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Marijuana and spasticity

Charles D Ciccone
Medical marijuana continues to gain acceptance and become legalized in many states. Various species of the marijuana plant have been cultivated, and this plant can contain up to 100 active compounds known as cannabinoids. Two cannabinoids seem the most clinically relevant: Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which tends to produce the psychotropic effects commonly associated with marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD), which may produce therapeutic effects without appreciable psychoactive properties. Smoking marijuana, or ingesting extracts from the whole plant orally (in baked goods, teas, and so forth), introduces variable amounts of THC, CBD, and other minor cannabinoids into the systemic circulation where they ultimately reach the central and peripheral nervous systems...
September 22, 2016: Physical Therapy
Víctor Manuel Rivera-Olmos, Marisela C Parra-Bernal
The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy...
September 2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Chittaranjan Andrade
Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Rimplejeet Kaur, Sneha R Ambwani, Surjit Singh
Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It has been cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes since many centuries. Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries. The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and downs in the recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve "protective role" in many medical conditions...
2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Jayesh R Parmar, Benjamin D Forrest, Robert A Freeman
The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana...
July 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Terry D Fife, Heidi Moawad, Constantine Moschonas, Katie Shepard, Nancy Hammond
The American Academy of Neurology published an evidence-based systematic review of randomized controlled trials using marijuana (Cannabis sativa) or cannabinoids in neurologic disorders. Several cannabinoids showed effectiveness or probable effectiveness for spasticity, central pain, and painful spasms in multiple sclerosis. The review justifies insurance coverage for dronabinol and nabilone for these indications. Many insurance companies already cover these medications for other indications. It is unlikely that the review will alter coverage for herbal marijuana...
August 2015: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Bjorn Jensen, Jeffrey Chen, Tim Furnish, Mark Wallace
Cannabinoid compounds include phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and synthetics. The two primary phytocannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), with CB1 receptors in the brain and peripheral tissue and CB2 receptors in the immune and hematopoietic systems. The route of delivery of cannabis is important as the bioavailability and metabolism are very different for smoking versus oral/sublingual routes. Gold standard clinical trials are limited; however, some studies have thus far shown evidence to support the use of cannabinoids for some cancer, neuropathic, spasticity, acute pain, and chronic pain conditions...
October 2015: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Kevin P Hill
IMPORTANCE: As of March 2015, 23 states and the District of Columbia had medical marijuana laws in place. Physicians should know both the scientific rationale and the practical implications for medical marijuana laws. OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, indications, and laws related to medical marijuana use. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The medical literature on medical marijuana was reviewed from 1948 to March 2015 via MEDLINE with an emphasis on 28 randomized clinical trials of cannabinoids as pharmacotherapy for indications other than those for which there are 2 US Food and Drug Administration-approved cannabinoids (dronabinol and nabilone), which include nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in wasting illnesses...
June 23, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Joan L Kramer
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols. Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications...
March 2015: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Selim R Benbadis, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, Ali Bozorg, Melissa Giarratano, Kavita Kalidas, Lara Katzin, Derrick Robertson, Tuan Vu, Amanda Smith, Theresa Zesiewicz
Constituents of the Cannabis plant, cannabinoids, may be of therapeutic value in neurologic diseases. The most abundant cannabinoids are Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which possesses psychoactive properties, and cannabidiol, which has no intrinsic psychoactive effects, but exhibits neuroprotective properties in preclinical studies. A small number of high-quality clinical trials support the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity of multiple sclerosis, pain refractory to opioids, glaucoma, nausea and vomiting...
December 2014: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Barbara S Koppel, John C M Brust, Terry Fife, Jeff Bronstein, Sarah Youssof, Gary Gronseth, David Gloss
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of medical marijuana in several neurologic conditions. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of medical marijuana (1948-November 2013) to address treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), epilepsy, and movement disorders. We graded the studies according to the American Academy of Neurology classification scheme for therapeutic articles. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria; 8 were rated as Class I...
