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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442207/i-m-shocked-informed-consent-in-ect-and-the-phenomenological-self
#1
Patrick Seniuk
This paper argues that phenomenological insights regarding selfhood are relevant to the informed consent process in the treatment of depression using electro-convulsive therapy (ECT). One of the most significant side-effects associated with ECT is retrograde amnesia. Unfortunately, the current informed consent model does not adequately appreciate the full extent in which memory loss disturbs lived-experience. Through the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty, it is possible to appreciate the way in which memory loss affects a person's self-experience, with emphasis given to one's pre-reflective and embodied, relationship with things in the world...
February 13, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441005/atypical-within-session-motor-procedural-learning-after-traumatic-brain-injury-but-well-preserved-between-session-procedural-memory-consolidation
#2
Maria Korman, Sharon Shaklai, Keren Cisamariu, Carmit Gal, Rinatia Maaravi-Hesseg, Ishay Levy, Ofer Keren, Avi Karni, Yaron Sacher
Using the finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS) learning task, we characterized motor skill learning in sub-acute patients hospitalized for rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten patients (Trained TBI) and 11 healthy participants (Trained Healthy) were trained using a multi-session protocol: a single session was afforded in the first week of the study, and four daily sessions were afforded during the second week. Intensity of practice was adapted to patients. Performance speed and accuracy were tested before and after each session...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440390/high-dietary-fat-and-sucrose-results-in-an-extensive-and-time-dependent-deterioration-in-health-of-multiple-physiological-systems-in-mice
#3
James G Burchfield, Melkam A Kebede, Christopher C Meoli, Jacqueline Stöckli, P Tess Whitworth, Amanda L Wright, Nolan J Hoffman, Annabel Y Minard, Xiuquan Ma, James R Krycer, Marin E Nelson, Shi-Xiong Tan, Belinda Yau, Kristen C Thomas, Natalie K Y Wee, Ee-Cheng Khor, Ronaldo F Enriquez, Bryce Vissel, Trevor J Biden, Paul A Baldock, Kyle L Hoehn, James Cantley, Gregory J Cooney, David E James, Daniel J Fazakerley
Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439327/stabilized-low-n-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-induce-robust-novel-object-recognition-deficits-associated-with-inflammatory-synaptic-and-gabaergic-dysfunction-in-the-rat
#4
William Watremez, Joshua Jackson, Bushra Almari, Samantha L McLean, Ben Grayson, Joanna C Neill, Nicolas Fischer, Ahmad Allouche, Violette Koziel, Thierry Pillot, Michael K Harte
BACKGROUND: With current treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) only providing temporary symptomatic benefits, disease modifying drugs are urgently required. This approach relies on improved understanding of the early pathophysiology of AD. A new hypothesis has emerged, in which early memory loss is considered a synapse failure caused by soluble amyloid-β oligomers (Aβo). These small soluble Aβo, which precede the formation of larger fibrillar assemblies, may be the main cause of early AD pathologies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438209/an-unusual-complication-of-bone-wax-utilization
#5
Artur Fahradyan, Levonti Ohanisian, Michaela Tsuha, Matthew J Park, Jeffrey A Hammoudeh
Bone wax is a commonly used hemostatic agent with minimal complications. Some of the known complications include inflammation, granuloma formation, infection, and impaired osteogenesis. Several clinical reports of bone wax migration have also been reported. In this paper, the authors present a rare patient of bone wax migration intracranially in a 6-year-old patient who initially underwent craniotomy for the evacuation of subdural hematoma and repair of depressed skull fracture. The patient then underwent craniotomy scalp scar revision several months later...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435980/the-diabetes-drug-liraglutide-reverses-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-and-attenuates-insulin-receptor-and-synaptic-pathology-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Andre F Batista, Leticia Forny-Germano, Julia R Clarke, Natalia M Lyra E Silva, Jordano Brito-Moreira, Susan E Boehnke, Andrew Winterborn, Brian C Coe, Ann Lablans, Juliana F Vital, Suelen A Marques, Ana M B Martinez, Matthias Gralle, Christian Holscher, William L Klein, Jean-Christophe Houzel, Sergio T Ferreira, Douglas P Munoz, Fernanda G De Felice
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurological disorder that still lacks an effective treatment, and this has stimulated an intense pursuit of disease-modifying therapeutics. Given the increasingly recognized link between AD and defective brain insulin signaling, we investigated the actions of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog marketed for treatment of type 2 diabetes, in experimental models of AD. Insulin receptor pathology is an important feature of AD brains that impairs the neuroprotective actions of central insulin signaling...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435917/acupuncture-prevents-the-impairment-of-hippocampal-ltp-through-%C3%AE-1-ar-in-vascular-dementia-rats
#7
Ling-Yong Xiao, Xue-Rui Wang, Jing-Wen Yang, Yang Ye, Wen Zhu, Yan Cao, Si-Ming Ma, Cun-Zhi Liu
It is widely accepted that the synaptic dysfunction and synapse loss contribute to the cognitive deficits of vascular dementia (VD) patients. We have previously reported that acupuncture improved cognitive function in rats with VD. However, the mechanisms involved in acupuncture improving cognitive ability remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to investigate the pathways and molecules involved in the neuroprotective effect of acupuncture. We assessed the effects of acupuncture on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), the most prominent cellular model of memory formation...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434767/simvastatin-inhibits-the-apoptosis-of-hippocampal-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Xiaoqin Hu, Chengwei Song, Ming Fang, Chengyan Li
