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"North Carolina" disparities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892141/novel-insights-on-population-and-range-edge-dynamics-using-an-unparalleled-spatiotemporal-record-of-species-invasion
#1
Kristine Grayson, Derek M Johnson
Quantifying the complex spatial dynamics taking place at range edges is critical for understanding future distributions of species, yet very few systems have sufficient data or the spatial resolution to empirically test these dynamics. This paper reviews how data from a large-scale pest management program have provided important contributions to the fields of population dynamics and invasion biology. The invasion of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is well-documented from its introduction near Boston, Massachusetts USA in 1869 to its current extent of over 900,000 km(2) in Eastern North America...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812034/the-influence-of-medical-insurance-on-patient-access-to-orthopaedic-surgery-sports-medicine-appointments-under-the-affordable-care-act
#2
Daniel H Wiznia, Emmanuel Nwachuku, Alexander Roth, Chang-Yeon Kim, Ameya Save, Nidharshan S Anandasivam, Michael Medvecky, Richard Pelker
BACKGROUND: The goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was to expand patient access to health care. Since the rollout of the PPACA, Medicaid patients have demonstrated difficulty obtaining appointments in some specialty care settings. PURPOSE: To assess the effect of insurance type (Medicaid and private) on patient access to orthopaedic surgery sports medicine specialists for a semiurgent evaluation of a likely operative bucket-handle meniscus tear...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811737/learning-and-developing-individual-exercise-skills-l-a-d-i-e-s-for-a-better-life-a-church-based-physical-activity-intervention-baseline-participant-characteristics
#3
Melicia C Whitt-Glover, Moses V Goldmon, Ziya Gizlice, Daniel P Heil, Njeri Karanja
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity (PA) is beneficial for health, yet most African American women do not achieve recommended levels. Successful, sustainable strategies could help to address disparities in health outcomes associated with low levels of PA. The Learning and Developing Individual Exercise Skills (L.A.D.I.E.S.) for a Better Life study compared a faith-based and a secular intervention for increasing PA with a self-guided control group. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This cluster randomized, controlled trial was conducted from 2010 - 2011 in African American churches (n=31) in suburban North Carolina...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728142/strategies-to-improve-private-well-water-quality-a-north-carolina-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson, Kelsey J Pieper
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the 44.5 million U.S. residents drawing their drinking water from private wells face higher risks of waterborne contaminant exposure than those served by regulated community water supplies. Among U.S. states, North Carolina (N.C.) has the second-largest population relying on private wells, making it a useful microcosm to study challenges to maintaining private-well water quality. OBJECTIVES: This paper summarizes recommendations from a two-day summit to identify options to improve drinking-water quality for N...
July 7, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641046/exploring-the-health-needs-of-aging-lgbt-adults-in-the-cape-fear-region-of-north-carolina
#5
Noell L Rowan, Kelsey Beyer
This study explored issues of culturally sensitive healthcare practice and needs among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender aging adults in coastal North Carolina. Survey data results indicated the largest problem was a history of verbally harassment and need for culturally sensitive healthcare. In conclusion, culturally sensitive interventions are needed to address the health disparities and unique needs of LGBT aging adults. Cultural sensitivity training for service providers is suggested as a vital step in addressing health disparities of aging LGBT adults...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604921/association-of-educational-attainment-with-lifetime-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#6
Yasuhiko Kubota, Gerardo Heiss, Richard F MacLehose, Nicholas S Roetker, Aaron R Folsom
Importance: Estimates of lifetime risk may help raise awareness of the extent to which educational inequalities are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To estimate lifetime risks of CVD according to categories of educational attainment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were followed from 1987 through December 31, 2013. All CVD events (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke) were confirmed by physician review and International Classification of Diseases codes...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431633/greater-healthcare-utilization-and-costs-among-black-persons-compared-to-white-persons-with-aphasia-in-the-north-carolina-stroke-belt
#7
Charles Ellis, Rose Y Hardy, Richard C Lindrooth
PURPOSE: To examine racial differences in healthcare utilization and costs for persons with aphasia (PWA) being treated in acute care hospitals in North Carolina (NC). METHODS: NC Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database (HCUP-SID) data from 2011-2012 were analyzed to examine healthcare utilization and costs of care for stroke patients with aphasia. Analyses emphasized length of stay, charges and cost of general hospital services. Generalized linear models (GLM) were constructed to determine the impact of demographic characteristics, stroke/illness severity, and observed hospital characteristics on utilization and costs...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390403/farm-fresh-foods-for-healthy-kids-f3hk-an-innovative-community-supported-agriculture-intervention-to-prevent-childhood-obesity-in-low-income-families-and-strengthen-local-agricultural-economies
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rebecca A Seguin, Emily H Morgan, Karla L Hanson, Alice S Ammerman, Stephanie B Jilcott Pitts, Jane Kolodinsky, Marilyn Sitaker, Florence A Becot, Leah M Connor, Jennifer A Garner, Jared T McGuirt
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity persists in the United States and is associated with serious health problems. Higher rates of obesity among children from disadvantaged households may be, in part, attributable to disparities in access to healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Community supported agriculture can improve access to and consumption of fresh produce, but the upfront payment structure, logistical barriers, and unfamiliarity with produce items may inhibit participation by low-income families...