April 29, 2014: Neurology
Laura M Borgelt, Kari L Franson, Abraham M Nussbaum, George S Wang
Cannabis, or marijuana, has been used for medicinal purposes for many years. Several types of cannabinoid medicines are available in the United States and Canada. Dronabinol (schedule III), nabilone (schedule II), and nabiximols (not U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved) are cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals. Medical cannabis or medical marijuana, a leafy plant cultivated for the production of its leaves and flowering tops, is a schedule I drug, but patients obtain it through cannabis dispensaries and statewide programs...
February 2013: Pharmacotherapy
Kirsten R Müller-Vahl
Cannabinoids have been used for hundred of years for medical purposes. To day, the cannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the cannabis extract nabiximols are approved for the treatment of nausea, anorexia and spasticity, respectively. In Tourette syndrome (TS) several anecdotal reports provided evidence that marijuana might be effective not only in the suppression of tics, but also in the treatment of associated behavioural problems. At the present time there are only two controlled trials available investigating the effect of THC in the treatment of TS...
2013: Behavioural Neurology
Stephen Wright, Paul Duncombe, Douglas G Altman
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of the blind-to-treatment allocation is one of the most important means of avoiding bias in randomised controlled clinical trials. Commonly used methodologies to determine whether patients have become unblinded to treatment allocation are imperfect. This may be of particular concern in studies where outcomes are patient-reported, and with products which have a characteristic adverse event profile. We report the results of an evidence-based statistical approach to exploring the possible impact of unblinding to a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex®) in people with muscle spasticity due to multiple sclerosis...
2012: Trials
Roland J Lamarine
Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered...
2012: Journal of Drug Education
Igor Grant, J Hampton Atkinson, Ben Gouaux, Barth Wilsey
Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, and possibly other indications...
2012: Open Neurology Journal
Jody Corey-Bloom, Tanya Wolfson, Anthony Gamst, Shelia Jin, Thomas D Marcotte, Heather Bentley, Ben Gouaux
BACKGROUND: Spasticity is a common and poorly controlled symptom of multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to determine the short-term effect of smoked cannabis on this symptom. METHODS: We conducted a placebo-controlled, crossover trial involving adult patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity. We recruited participants from a regional clinic or by referral from specialists. We randomly assigned participants to either the intervention (smoked cannabis, once daily for three days) or control (identical placebo cigarettes, once daily for three days)...
July 10, 2012: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Gareth Pryce, David Baker
For many years, multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been self-medicating with illegal street cannabis to alleviate symptoms associated with MS. Data from animal models of MS and clinical studies have supported the anecdotal data that cannabis can improve symptoms such as limb spasticity, which are commonly associated with progressive MS, by the modulation of excessive neuronal signalling. This has lead to cannabis-based medicines being approved for the treatment of pain and spasticity in MS for the first time...
August 2012: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Eva de Lago, María Gómez-Ruiz, Miguel Moreno-Martet, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
The cannabinoid signaling system participates in the control of cell homeostasis in the CNS, which explains why, in different neurodegenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), alterations in this system have been found to serve both as a pathogenic factor (malfunctioning of this system has been found at early phases of these diseases) and as a therapeutic target (the management of this system has beneficial effects). MS is an autoimmune disease that affects the CNS and it is characterized by inflammation, demyelination, remyelination, gliosis and axonal damage...
November 2009: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Mohanraj Rajesh, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Sándor Bátkai, Vivek Patel, Keita Saito, Shingo Matsumoto, Yoshihiro Kashiwaya, Béla Horváth, Bani Mukhopadhyay, Lauren Becker, György Haskó, Lucas Liaudet, David A Wink, Aristidis Veves, Raphael Mechoulam, Pál Pacher
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we have investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on myocardial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress, cell death, and interrelated signaling pathways, using a mouse model of type I diabetic cardiomyopathy and primary human cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose. BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol, the most abundant nonpsychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) plant, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in various disease models and alleviates pain and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis in humans...
December 14, 2010: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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