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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333316/convergent-balancing-selection-on-the-mu-opioid-receptor-in-primates
#1
Carolyn G Sweeney, Juliette M Rando, Helen N Panas, Gregory M Miller, Donna M Platt, Eric J Vallender
The mu opioid receptor is involved in many natural processes including stress response, pleasure, and pain. Mutations in the gene also have been associated with opiate and alcohol addictions as well as with responsivity to medication targeting these disorders. Two common and mutually exclusive polymorphisms have been identified in humans, A118G (N40D), found commonly in non-African populations, and C17T (V6A), found almost exclusively in African populations. While A118G has been studied extensively for associations and in functional assays, C17T is much less well understood...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325149/low-dose-naltrexone-in-the-treatment-of-fibromyalgia
#2
Samy K Metyas, Karen Yeter, John Solyman, Daniel Arkfeld
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment. A significant number of fibromyalgia patients do not respond adequately to the current drugs (pregabalin, milnacipran, duloxetine) approved for fibromyalgia treatment by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Thus, there is still a need for adjunctive therapies. Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used to treat alcohol and opioid dependence. It is hypothesized that low dose naltrexone causes transient blockade of opioid receptors centrally resulting in a rebound of endorphin function which may attenuate pain in fibromyalgia...
March 21, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284896/progesterone-increased-%C3%AE-endorphin-innervation-of-the-locus-coeruleus-but-ovarian-steroids-had-no-effect-on-noradrenergic-neurodegeneration
#3
Fernanda B Lima, Cristiane M Leite, Cynthia L Bethea, Janete A Anselmo-Franci
With the decline of ovarian steroids levels at menopause, many women experience an increase in anxiety and stress sensitivity. The locus coeruleus (LC), a central source of noradrenaline (NE), is activated by stress and is inhibited by β-endorphin. Moreover, increased NE has been implicated in pathological anxiety syndromes. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in menopause appears to decrease anxiety and vulnerability to stress. Therefore, we questioned the effect of HRT on the inhibitory β-endorphin innervation of the LC...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283814/effect-of-photobiomodulation-therapy-808%C3%A2-nm-in-the-control-of-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#4
Ana Laura Martins de Andrade, Paulo Sérgio Bossini, Azair Liane Matos do Canto De Souza, Ariane Dutra Sanchez, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto
Neuropathic pain can be defined as the pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction of the central or peripheral nervous system. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) stands out among the physical therapy resources used for analgesia. However, application parameters, especially the energy density, remain controversial in the literature. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the PBM effect, in different energy densities to control neuropathic pain in mice. Fifty (50) mice were induced to neuropathy by chronic constriction surgery of the sciatic nerve (CCI), treated with PBM (808 nm), and divided into five groups: GP (PBM simulation), GS (sham), GL10, GL20, GL40 (energy density of 10, 20, and 40 J/cm(2), respectively)...
March 10, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274721/role-of-%C3%AE-endorphin-in-pain-relief-following-high-rate-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-migraine
#5
Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita, Gyanesh Tripathi, Sanjeev Kumar Bhoi
BACKGROUND: In migraine, high rate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been reported to be effective, and β endorphin (BE) may have a role in headache relief. OBJECTIVE: To report the role of BE and its μ (MOR) and δ opioid receptors (DOR) in headache relief following high rate rTMS in migraine. METHODS: Ninety-three migraine patients having more than 4 attacks per month were included. 10 Hz rTMS (600 pulses in 10 trains) was delivered to left motor cortex; 3 sessions to 24 (group 1), 1 session to 22 (group II) and sham stimulation to 47 patients (group III)...
February 24, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261089/sex-and-age-differences-in-motion-sickness-in-rats-the-correlation-with-blood-hormone-responses-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-vestibular-and-autonomic-nuclei
#6
Wei Zhou, Junqin Wang, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Jiluo Liu, Yiling Cai
Many studies have demonstrated sex and age differences in motion sickness, but the underlying physiological basis is still in controversy. In the present study, we tried to investigate the potential correlates of endocrine and/or neuronal activity with sex and age differences in rats with motion sickness. LiCl-induced nausea symptom was evaluated by conditioned gaping. Motion sickness was assessed by measurement of autonomic responses (i.e., conditioned gaping and defecation responses), motor impairments (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246449/influence-of-training-and-competitive-sessions-on-peripheral-%C3%AE-endorphin-levels-in-training-show-jumping-horses
#7
Cristina Cravana, P Medica, G Ragonese, E Fazio
AIM: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing) and Group B (not competing). To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and post-competition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise...
