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Marijuana and Parkinsons

David E Mandelbaum, Suzanne M de la Monte
The growing use and legalization of cannabis are leading to increased exposures across all age groups, including in adolescence. The touting of its medicinal values stems from anecdotal reports related to treatment of a broad range of illnesses including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, muscle spasms, arthritis, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, post-traumatic stress, inflammatory bowel disease, and anxiety. However, anecdotal data and the high level of interest in this treatment must not obscure objective assessments of any potential and realized short- and long-term adverse effects of cannabis, particularly with respect to age of onset and chronicity of exposure...
January 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Rimplejeet Kaur, Sneha R Ambwani, Surjit Singh
Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It has been cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes since many centuries. Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries. The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and downs in the recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve "protective role" in many medical conditions...
2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Bessy Thrash-Williams, Senthilkumar S Karuppagounder, Dwipayan Bhattacharya, Manuj Ahuja, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
AIMS: Methamphetamine (Schedule-II drug, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration) is one of the most abused illicit drug following cocaine, marijuana, and heroin in the USA. There are numerous health impairments and substantial economic burden caused by methamphetamine abuse. Salicylic acid, potent anti-inflammatory drug and a known neuroprotectant has shown to protect against toxicity-induced by other dopaminergic neurotoxins. Hence, in this study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid against methamphetamine-induced toxicity in mice...
June 1, 2016: Life Sciences
Benzi Kluger, Piera Triolo, Wallace Jones, Joseph Jankovic
There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and, particularly, for neurological conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science as well as preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders...
March 2015: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Giuseppe Di Iorio, Matteo Lupi, Fabiola Sarchione, Ilaria Matarazzo, Rita Santacroce, Filippo Petruccelli, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo Di Giannantonio
BACKGROUND: Following the characterization of the chemical structure of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of marijuana, researchers have moved on with scientific valuable explorations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to highlight the role of endocannabinoid system in neurodegenerative diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The article is a critical analysis of the most recent data currently present in scientific literature on the subject; a qualitative synthesis of only the most significant articles has been performed...
December 2013: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Barbara S Koppel, John C M Brust, Terry Fife, Jeff Bronstein, Sarah Youssof, Gary Gronseth, David Gloss
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of medical marijuana in several neurologic conditions. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of medical marijuana (1948-November 2013) to address treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), epilepsy, and movement disorders. We graded the studies according to the American Academy of Neurology classification scheme for therapeutic articles. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria; 8 were rated as Class I...
April 29, 2014: Neurology
Itay Lotan, Therese A Treves, Yaniv Roditi, Ruth Djaldetti
OBJECTIVE: The use of cannabis as a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions has been well documented. However, clinical trials in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have yielded conflicting results. The aim of the present open-label observational study was to assess the clinical effect of cannabis on motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with PD attending the motor disorder clinic of a tertiary medical center in 2011 to 2012 were evaluated at baseline and 30 minutes after smoking cannabis using the following battery: Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, visual analog scale, present pain intensity scale, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, as well as Medical Cannabis Survey National Drug and Alcohol Research Center Questionnaire...
March 2014: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Tiziana Bisogno, Vincenzo Di Marzo
The G-protein coupled receptors for Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of marijuana, are known as cannabinoid receptors of type 1 (CB₁) and 2 (CB₂) and play important functions in degenerative and inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system. Whilst CB₁ receptors are mostly expressed in neurons, where they regulate neurotransmitter release and synaptic strength, CB₂ receptors are found mostly in glial cells and microglia, which become activated and over-express these receptors during disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotropic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's chorea...
November 2010: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Balapal S Basavarajappa, Ralph A Nixon, Ottavio Arancio
The endocannabinoid system, including endogenous ligands ('endocannabinoids' ECs), their receptors, synthesizing and degrading enzymes, as well as transporter molecules, has been detected from the earliest stages of embryonic development and throughout pre- and postnatal development. ECs are bioactive lipids, which comprise amides, esters and ethers of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine; AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the best studied ECs, and act as agonists of cannabinoid receptors...
April 2009: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Teresa Iuvone, Giuseppe Esposito, Daniele De Filippis, Caterina Scuderi, Luca Steardo
Neurodegenerative diseases represent, nowadays, one of the main causes of death in the industrialized country. They are characterized by a loss of neurons in particular regions of the nervous system. It is believed that this nerve cell loss underlies the subsequent decline in cognitive and motor function that patients experience in these diseases. A range of mutant genes and environmental toxins have been implicated in the cause of neurodegenerative disorders but the mechanism remains largely unknown. At present, inflammation, a common denominator among the diverse list of neurodegenerative diseases, has been implicated as a critical mechanism that is responsible for the progressive nature of neurodegeneration...
2009: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Natalya M Kogan, Raphael Mechoulam
Cannabis sativa L. preparations have been used in medicine for millenia. However, concern over the dangers of abuse led to the banning of the medicinal use of marijuana in most countries in the 1930s. Only recently, marijuana and individual natural and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as chemically related compounds, whose mechanism of action is still obscure, have come back to being considered of therapeutic value. However, their use is highly restricted. Despite the mild addiction to cannabis and the possible enhancement of addiction to other substances of abuse, when combined with cannabis, the therapeutic value of cannabinoids is too high to be put aside...
