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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546314/chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-changes-associated-with-subregion-selective-serotonin-cell-death-in-the-dorsal-raphe
#1
Reka Natarajan, Laura Forrester, Nicolas Chiaia, Bryan K Yamamoto
The current study examined the neurochemical mechanisms and neuroanatomical changes underlying co-existing behavioral effects associated with chronic stress-induced alterations in serotonin (5HT) neurons. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to adult male rats produced depression-like changes with cognitive dysfunction and selective cell death in the interfascicular nucleus of the dorsal raphe (DRif) resulting in decreased 5HTergic innervation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Twenty-one days of CUS decreased basal plasma levels of corticosterone and produced a shorter latency to immobility and longer durations of immobility in the force-swim test that persisted for one month after CUS...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545247/how-does-psychosocial-behavior-contribute-to-cognitive-health-in-old-age
#2
Robert S Wilson, David A Bennett
With the aging of the U.S. population, the number of cognitively disabled persons is expected to substantially increase in coming decades, underscoring the urgent need for effective interventions. Here, we review the current evidence linking psychosocial factors to late-life cognitive loss and consider the study design needed to illuminate the biologic bases of the associations. We then examine an ongoing study that includes several of the key design elements, the Rush Memory and Aging Project. In this longitudinal clinical-pathological cohort study, indicators of personality, social connectedness, and psychological well-being were shown to predict late-life cognitive outcomes...
May 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#3
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542578/illness-experiences-of-diabetes-in-the-context-of-malaria-in-settings-experiencing-double-burden-of-disease-in-southeastern-tanzania
#4
Emmy Metta, Ajay Bailey, Flora Kessy, Eveline Geubbels, Hinke Haisma
BACKGROUND: Tanzania is doubly burdened with both non-communicable and infectious diseases, but information on how Tanzanians experience the co-existence of these conditions is limited. Using Kleinman's eight prompting questions the study synthesizes explanatory models from patients to describe common illness experiences of diabetes in a rural setting where malaria is the predominant health threat. METHODS: We conducted 17 focus group discussions with adult members of the general community, diabetes patients, neighbours and relatives of diabetes patients to gain insight into shared experiences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542295/therapeutic-benefits-of-phosphodiesterase-4b-inhibition-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Nicole M Wilson, Mark E Gurney, W Dalton Dietrich, Coleen M Atkins
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a deleterious inflammatory response that exacerbates pathology and worsens outcome. This inflammatory response is partially mediated by a reduction in cAMP and a concomitant upregulation of cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs) acutely after TBI. The PDE4B subfamily, specifically PDE4B2, has been found to regulate cAMP in inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages and microglia. To determine if PDE4B regulates inflammation and subsequent pathology after TBI, adult male Sprague Dawley rats received sham surgery or moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (2 ± 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541774/meaning-making-after-partner-suicide-a-narrative-exploration-using-the-meaning-of-loss-codebook
#6
Tyler R Pritchard, Jennifer L Buckle
This study explored meaning-making in the narratives of survivors of partner suicide. The 117 posts of 50 users of a public online grief support forum were analyzed using the Meaning of Loss Codebook (Gillies, Neimeyer, & Milman, 2014 ). There was evidence of substantial psychological distress and an ongoing struggle to make meaning of the death, in addition to focusing on memories, longing for the deceased, and efforts to actively cope with the loss. Given the importance of meaning-making in the adjustment to loss, and through the application of the MLC, these findings deepen the understanding of this component of grief...
May 25, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541519/reduced-sleep-during-social-isolation-leads-to-cellular-stress-and-induction-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-upr
#7
Marishka K Brown, Ewa Strus, Nirinjini Naidoo
Study Objectives: Social isolation has a multitude of negative consequences on human health including the ability to endure challenges to the immune system, sleep amount and efficiency, and general morbidity and mortality. These adverse health outcomes are conserved in other social species. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, social isolation leads to increased aggression, impaired memory and reduced amounts of daytime sleep. There is a correlation between molecules affected by social isolation and those implicated in sleep in Drosophila...