January 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235700/confirmation-that-a-deletion-in-the-pomc-gene-is-associated-with-body-weight-of-labrador-retriever-dogs
#8
M Mankowska, P Krzeminska, M Graczyk, M Switonski
A 14-bp deletion present in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene of Labrador and Flat Coat Retrievers (FCR), but absent in POMC of other breeds, disrupts the β-MSH and β-endorphin coding sequences. This deletion was recently reported as strongly associated with increased body weight and obesity. We searched for this mutation in a cohort of 272 dogs, representing four breeds with a known predisposition to obesity (Labrador and Golden Retrievers, Beagle, and Cocker Spaniel) and, as expected, we found it only in Labradors...
February 16, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235500/action-of-%C3%AE-endorphin-and-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-the-possible-effects-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-on-%C3%AE-endorphin
#9
REVIEW
Yuan-Hang Luan, Di Wang, Qi Yu, Xiao-Qing Chai
This study aimed to review research on the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on β-endorphin. NSAIDs are commonly used as anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. They are well known for inducing peripheral analgesia by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX). However, an increasing number of studies have shown that NSAIDs have an analgesic effect not only in the periphery but also at the center. It means that a central analgesic mechanism of the action of NSAIDs exists besides the peripheral mechanism, and the central mechanism likely involves β-endorphin...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218955/antihyperglycemiac-action-of-diosmin-a-citrus-flavonoid-is-induced-through-endogenous-%C3%AE-endorphin-in-type-i-like-diabetic-rats
#10
Chia-Chen Hsu, Mang Hung Lin, Juei Tang Cheng, Ming Chang Wu
Diosmin is one of the flavonoids contained in citrus and has been demonstrated to improve glucose metabolism in diabetic disorders. However, the mechanism(s) of diosmin in glucose regulation remain obscure. Therefore, we investigated the potential mechanism(s) for the antihyperglycemic action of diosmin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). Diosmin lowered hyperglycemia in a dose-dependent manner in STZ-diabetic rats. This action was inhibited by naloxone at a dose sufficient to block opioid receptors...
February 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214095/whether-preventive-low-dose-magnesium-sulphate-infusion-has-an-influence-on-postoperative-pain-perception-and-the-level-of-serum-beta-endorphin-throughout-the-total-abdominal-hysterectomy
#11
K Haryalchi, M Abedinzade, K Khanaki, M Mansour Ghanaie, F Mohammad Zadeh
OBJECTIVE: Due to the known role of preventive low dose magnesium sulphate on postoperative pain management, in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we tried to investigate the possible relationship between low dose intra-operative magnesium sulphate infusion, postoperative analgesia and the level of serum beta-endorphin during total abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. METHODS: Forty women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated into 2 groups (20 in each arm)...
February 14, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202578/p38%C3%AE-mapk-signaling-mediates-exenatide-stimulated-microglial-%C3%AE-endorphin-expression
#12
Hai-Yun Wu, Xiao-Fang Mao, Hui Fan, Yong-Xiang Wang
Upon recent discovery, it has been established that activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) exhibits neuroprotection and antinociception through microglial β-endorphin expression. This study aims to explore its underlying signaling mechanisms. GLP-1Rs and β-endorphin were co-expressed in primary cultures of microglia. Treatment with the GLP-1R agonist exenatide concentration-dependently stimulated microglial expression of the β-endorphin precursor gene POMC and peptide, with EC50 values of 4...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191278/impact-of-yoga-and-meditation-on-cellular-aging-in-apparently-healthy-individuals-a-prospective-open-label-single-arm-exploratory-study
#13
Madhuri Tolahunase, Rajesh Sagar, Rima Dada
This study was designed to explore the impact of Yoga and Meditation based lifestyle intervention (YMLI) on cellular aging in apparently healthy individuals. During this 12-week prospective, open-label, single arm exploratory study, 96 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled to receive YMLI. The primary endpoints were assessment of the change in levels of cardinal biomarkers of cellular aging in blood from baseline to week 12, which included DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH2dG), oxidative stress markers reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and telomere attrition markers telomere length and telomerase activity...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183072/alternative-therapies-for-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder-a-brief-update
#14
REVIEW
Julio Torales, Iván Barrios, Jorge Villalba
Context • Excoriation (skin picking) disorder is characterized by the need or urge to pick, scratch, pinch, touch, rub, scrub, squeeze, bite, or dig the skin, and it can be a perplexing condition for the inexperienced physician. Treatments include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and alternative therapies. Alternative therapies for excoriation disorder and other body-focused repetitive behaviors include yoga, aerobic exercise, acupuncture, biofeedback, hypnosis, and inositol and N-acetylcysteine, among others...