Alzheimer's disease is associated with cognitive impairments that affect memory and executive functions. Simvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering statin drug that is used to control levels of cholesterol in the blood, particularly in cases of hypercholesterolemia, and may be used in the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Previous results have indicated that the apoptosis of hippocampal cells may serve a critical role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, it was determined whether Simvastatin inhibited the apoptosis of hippocampal cells in vitro and in vivo ...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434741/inhibition-of-c-x-c-motif-chemokine-10-reduces-graft-loss-mediated-by-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-a-rat-cardiac-re-transplant-model
#9
Jiacheng Xu, Teng Ma, Guorong Deng, Jiawei Zhuang, Cheng Li, Shaohu Wang, Chen Dai, Xiaobiao Zhou, Zhonggui Shan, Zhongquan Qi
The interaction of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) with its receptor (CXCR3) is a critical process in recruiting donor reactive T cells to a graft and alloantigen-specific memory T (Tm) cells exert a principal function in promoting graft dysfunction during accelerated cardiac rejection. However, whether CXCL10 chemokine exerts any effects on acute accelerated rejection mediated by CD8+ Tm cells in a re-transplant model has remained elusive. The present study established a cardiac transplant model by advanced microsurgery technology and improved organ storage...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433133/-vaccines-benefits-have-been-forgotten
#10
Elisabetta Franco, Laura Zaratti, Elisa Terracciano, Augusto Panà
The increased use of vaccination has led to a significant decrease or even to the disappearance of serious infectious diseases. Currently, vaccines are often evaluated by their potential side effects while ignoring the benefits. This happens because of memory loss. The memory of the damage caused by vaccine-preventable diseases has been lost. This paper illustrates the epidemiology of the major vaccine-preventable diseases and the risk of reintroduction of many pathologies in case the vaccine coverage continues to decrease...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432852/environmental-manganese-exposure-and-associations-with-memory-executive-functions-and-hyperactivity-in-brazilian-children
#11
Chrissie Ferreira de Carvalho, Youssef Oulhote, Marina Martorelli, Carla Oliveira de Carvalho, José Antônio Menezes-Filho, Nayara Argollo, Neander Abreu
Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, however high levels of Mn have been associated with lower neuropsychological performance and behavioral problems in children. We investigated the associations between hair Mn concentrations and neuropsychological and behavioral performances among children with long-term exposure to airborne Mn aged between 7 and 12 years. Neuropsychological performance included tests of: verbal memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, and motor function. We used the Conners Abbreviated Rating Scale for teachers to assess students' behaviors of hyperactivity...
February 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432803/learning-and-memory-is-modulated-by-cannabidiol-when-administered-during-trace-fear-conditioning
#12
A L Uhernik, Z T Montoya, C D Balkissoon, J P Smith
Cannabidiol (CBD) is thought to have therapeutic potential for treating psychiatric conditions that affect cognitive aspects of learning and memory, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that CBD enhances extinction of fear memory when given after conditioning. This led us to hypothesize that CBD, if administered prior to fear conditioning, might modulate cognitive learning and memory processes in additional ways that would further guide its potential use for treating PTSD...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432101/fast-mpeg-cdvs-encoder-with-gpu-cpu-hybrid-computing
#13
Ling-Yu Duan, Wei Sun, Xinfeng Zhang, Shiqi Wang, Jie Chen, Jianxiong Yin, Simon See, Tiejun Huang, Alex C Kot, Wen Gao
The compact descriptors for visual search (CDVS) standard from ISO/IEC moving pictures experts group has succeeded in enabling the interoperability for efficient and effective image retrieval by standardizing the bitstream syntax of compact feature descriptors. However, the intensive computation of a CDVS encoder unfortunately hinders its widely deployment in industry for large-scale visual search. In this paper, we revisit the merits of low complexity design of CDVS core techniques and present a very fast CDVS encoder by leveraging the massive parallel execution resources of graphics processing unit (GPU)...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431892/correlates-of-economic-decisions-in-the-dorsal-and-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortices
#14
Habiba Azab, Benjamin Y Hayden
The anterior cingulate cortex can be divided into distinct ventral (subgenual, sgACC) and dorsal (dACC), portions. The role of dACC in value-based decision-making is hotly debated, while the role of sgACC is poorly understood. We recorded neuronal activity in both regions in rhesus macaques performing a token-gambling task. We find that both encode many of the same variables; including integrated offered values of gambles, primary as well as secondary reward outcomes, number of current tokens, and anticipated rewards...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430616/cognitive-control-of-eating-the-role-of-memory-in-appetite-and-weight-gain
#15
Suzanne Higgs, Maartje S Spetter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review organises the recent literature on the role of memory in eating behaviours and provides an overview of the current evidence relating to the associations between memory and weight gain. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the last few years has highlighted working memory as an important cognitive process that underpins many aspects of appetite control. Recent work on episodic memory and appetite has replicated work showing that manipulating memory for recent eating affects later consumption and extended this work to examine associations between individual differences in memory and eating behaviours...