April 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282337/practice-level-costs-of-office-based-hypertension-performance-improvement-the-heart-healthy-lenoir-study
#9
(no author information available yet)
Primary care practice leaders who consider engaging in quality improvement (QI) need to understand the practice level costs incurred when asking staff to take on new tasks. The Heart Healthy Lenoir study is a prospective cohort trial in which QI methods were used to enhance hypertension (HTN) care and reduce racial disparities in blood pressure control in small rural primary care practices in North Carolina. As part of this effort, we performed an activity-based costing analysis to describe the costs incurred to develop, implement, and maintain key tasks...
March 2017: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231042/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-four-simulated-colorectal-cancer-screening-interventions-north-carolina
#10
Kristen Hassmiller Lich, David A Cornejo, Maria E Mayorga, Michael Pignone, Florence K L Tangka, Lisa C Richardson, Tzy-Mey Kuo, Anne-Marie Meyer, Ingrid J Hall, Judith Lee Smith, Todd A Durham, Steven A Chall, Trisha M Crutchfield, Stephanie B Wheeler
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are suboptimal, particularly among the uninsured and the under-insured and among rural and African American populations. Little guidance is available for state-level decision makers to use to prioritize investment in evidence-based interventions to improve their population's health. The objective of this study was to demonstrate use of a simulation model that incorporates synthetic census data and claims-based statistical models to project screening behavior in North Carolina...
February 23, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187864/relation-of-household-income-to-incidence-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-wake-county-north-carolina
#11
Louisa A Mounsey, Feng-Chang Lin, Irion Pursell, Golsa Joodi, Mary Elizabeth Lewis, Anthony Nwosu, Chani Hodonsky, Ross J Simpson, J Paul Mounsey
The incidence of out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death (OHSUD) in a racially and socioeconomically diverse population has been inadequately studied. We collated all OHSUDs over a 24-month period among 18- to 64-year olds in Wake County, North Carolina, to investigate geographic and socioeconomic disparity in incidence of OHSUD. An electronic query of Wake County Emergency Medical Services (EMS) identified all EMS attended out-of-hospital deaths. After excluding trauma, expected deaths, and deaths occurring in non-free-living subjects, medical records and medical examiner's reports were reviewed by a committee of cardiologists to make the determination of OHSUD...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143580/prevalence-of-preterm-low-birthweight-and-small-for-gestational-age-delivery-after-breast-cancer-diagnosis-a-population-based-study
#12
Kristin Zeneé Black, Hazel B Nichols, Eugenia Eng, Diane Louise Rowley
BACKGROUND: Black-white disparities in breast cancer incidence rates and birth outcomes raise concerns about potential disparities in the reproductive health of premenopausal breast cancer survivors. We examined the prevalence of preterm birth (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA) by breast cancer history and effect modification by race. METHODS: We analyzed linked North Carolina birth records and Central Cancer Registry files from 1990 to 2009 (n = 2,325,229)...
January 31, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868235/trait-space-of-rare-plants-in-a-fire-dependent-ecosystem
#13
Gregory M Ames, Wade A Wall, Matthew G Hohmann, Justin P Wright
The causes of species rarity are of critical concern because of the high extinction risk associated with rarity. Studies examining individual rare species have limited generality, whereas trait-based approaches offer a means to identify functional causes of rarity that can be applied to communities with disparate species pools. Differences in functional traits between rare and common species may be indicative of the functional causes of species rarity and may therefore be useful in crafting species conservation strategies...