January 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173961/a-screen-for-modulators-reveals-that-orexin-a-rapidly-stimulates-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-expression-and-release-in-hypothalamic-cell-culture
#15
Antonieta Cote-Vélez, Anabel Martínez Báez, Leticia Lezama, Rosa María Uribe, Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Jean-Louis Charli
In the paraventricular nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus, hypophysiotropic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neurons integrate metabolic information and control the activity of the thyroid axis. Additional populations of TRH neurons reside in various hypothalamic areas, with poorly defined connections and functions, albeit there is evidence that some may be related to energy balance. To establish extracellular modulators of TRH hypothalamic neurons activity, we performed a screen of neurotransmitters effects in hypothalamic cultures...
February 2, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154332/a-new-pain-regulatory-system-via-the-brain-long-chain-fatty-acid-receptor-gpr40-ffa1-signal
#16
Kazuo Nakamoto
 An increasingly large number of pharmacological and physiological works on fatty acids have shown that the functional properties of fatty acids are regulated by the amount of individual fatty acid intake and the distribution of fatty acids among organs. Recently, it has been determined that G-protein-coupled receptor 40/free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFA1) is activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). GPR40/FFA1 is mainly expressed in the β cell of the pancreas, spinal cord and brain...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152530/the-preventive-effect-of-coffee-compounds-on-dermatitis-and-epidermal-pigmentation-after-ultraviolet-irradiation-in-mice
#17
Yurika Yamate, Keiichi Hiramoto, Eisuke F Sato
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is well known to promote inflammation and pigmentation of skin. UVB mainly affects dermatitis and pigmentation. Coffee contains a number of polyphenols, such as caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) but their in vivo bioactivity for photobiology remains unclear. METHODS: C57BL/6j male mice were irradiated with UVB (1.0 kJ/m2/day) for 3 days. Five days after the final session of UVB irradiation, the dorsal skin, ear epidermis, and blood samples were analyzed to investigate the inflammatory factors, melanogenesis factors and related hormones...
2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144938/immunocytochemical-identification-and-ontogeny-of-adenohypophyseal-cells-in-a-cave-fish-phreatichthys-andruzzii-cypriniformes-cyprinidae
#18
G Grandi, M Pezzi, M G Marchetti, M Chicca
The morphogenesis of the pituitary gland and the chronological appearance of adenohypophyseal cells were investigated for the first time in the Somalian cave fish Phreatichthys andruzzii by immunocytochemistry. The adult adenohypophysis contained: a rostral pars distalis, with prolactin (PRL) cells arranged in follicles and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) cells, a proximal pars distalis with somatotropic (GH), β-thyrotropic (TSH), β-gonadotropic type I (FSH) and type II (LH) cells and a pars intermedia with α-somatolactin (SL), α-melanotropic (MSH) and β-endorphin (END) cells...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125980/effect-of-combined-music-and-touch-intervention-on-pain-response-and-%C3%AE-endorphin-and-cortisol-concentrations-in-late-preterm-infants
#19
Jie Qiu, Yun-Fei Jiang, Fang Li, Qian-Hong Tong, Hui Rong, Rui Cheng
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonates undergo many painful procedures as part of their standard care in the neonatal intensive care unit. However, pain treatment is inadequate in many of these routine procedures. In the present study, we investigated the impact and mechanism of combined music and touch intervention (CMT) on the pain response in premature infants. METHODS: Sixty-two preterm neonates (gestational age of <37 weeks) were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group...
January 26, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107753/role-of-central-opioid-on-the-antinociceptive-effect-of-sulfated-polysaccharide-from-the-red-seaweed-solieria-filiformis-in-induced-temporomandibular-joint-pain
#20
Ianna Wivianne Fernandes Araújo, Hellíada Vasconcelos Chaves, José Mário Pachêco, Danielle Rocha Val, Lorena Vasconcelos Vieira, Rodrigo Santos, Raul Sousa Freitas, Renata Line Rivanor, Valdécio Silvano Monteiro, Juliana Trindade Clemente-Napimoga, Mirna Marques Bezerra, Norma Maria Barros Benevides
This study aimed to investigate the effect of sulfated polysaccharide from red seaweed Solieria filiformis (Fraction F II) in the inflammatory hypernociception in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats. Male Wistar rats were pretreated (30min) with a subcutaneous injection (s.c.) of vehicle or FII (0.03, 0.3 or 3.0mg/kg) followed by intra-TMJ injection of 1.5% Formalin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 225μg/TMJ). In other set of experiments rats were pretreated (15min) with an intrathecal injection of the non-selective opioid receptors Naloxone, or μ-opioid receptor antagonist CTOP, or δ-opioid receptor Naltridole hydrochloride, or κ-opioid receptor antagonist Nor-Binaltorphimine (Nor-BNI) followed by injection of FII (s...
January 17, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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