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Parenteral nutrition in critical illness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294970/krill-oil-in-water-emulsion-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-proinflammatory-activation-of-macrophages-in-vitro
#1
Gabriel A Bonaterra, David Driscoll, Hans Schwarzbach, Ralf Kinscherf
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition is often a mandatory therapeutic strategy for cases of septicemia. Likewise, therapeutic application of anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory therapy, and endotoxin lowering, by removal or inactivation, might be beneficial to ameliorate the systemic inflammatory response during the acute phases of critical illness. Concerning anti-inflammatory properties in this setting, omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin have been frequently described. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and LPS-inactivating properties of krill oil (KO)-in-water emulsion in human macrophages in vitro...
March 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287411/parenteral-nutrition-amino-acids
#2
REVIEW
Leonard John Hoffer
There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness...
March 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284302/critical-care-nutrition-where-s-the-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Jayshil J Patel, Ryan T Hurt, Stephen A McClave, Robert G Martindale
The surgical critically ill patient is subject to a variable and complex metabolic response, which has detrimental effects on immunity, wound healing, and preservation of lean body muscle. The concept of nutrition support has evolved into nutrition therapy, whereby the primary objectives are to prevent oxidative cell injury, modulate the immune response, and attenuate the metabolic response. This review outlines the metabolic response to critical illness, describes nutritional risk; reviews the evidence for the role, dose, and timing of enteral and parenteral nutrition, and reviews the evidence for immunonutrition in the surgical intensive care unit...
April 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224103/management-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-patients
#4
REVIEW
Paolo Cotogni
Artificial nutrition (AN) is necessary to meet the nutritional requirements of critically ill patients at nutrition risk because undernutrition determines a poorer prognosis in these patients. There is debate over which route of delivery of AN provides better outcomes and lesser complications. This review describes the management of parenteral nutrition (PN) in critically ill patients. The first aim is to discuss what should be done in order that the PN is safe. The second aim is to dispel "myths" about PN-related complications and show how prevention and monitoring are able to reach the goal of "near zero" PN complications...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179737/updates-in-nutrition-support-for-critically-ill-adult-patients
#5
Diana Wells Mulherin, Sarah V Cogle
Specialized nutrition support is often employed in critically ill patients who are unable to maintain volitional intake. The Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) recently updated guidelines for the provision of nutrition support in critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to summarize key changes from the previous guidelines as they relate to recently published literature, which will aid the hospital pharmacist in optimizing nutrition support therapies in the critical care setting...
January 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169021/supplemental-parenteral-nutrition-in-intensive-care-patients-a-cost-saving-strategy
#6
Lorenzo Pradelli, Séverine Graf, Claude Pichard, Mette M Berger
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Swiss supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) study demonstrated that optimised energy provision combining enteral nutrition (EN) and SPN reduces nosocomial infections in critically ill adults who fail to achieve targeted energy delivery with EN alone. To assess the economic impact of this strategy, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis using data from the SPN study. METHODS: Multivariable regression analyses were performed to characterise the relationships between SPN, cumulative energy deficit, nosocomial infection, and resource consumption...
January 25, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168570/early-enteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-patients-esicm-clinical-practice-guidelines
#7
REVIEW
Annika Reintam Blaser, Joel Starkopf, Waleed Alhazzani, Mette M Berger, Michael P Casaer, Adam M Deane, Sonja Fruhwald, Michael Hiesmayr, Carole Ichai, Stephan M Jakob, Cecilia I Loudet, Manu L N G Malbrain, Juan C Montejo González, Catherine Paugam-Burtz, Martijn Poeze, Jean-Charles Preiser, Pierre Singer, Arthur R H van Zanten, Jan De Waele, Julia Wendon, Jan Wernerman, Tony Whitehouse, Alexander Wilmer, Heleen M Oudemans-van Straaten
PURPOSE: To provide evidence-based guidelines for early enteral nutrition (EEN) during critical illness. METHODS: We aimed to compare EEN vs. early parenteral nutrition (PN) and vs. delayed EN. We defined "early" EN as EN started within 48 h independent of type or amount. We listed, a priori, conditions in which EN is often delayed, and performed systematic reviews in 24 such subtopics. If sufficient evidence was available, we performed meta-analyses; if not, we qualitatively summarized the evidence and based our recommendations on expert opinion...
