of a chronic physical illness on children and adolescents as well as their parents. We then summarize results of meta-analyses of studies that compared aspects of mental health of children with a chronic physical illness and their parents with families of healthy children...
November 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067834/mindfulness-instruction-for-hiv-infected-youth-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Lindsey Webb, Carisa Perry-Parrish, Jonathan Ellen, Erica Sibinga
HIV-infected youth experience many stressors, including stress related to their illness, which can negatively impact their mental and physical health. Therefore, there is a significant need to identify potentially effective interventions to improve stress management, coping, and self-regulation. The object of the study was to assess the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program compared to an active control group on psychological symptoms and HIV disease management in youth utilizing a randomized controlled trial...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037602/hiv-sti-prevention-among-heterosexually-active-black-adolescents-with-mental-illnesses-focus-group-findings-for-intervention-development
#12
Bridgette M Brawner, Loretta Sweet Jemmott, Gina Wingood, Janaiya Reason, Niya Mack
Heterosexually active Black adolescents with mental illnesses are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, few HIV/STI prevention interventions exist for this demographic. We held seven focus groups (N = 33) to elucidate social, cultural, and psychological factors that influence HIV/STI risk-related sexual behaviors in this understudied population. Seven themes emerged: (a) Blackness and media portrayals, (b) Blackness as a source of cultural resilience and pride, (c) psychosocial determinants of condom use, (d) consequences of engaging in sexual activity, (e) attitudes and beliefs toward sexual behaviors, (f) benefits of sexual activity, and (g) coping mechanisms...
September 28, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952889/differences-between-incarcerated-and-non-incarcerated-patients-who-die-in-community-hospitals-highlight-the-need-for-palliative-care-services-for-seriously-ill-prisoners-in-correctional-facilities-and-in-community-hospitals-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Alex Rothman, Shannon McConville, Renee Hsia, Lia Metzger, Cyrus Ahalt, Brie A Williams
BACKGROUND: Incarcerated populations worldwide are aging dramatically; in the United States, prisoner mortality rates have reached an all-time high. Little is known about the incarcerated patients who die in community hospitals. AIM: Compare incarcerated and non-incarcerated hospital decedents in California. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: All state hospital decedents ( N = 370,831) from 2009 to 2013, decedent age over time examined with additional data (2001-2013)...
September 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938881/prevalence-and-correlates-for-adhd-and-relation-with-social-and-academic-functioning-among-children-and-adolescents-with-hiv-aids-in-uganda
#14
Richard Stephen Mpango, Eugene Kinyanda, Godfrey Zari Rukundo, Jonathan Levin, Kenneth D Gadow, Vikram Patel
BACKGROUND: Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its associated correlates and relations with clinical and behavioural problems among children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS (CA-HIV) attending five HIV clinics in central and South Western Uganda. METHODS: This study used a quantitative design that involved a random sample of 1339 children and adolescents with HIV and their caregivers. The Participants completed an extensive battery of measures including a standardized DSM-5 referenced rating scale, the parent version (5-18 years) of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5)...
September 22, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935198/obesity-in-america
#15
Raul J Rosenthal, John Morton, Stacy Brethauer, Samer Mattar, Eric De Maria, Jennifer K Benz, Jennifer Titus, David Sterrett
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity in America continues to grow significantly. Awareness and understanding of the disease of obesity and treatment options for it appear to be lacking among the general US population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify misperceptions in diagnosis and treatment of obesity, struggles Americans face in obtaining treatment, consequences of obesity, and perceived barriers to weight loss. SETTING: University hospital, United States...
October 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933627/primary-care-for-mentally-ill-adults-in-acute-residential-treatment-facilities
#16
Linda Chafetz, Gerri Collins-Bride
Psychiatric bed capacity has decreased nationally with an impact on the number and the types of patients admitted to acute in-patient units. Acute residential programs provide alternatives to hospitals for patients with problems that do not meet criteria for admission. However, these settings may not have resources to respond to the medical co-morbidities associated with severe mental illness. To understand the medical needs of patients in these settings, this research examined data from a nurse-managed primary care outreach service...
October 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#17
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865254/-the-land-of-the-sick-and-the-land-of-the-healthy-disability-bureaucracy-and-stigma-among-people-living-with-poverty-and-chronic-illness-in-the-united-states
#18
Henry J Whittle, Kartika Palar, Nikhil A Ranadive, Janet M Turan, Margot Kushel, Sheri D Weiser
Disability benefits have become an increasingly prominent source of cash assistance for impoverished American citizens over the past two decades. This development coincided with cuts and market-oriented reforms to state and federal welfare programs, characteristic of the wider political-economic trends collectively referred to as neoliberalism. Recent research has argued that contemporary discourses on 'disability fraudsters' and 'malingerers' associated with this shift represent the latest manifestation of age-old stigmatization of the 'undeserving poor'...
August 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861513/prevalence-and-correlates-of-cannabis-use-in-outpatients-with-serious-mental-illness-receiving-treatment-for-alcohol-use-disorders
#19
Jordan Skalisky, Emily Leickly, Oladunni Oluwoye, Sterling M McPherson, Debra Srebnik, John M Roll, Richard K Ries, Michael G McDonell
Introduction: People with serious mental illness (SMI) use cannabis more than any other illicit drug. Cannabis use is associated with increased psychotic symptoms and is highly comorbid with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Despite the national trend toward decriminalization, little is known about the prevalence, correlates, and impact of cannabis use on those with SMI receiving treatment for substance use disorders, a group at high risk for the negative effects of cannabis use. Methods: In this secondary data analysis, cannabis use prevalence, correlates, and impact on treatment outcomes were examined in 121 adults with cooccurring SMI and AUDs receiving outpatient addiction treatment in a randomized trial of contingency management (CM) for alcohol...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852886/relationships-between-illness-perception-and-post-traumatic-growth-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#20
Joseph T F Lau, Xiaobing Wu, Anise M S Wu, Zixin Wang, Phoenix K H Mo
Newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men (NHMSM) are at high risk of mental health problems but may also develop post-traumatic growth (PTG). According to the Common Sense Model, illness perception (including both cognitive representation and emotional representation) affects coping and health-related outcomes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the associations between illness perception and PTG among 225 NHMSM in Chengdu, China. Linear regression analyses indicated that the constructs of emotional representation subscale (β = -0...
August 29, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
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