May 25, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541473/relationship-between-synaptic-ampar-and-spine-dynamics-impairments-in-the-fxs-mouse
#8
Anand Suresh, Anna Dunaevsky
Structural dynamics of dendritic spines are important for memory and learning and are impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders such as fragile X syndrome. Spine dynamics are regulated by activity-dependent mechanisms that involve modulation of AMPA receptors (AMPAR); however, the relationship between AMPAR and spine dynamics in vivo and how these are altered in FXS mouse model is not known. Here, we tracked AMPAR and spines over multiple days in vivo in the cortex and found that dendritic spines in the fmr1 KO mouse were denser, smaller, had higher turnover rates and contained less sGluA2 compared to littermate controls...
May 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537327/associations-between-physical-activity-and-cognitive-functioning-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#9
C E Miyawaki, E D Bouldin, G S Kumar, L C McGuire
OBJECTIVES: To describe aerobic physical activity among middle-aged and older adults by their self-reported cognitive decline and their receipt of informal care for declines in cognitive functioning and most common type of physical activity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. SETTING: Landline and cellular telephone survey. PARTICIPANTS: 93,082 respondents aged 45 years and older from 21 US states in 2011...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537249/airway-t-cells-protect-against-rsv-infection-in-the-absence-of-antibody
#10
E Kinnear, L Lambert, J U McDonald, H M Cheeseman, L J Caproni, J S Tregoning
Tissue resident memory T (Trm) cells act as sentinels and early responders to infection. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific Trm cells have been detected in the lungs after human RSV infection, but whether they have a protective role is unknown. To dissect the protective function of Trm cells, BALB/c mice were infected with RSV; infected mice developed antigen-specific CD8(+) Trm cells (CD103(+)/CD69(+)) in the lungs and airways. Intranasally transferring cells from the airways of previously infected animals to naïve animals reduced weight loss on infection in the recipient mice...
May 24, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536070/cotinine-improves-visual-recognition-memory-and-decreases-cortical-tau-phosphorylation-in-the-tg6799-mice
#11
J Alex Grizzell, Sagar Patel, George E Barreto, Valentina Echeverria
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the progressive aggregation of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule associated protein Tau in the central nervous system. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, reduced working memory deficits, synaptic loss, and amyloid β peptide aggregation into oligomers and plaques as well as inhibited the cerebral Tau kinase, glycogen synthase 3β (GSK3β) in the transgenic (Tg)6799 (5XFAD) mice. In this study, the effect of cotinine on visual recognition memory and cortical Tau phosphorylation at the GSK3β sites Serine (Ser)-396/Ser-404 and phospho-CREB were investigated in the Tg6799 and non-transgenic (NT) littermate mice...
May 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532408/bone-turnover-and-periprosthetic-bone-loss-after-cementless-total-hip-arthroplasty-can-be-restored-by-zoledronic-acid-a-prospective-randomized-open-label-controlled-trial
#12
Tsan-Wen Huang, Chao-Jan Wang, Hsin-Nung Shih, Yuhan Chang, Kuo-Chin Huang, Kuo-Ti Peng, Mel S Lee
BACKGROUND: Although the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a known problem, it remains unresolved. This study prospectively examined the effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) on bone turnover and BMD after cementless THA. METHODS: Between January 2010 and August 2011, 60 patients who underwent cementless THA were randomly assigned to receive either ZA infusion or placebo (0.9% normal saline only) postoperatively. ZA was administered at 2 day and 1 year postoperatively...
May 22, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530496/public-representations-of-loss-in-death-announcements-1912-to-2002
#13
Paul Brusser, Johann Louw
This work presents a historical analysis of death announcements ( N = 1,443) posted in the New York Times between 1912 and 2002. Announcements were coded according to two main categories: the genre of the announcement and the presence of emotion words. Four distinct main genres emerged: death notices, memorials, recognition postings by organizations, and recognition postings by nonorganizational parties (friends and family). The proportion of death notices declined steadily from 1912 to 2002, while the proportion of announcements paying tribute to the deceased increased...
January 1, 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530123/-we-are-a-team-couple-identity-and-memory-loss
#14
Elise Hernandez, Beth Spencer, Berit Ingersoll-Dayton, Alexandra Faber, Allison Ewert
Couplehood can be an important source of resilience in the face of memory loss, but couple identity has only recently been explored and has rarely been measured. This paper examines older spouses' descriptions of their couple identity and discusses salient themes. Data come from 19 couples from the Couples Life Story Project, a life review intervention where one partner has memory loss. Using baseline data, we analyzed how partners depicted their couple identity using a series of separate and overlapping circles...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529231/alzheimer-s-disease-metaphors-as-mirror-and-lens-to-the-stigma-of-dementia
#15
Martina Zimmermann
This essay gives an overview of the metaphors that patients in comparison to caregivers employ to conceptualize their experience with the chronic degenerative, cognitive, and incurable aspects of Alzheimer's disease. It explores how the images (such as the journey, darkness, the death sentence, and torture) relate to the narration of cognitive decline and memory loss, and how these personal accounts negotiate with the culturally dominant dementia narrative that centers on the patient's passivity and dependence and is, usually, found in caregiver stories...