March 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151828/nutrition-in-the-critically-ill-patient
#8
Kristine W A C Koekkoek, Arthur R H van Zanten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent relevant studies regarding nutrition during critical illness and provide recommendations for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently acquired knowledge regarding nutritional status and risk assessment, body composition, gastric residual volume, prokinetics, tube positioning, enteral vs parenteral nutrition, nutritional dose and timing of initiation, pharmaconutrition, dysbiosis and probiotics are discussed. SUMMARY: Body composition especially lean body mass is associated with clinical outcomes...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147359/early-or-late-parenteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-children-practical-implications-of-the-pepanic-trial
#9
Olivier Goulet, Frank Jochum, Berthold Koletzko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129265/parenteral-and-enteral-nutrition-in-surgical-critical-care-plasma-metabolomics-demonstrates-divergent-effects-on-nitrogen-fatty-acid-ribonucleotide-and-oxidative-metabolism
#10
Brodie A Parent, Max Seaton, Danijel Djukovic, Haiwei Gu, Brittany Wheelock, Sandi L Navarro, Daniel Raftery, Grant E O'Keefe
BACKGROUND: Artificial nutrition support is central to the care of critically ill patients and is primarily provided enterally (EN). There are circumstances when parenteral nutrition (PN) is considered necessary. We are uncertain how each of these approaches confer clinical benefits beyond simply providing calories. We sought to better understand how each of these techniques influence metabolism in critically ill patients using a broad-based metabolomics approach. Metabolic responses to EN and PN may differ in ways that could help us understand how to optimize use of these therapies...
April 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102514/carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-risk-factors-and-predictors-of-mortality
#11
M Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, F Fligou, C Bartzavali, A Zotou, A Spyropoulou, K Koutsileou, S Vamvakopoulou, N Sioulas, V Karamouzos, E D Anastassiou, I Spiliopoulou, M Christofidou, M Marangos
A significant increase in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) bacteraemias has been observed worldwide. The objective of the present work was to study the risk factors and predictors of mortality of CP-Kp bacteraemias among critically ill patients. During a 4-year period (2012-3015), a matched 1:2 case-control study was conducted. Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified by Vitek 2 technology. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the agar disc diffusion method and Etest. The presence of the bla KPC, bla VIM and bla NDM genes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079708/parenteral-nutrition-in-the-critically-ill
#12
Jan Gunst, Greet Van den Berghe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Feeding guidelines have recommended early, full nutritional support in critically ill patients to prevent hypercatabolism and muscle weakness. Early enteral nutrition was suggested to be superior to early parenteral nutrition. When enteral nutrition fails to meet nutritional target, it was recommended to administer supplemental parenteral nutrition, albeit with a varying starting point. Sufficient amounts of amino acids were recommended, with addition of glutamine in subgroups...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049258/the-impact-of-implementation-of-an-enteral-feeding-protocol-on-the-improvement-of-enteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-adults
#13
Seoung-Hyun Kim, Chi-Min Park, Jeong-Meen Seo, Mingew Choi, Dae-Sang Lee, Dong Kyung Chang, Miyong Rha, Soyoung Yu, Seonhye Lee, Eunmee Kim, Young Yun Cho
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The optimal delivery of enteral nutrition (EN) may improve clinical outcomes in critically ill patients; thus, optimal EN protocols should be developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing an EN protocol on the improvement of EN practices and on the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study with prospectively collected data. Multidisciplinary working group developed an evidence-based EN protocol based on an extensive review of literature and existing guidelines...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004327/nutritional-and-bioenergetic-considerations-in-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-neurological-injury
#14
Peter A Abdelmalik, Susan Dempsey, Wendy Ziai
The brain, due to intensive cellular processes and maintenance of electrochemical gradients, is heavily dependent on a constant supply of energy. Brain injury, and critical illness in general, induces a state of increased metabolism and catabolism, which has been proven to lead to poor outcomes. Of all the biochemical interventions undertaken in the ICU, providing nutritional support is perhaps one of the most undervalued, but potentially among the safest, and most effective interventions. Adequate provisions of calories and protein have been shown to improve patient outcomes, and guidelines for the nutritional support of the critically ill patient are reviewed...