August 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864484/down-with-teen-pregnancy-up-with-mobility-teen-pregnancy-prevention-efforts-in-gaston-county-north-carolina
#14
Christopher C Dobbins, Brittain N Kenney, Carrie E Meier, Velma V Taormina
Unintended pregnancies are typically associated with poor health outcomes for mothers and babies, and they also limit the social mobility of women and their families. Gaston County has achieved great success in reducing both teen pregnancies and unintended pregnancies among low-income women through the Gaston Youth Connected project and the local health department's push to increase accessibility to long-acting reversible contraception. Reductions in the racial disparities in teen pregnancy rates, higher graduation rates for females, and fewer pregnancies among low-income women all indicate a potential for better reproductive health to increase the social mobility of Gaston County women...
November 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864480/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-infant-mortality-in-north-carolina-2008-2009
#15
Melissa A Holland, Mary L Young, Michael R Jiroutek
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate whether racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality still exist in North Carolina and to examine predictors of infant mortality using the North Carolina Vital Statistics Dataverse. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study that included all 257,543 births in North Carolina in 2008-2009. Infant mortality was assessed based on birth records included in the database. Infant births and deaths were summarized by demographic and maternal/infant characteristics...
November 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854523/exposure-to-contaminated-drinking-water-and-health-disparities-in-north-carolina
#16
Frank Stillo, Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
OBJECTIVES: To examine drinking water quality in majority Black periurban neighborhoods in Wake County, North Carolina, that are excluded from nearby municipal water service and to estimate the health benefits of extending water service. METHODS: We tested 3 samples collected July through December 2014 in 57 private wells for microbial contaminants. We compared contaminant prevalences to those in adjacent community water systems (35 280 samples from routine monitoring)...
January 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706092/black-white-disparities-in-criminal-justice-referrals-to-drug-treatment-addressing-treatment-need-or-expanding-the-diagnostic-net
#17
Karen McElrath, Angela Taylor, Kimberly K Tran
Slightly more than half of admissions to U.S. publicly-funded treatment for marijuana use are referred by the criminal justice system; this pattern has remained for at least 20 years. Nationally, Blacks comprise nearly a third of treatment admissions for marijuana use. This article explores the interplay between race and criminal justice referrals to treatment for marijuana use. Using data from the (U.S.) 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set, we examine the relationship between race and diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (dependence versus abuse) among referrals to community-based treatment in North Carolina...
October 2, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668489/visual-acuity-and-self-reported-visual-function-among-migrant-farmworkers
#18
Sara A Quandt, Mark R Schulz, Haiying Chen, Thomas A Arcury
PURPOSE: Visual impairment presents significant risks for occupational injuries among farmworkers, a vulnerable population with limited access to vision care. Although previous research has noted farmworkers' low lifetime experience with vision screening and high rates of complaints of eye ailments and poor vision, there have been few screening data collected to evaluate these self-reports. The objectives of this analysis are to (1) describe farmworker visual health using standardized visual acuity screening data and self-reported visual function, and (2) to compare the screening and self-report data...
October 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622730/quality-of-care-received-and-patient-reported-regret-in-prostate-cancer-analysis-of-a-population-based-prospective-cohort
#19
Jordan A Holmes, Jeannette T Bensen, James L Mohler, Lixin Song, Merle H Mishel, Ronald C Chen
BACKGROUND: Meeting quality of care standards in oncology is recognized as important by physicians, professional organizations, and payers. Data from a population-based cohort of patients with prostate cancer were used to examine whether receipt of care was consistent with published consensus metrics and whether receiving high-quality care was associated with less patient-reported treatment decisional regret. METHODS: Patients with incident prostate cancer were enrolled in collaboration with the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry, with an oversampling of minority patients...
January 1, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601412/socioeconomic-and-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-prosocial-health-attitudes-the-case-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccination-for-adolescent-males
#20
Andrea N Polonijo, Richard M Carpiano, Paul L Reiter, Noel T Brewer
Research on prosocial attitudes, social networks, social capital, and social stratification suggest that lower-socioeconomic status (SES), Hispanic, and nonwhite individuals will be more likely than their higher-SES and non-Hispanic white counterparts to engage in health behaviors that serve a social good. Analyzing data from the University of North Carolina Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunization in Sons Study, we test whether SES and race-ethnicity are associated with willingness to vaccinate via prosocial attitudes toward HPV vaccination among adolescent males (n = 401) and parents (n = 518)...
September 2016: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
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