2007: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Natalia Battista, Filomena Fezza, Alessandro Finazzi-Agrò, Mauro Maccarrone
Endocannabinoids are bioactive lipids, that comprise amides, esters and ethers of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine; AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the best studied endocannabinoids, and act as agonists of cannabinoid receptors. Thus, AEA and 2-AG mimic several pharmacological effects of the exogenous cannabinoid delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive principle of hashish and marijuana. It is known that the activity of endocannabinoids at their receptors is limited by cellular uptake through specific membrane transporters, followed by intracellular degradation by a fatty acid amide hydrolase (for AEA and partly 2-AG) or by a monoacylglycerol lipase (for 2-AG)...
September 2006: Italian Journal of Biochemistry
Derik Hermann, Alexander Sartorius, Helga Welzel, Sigrid Walter, Gisela Skopp, Gabriele Ende, Karl Mann
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids present neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties in in vitro studies, inconsistent alterations in human neuroimaging studies, neuropsychological deficits, and an increased risk for psychotic episodes. METHODS: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), neuropsychological testing, and hair analysis for cannabinoids was performed in 13 male nontreatment-seeking recreational cannabis users and 13 male control subjects. RESULTS: A significantly diminished N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) ratio in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was observed in cannabis users (p = ...
June 1, 2007: Biological Psychiatry
Angela Alsasua del Valle
1. Preparations from Cannabis sativa (marijuana) have been used for many centuries both medicinally and recreationally. 2. Recent advances in the knowledge of its pharmacological and chemical properties in the organism, mainly due to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and the physiological roles played by the endocannabinoids have opened up new strategies in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. 3. Potential therapeutic uses of cannabinoid receptor agonists include the management of spasticity and tremor in multiple sclerosis/spinal cord injury, pain, inflammatory disorders, glaucoma, bronchial asthma, cancer, and vasodilation that accompanies advanced cirrhosis...
July 2006: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Susan Corey
OBJECTIVE: To examine the recent evidence that marijuana and other cannabinoids have therapeutic potential. METHODS: Literature published since 1997 was searched using the following terms: cannabinoid, marijuana, THC, analgesia, cachexia, glaucoma, movement, multiple sclerosis, neurological, pain, Parkinson, trial, vomiting. Qualifying clinical studies were randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled. Selected open-label studies and surveys are also discussed...
March 2005: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Katerina Venderová, Evzen Růzicka, Viktor Vorísek, Peter Visnovský
An anonymous questionnaire sent to all patients attending the Prague Movement Disorder Centre revealed that 25% of 339 respondents had taken cannabis and 45.9% of these described some form of benefit.
September 2004: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
P Derkinderen, E Valjent, F Darcel, P Damier, J-A Girault
BACKGROUND: Although cannabis has been used as a medicine for several centuries, the therapeutic properties of cannabis preparations (essentially haschich and marijuana) make them far most popular as a recreational drugs. STATE OF THE ART: Scientific studies on the effects of cannabis were advanced considerably by the identification in 1964 of cannabinoid D9-tetrahydrocannadinol (THC), recognized as the major active constituent of cannabis. Cloning of the centrally located CB1 receptor in 1990 and the identification of the first endogenous ligand of the CB1 receptor, anandamide, in 1992 further advanced our knowledge...
July 2004: Revue Neurologique
F Rodríguez De Fonseca, M A Gorriti, A Bilbao, L Escuredo, L M García-Segura, D Piomelli, M Navarro
The endogenous cannabinoid system is a new signaling system composed by the central (CB1) and the peripheral (CB2) receptors, and several lipid transmitters including anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol. This system is the target of natural cannabinoids, the psychoactive constituents of Cannabis sativa preparations (marijuana, hashish). Acute and chronic cannabis exposure has been associated with subjective feelings of pleasure and relaxation, but also to the onset of psychiatric syndromes, a decrease of the efficacy of neuroleptics and alterations in the extrapyramidal system regulation of motor activity...
January 2001: Neurotoxicity Research
Mauro Maccarrone, Alessandro Finazzi-Agrò
Endocannabinoids are a new class of lipid mediators, which includes amides and esters of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Anandamide (I) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (II) are the main endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors, able to mimic several pharmacological effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (III), the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as hashish and marijuana. The pathways leading to the synthesis and release of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol from neuronal and nonneuronal cells are rather uncertain...
2002: Vitamins and Hormones
Ross Corkrey, Lynne Parkinson
Interactive voice response (IVR) technology presents a new and promising approach by which to collect accurate data on sensitive topics by telephone interviews. In a national survey of 2,880 households of alcohol and drug consumption, we compared computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATT) and IVR with two hybrid methods that combine IVR with CATI. The principal hypothesis was that the self-report rates of sensitive behaviors would be higher for the hybrid and IVR methods owing to greater perceived confidentiality than with CATI...
August 2002: Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers: a Journal of the Psychonomic Society, Inc
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