2017: Literature and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526680/decrease-in-numbers-of-naive-and-resting-b-cells-in-hiv-infected-kenyan-adults-leads-to-a-proportional-increase-in-total-and-plasmodium-falciparum-specific-atypical-memory-b-cells
#16
Anne E Frosch, Oludare A Odumade, Justin J Taylor, Kathleen Ireland, George Ayodo, Bartholomew Ondigo, David L Narum, John Vulule, Chandy C John
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with B cell activation and exhaustion, and hypergammaglobulinemia. How these changes influence B cell responses to coinfections such as malaria is poorly understood. To address this, we compared B cell phenotypes and Abs specific for the Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate apical membrane Ag-1 (AMA1) in HIV-infected and uninfected adults living in Kenya. Surprisingly, HIV-1 infection was not associated with a difference in serum AMA1-specific Ab levels...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526617/cyclin-dependent-kinase-5-a-novel-avenue-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Anisha S Bhounsule, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Manisha Oza
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most frequently encountered diseases in adults with progressive loss of memory and behavioral changes. Inspite of there being an intense research in the field of AD, only a few chemical entities exhibiting anti-AD activity make it through the clinical trials and it is thus need of an hour to develop new drugs or repurpose the existing ones for better management of Alzheimer's disease. Novel therapeutic targets can influence drug discovery in the field of AD. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5 (Cdk5) which is a serine/threonine kinase can prove to be an upcoming beneficial target to be studied for treating AD...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525839/discovery-of-efficient-stimulators-for-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-based-on-scaffolds-in-dragon-s-blood
#18
Jian-Hua Liang, Liang Yang, Si Wu, Si-Si Liu, Mark Cushman, Jing Tian, Nuo-Min Li, Qing-Hu Yang, He-Ao Zhang, Yun-Jie Qiu, Lin Xiang, Cong-Xuan Ma, Xue-Meng Li, Hong Qing
Reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis caused by aging and neurological disorders would impair neural circuits and result in memory loss. A new lead compound (N-trans-3',4'-methylenedioxystilben-4-yl acetamide 27) has been discovered to efficiently stimulate adult rats' neurogenesis. In-depth structure-activity relationship studies proved the necessity of a stilbene scaffold that is absent in highly cytotoxic analogs such as chalcones and heteroaryl rings and inactive analogs such as diphenyl acetylene and diphenyl ethane, and validated the importance of an NH in the carboxamide and a methylenedioxy substituent on the benzene ring...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525629/the-association-of-perceived-memory-loss-with-osteoarthritis-and-related-joint-pain-in-a-large-appalachian-population
#19
Kim E Innes, Usha Sambamoorthi
Objective. : Previous studies have documented memory impairment in several chronic pain syndromes. However, the potential link between memory loss and osteoarthritis (OA), the second most common cause of chronic pain, remains little explored. In this cross-sectional study, we examine the association of perceived memory loss to OA and assess the potential mediating influence of sleep and mood disturbance in a large Appalachian population. Design.:  Cross-sectional...
May 19, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523564/prenatal-and-early-postnatal-environmental-enrichment-reduce-acute-cell-death-and-prevent-neurodevelopment-and-memory-impairments-in-rats-submitted-to-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#20
L E Durán-Carabali, D M Arcego, F K Odorcyk, L Reichert, J L Cordeiro, E F Sanches, L D Freitas, C Dalmaz, A Pagnussat, C A Netto
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental strategy to attenuate the negative effects of different neurological conditions including neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of prenatal and early postnatal EE in animals submitted to neonatal HIE model at postnatal day (PND) 3. Wistar rats were housed in EE or standard conditions (SC) during pregnancy and lactation periods. Pups of both sexes were assigned to one of four experimental groups, considering the early environmental conditions and the injury: SC-Sham, SC-HIE, EE-sham, and EE-HIE...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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