February 12, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429784/rapid-progressive-visual-decline-and-visual-field-defects-in-two-patients-with-the-heidenhain-variant-of-creutzfeld-jakob-disease
#16
Janine Lenk, Kay Engellandt, Naim Terai, Antonia Bottesi, Egbert Matthé
BACKGROUND: Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (HvCJD) is a rare disease, patients presenting with loss of visual acuity and a decline in visual fields. CASE PRESENTATION: Two patients with rapid loss of visual acuity and declining visual fields presented with homonymic hemianopsia over several weeks. Cranial MRI showed neither stroke nor other morphological changes explaining the severe visual field defects. Neurological examination revealed no pathologies...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429075/dietary-supplementation-of-almond-prevents-oxidative-stress-by-advocating-antioxidants-and-attenuates-impaired-aversive-memory-in-male-rats
#17
Zehra Batool, Saiqa Tabassum, Rafat Ali Siddiqui, Saida Haider
Scopolamine, an anti-muscarinic agent, has been shown to induce amnesia and oxidative stress similar to that observed in the older age. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between the oxidative status and memory improvement in scopolamine injected rats pre-administered with almonds. Rats (n = 8) in the almond group were administered orally with 400 mg/kg almond suspension for 28 days daily before the intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg). Passive avoidance task (PAT) was used to assess memory function at the end of treatment...
February 10, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428769/impaired-spatial-pattern-separation-performance-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-is-associated-with-visuospatial-memory-deficits-and-hippocampal-volume-loss
#18
Anny Reyes, Heather M Holden, Yu-Hsuan A Chang, Vedang S Uttarwar, David P Sheppard, Nicole E DeFord, Shannon Yandall DeJesus, Leena Kansal, Paul E Gilbert, Carrie R McDonald
Individuals with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) experience episodic memory deficits that may be progressive in nature. These memory decrements have been shown to increase with the extent of hippocampal damage, a hallmark feature of TLE. Pattern separation, a neural computational mechanism thought to play a role in episodic memory formation, has been shown to be negatively affected by aging and in individuals with known hippocampal dysfunction. Despite the link between poor pattern separation performance and episodic memory deficits, behavioral pattern separation has not been examined in patients with TLE...
February 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425850/neuroprotective-effect-of-da-chuanxiong-formula-against-cognitive-and-motor-deficits-in-a-rat-controlled-cortical-impact-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Zhi-Ke Liu, Chun-Fai Ng, Hoi-Ting Shiu, Hing-Lok Wong, Wai-Ching Chin, Jin-Fang Zhang, Ping-Kuen Lam, Wai-Sang Poon, Clara Bik-San Lau, Ping-Chung Leung, Chun-Hay Ko
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Da Chuanxiong Formula (DCXF) is one of the famous herb pairs that contains dried rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. and Gastrodia elata Bl. in the mass ratio of 4:1. This classic representative traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used to treat brain diseases like headache and migraine caused by blood stasis and wind pathogen. However, the therapeutic effect of DCXF on traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been reported yet. AIM OF STUDY: The present study was performed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DCXF and its underlying mechanisms in the controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced TBI rat model...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425728/synaptic-plasticity-modulation-by-circulating-peptides-and-metaplasticity-involvement-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Stéphane Peineau, Kevin Rabiant, Olivier Pierrefiche, Brigitte Potier
Synaptic plasticity is a cellular process involved in learning and memory whose alteration in its two main forms (Long Term Depression (LTD) and Long Term Potentiation (LTP)), is observed in most brain pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In humans, AD is associated at the cellular level with neuropathological lesions composed of extracellular deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) protein aggregates and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, cellular loss, neuroinflammation and a general brain homeostasis dysregulation...
February 6, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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