December 21, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966301/colistin-efficacy-in-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extremelydrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-infections
#15
Çiğdem Banu Çetin, Deniz Özer Türk, Şebnem Şenol, Gönül Dinç Horasan, Özlem Tünger
BACKGROUND/AIM: Colistin is used as a salvage therapy for multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections. Our aim was to evaluate colistin efficiency and toxicity in the treatment of these resistant gram-negative bacterial infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study carried out in a tertiary care hospital during 2011-2013. Study data were collected from the medical records and consultations of the infectious diseases clinic...
November 17, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934650/parenteral-or-enteral-arginine-supplementation-safety-and-efficacy
#16
REVIEW
Martin D Rosenthal, Phillip W Carrott, Jayshil Patel, Laszlo Kiraly, Robert G Martindale
Arginine supplementation has the potential to improve the health of patients. Its use in hospitalized patients has been a controversial topic in the nutrition literature, especially concerning supplementation of septic patients. In this article, we review the relevant literature both for and against the use of arginine in critically ill, surgical, and hospitalized patients. The effect of critical illness on arginine metabolism is reviewed, as is its use in septic and critically ill patients. Although mounting evidence supports immunonutrition, there are only a few studies that suggest that this is safe in patients with severe sepsis...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897405/premorbid-obesity-but-not-nutrition-prevents-critical-illness-induced-muscle-wasting-and-weakness
#17
Chloë Goossens, Mirna Bastos Marques, Sarah Derde, Sarah Vander Perre, Thomas Dufour, Steven E Thiessen, Fabian Güiza, Thomas Janssens, Greet Hermans, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Katrien De Bock, Greet Van den Berghe, Lies Langouche
BACKGROUND: The 'obesity paradox' of critical illness refers to better survival with a higher body mass index. We hypothesized that fat mobilized from excess adipose tissue during critical illness provides energy more efficiently than exogenous macronutrients and could prevent lean tissue wasting. METHODS: In lean and premorbidly obese mice, the effect of 5 days of sepsis-induced critical illness on body weight and composition, muscle wasting, and weakness was assessed, each with fasting and parenteral feeding...
February 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834985/clinical-outcome-of-critically-ill-patients-with-thrombocytopenia-and-hypophosphatemia-in-the-early-stage-of-sepsis
#18
Evgeni Brotfain, Andrei Schwartz, Avi Boniel, Leonid Koyfman, Matthew Boyko, Ruslan Kutz, Moti Klein
BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia and thrombocytopenia may both be independent risk factors for the development of multiple organ failure and correlate well with the severity of sepsis. In the present study we wanted to analyze the potential clinical role and prognostic significance of both early hypophosphatemia and thrombocytopenia on clinical outcomes of critically ill ICU patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical data, including the outcome of critically ill ICU patients with severe sepsis who presented during a 5 year period with early hypophosphatemia and thrombocytopenia...
2016: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833924/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-critically-ill-patients-with-traumatic-injuries
#19
Roland N Dickerson, Jonathan R Van Cleve, Joseph M Swanson, George O Maish, Gayle Minard, Martin A Croce, Rex O Brown
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D depletion has been associated with increased rate of infections, lengthened hospital stay, and worsened mortality for critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and variables associated with vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients with severe traumatic injuries. METHODS: Critically ill adult patients admitted to the trauma intensive care unit (ICU) between June 2013 and June 2014, referred to the nutrition support service for enteral or parenteral nutrition, and had a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) concentration determination were retrospectively evaluated...
2016: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805537/-when-enteral-nutrition-is-not-possible-in-intensive-care-patients-whether-to-wait-or-use-parenteral-nutrition
#20
Q L M Habes, P Pickkers
- Overfeeding of critically ill patients is associated with a higher incidence of infections and an increased length of ventilation. However, trophic nutrition or permissive underfeeding appears to have no negative effect on the patient and may even provide a survival benefit.- Initiation of enteral nutrition within 24-48 hours after Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission may reduce the number of complications and increase the chance of survival.- Total parenteral nutrition is associated with a higher risk of infections than enteral nutrition...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
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