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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676230/insights-into-the-molecular-aspects-of-neuroprotective-bacoside-a-and-bacopaside-i
#1
Vini C Sekhar, Gayathri Viswanathan, Sabulal Baby
Bacopa monnieri, commonly known as Brahmi, has been extensively used as a neuromedicine for various disorders such as anxiety, depression and memory loss. Chemical characterization studies revealed the major active constituents of the herb as the triterpenoid saponins, bacosides. Bacoside A, the vital neuroprotective constituent, is composed of four constituents viz., bacoside A3, bacopaside II, jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C (bacopaside X) and bacopasaponin C. B. monnieri extracts as well as bacosides successfully establish a healthy antioxidant environment in various tissues especially in liver and brain...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674952/stability-and-function-of-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-depend-on-bcl11b-ctip2
#2
Elodie De Bruyckere, Ruth Simon, Sigrun Nestel, Bernd Heimrich, Dennis Kätzel, Alexei V Egorov, Pentao Liu, Nancy A Jenkins, Neal G Copeland, Herbert Schwegler, Andreas Draguhn, Stefan Britsch
Structural and functional plasticity of synapses are critical neuronal mechanisms underlying learning and memory. While activity-dependent regulation of synaptic strength has been extensively studied, much less is known about the transcriptional control of synapse maintenance and plasticity. Hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapses connect dentate granule cells to CA3 pyramidal neurons and are important for spatial memory formation and consolidation. The transcription factor Bcl11b/Ctip2 is expressed in dentate granule cells and required for postnatal hippocampal development...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673549/tau-and-neuroinflammation-what-impact-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-tauopathies
#3
REVIEW
Cyril Laurent, Luc Buée, David Blum
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of dementia (60-80% of cases). In 2016, nearly 44 million people were affected by AD or related dementia. AD is characterized by progressive neuronal damages leading to subtle and latter obvious decline in cognitive functions including symptoms such as memory loss or confusion, which ultimately require full-time medical care. Its neuropathology is defined by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into amyloid plaques, and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) consisting of aggregated hyper- and abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671746/spatio-temporal-attention-based-lstm-networks-for-3d-action-recognition-and-detection
#4
Sijie Song, Cuiling Lan, Junliang Xing, Wenjun Zeng, Jiaying Liu
Human action analytics has attracted a lot of attention for decades in computer vision. It is important to extract discriminative spatio-temporal features to model the spatial and temporal evolutions of different actions. In this paper, we propose a spatial and temporal attention model to explore the spatial and temporal discriminative features for human action recognition and detection from skeleton data. We build our networks based on the recurrent neural networks with long short-term memory units. The learned model is capable of selectively focusing on discriminative joints of skeletons within each input frame and paying different levels of attention to the outputs of different frames...
July 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671682/iconic-memories-die-a-sudden-death
#5
Michael S Pratte
Iconic memory is characterized by its large storage capacity and brief storage duration, whereas visual working memory is characterized by its small storage capacity. The limited information stored in working memory is often modeled as an all-or-none process in which studied information is either successfully stored or lost completely. This view raises a simple question: If almost all viewed information is stored in iconic memory, yet one second later most of it is completely absent from working memory, what happened to it? Here, I characterized how the precision and capacity of iconic memory changed over time and observed a clear dissociation: Iconic memory suffered from a complete loss of visual items, while the precision of items retained in memory was only marginally affected by the passage of time...
April 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670825/thalamic-functional-connectivity-and-its-association-with-behavioral-performance-in-older-age
#6
Aimée Goldstone, Stephen D Mayhew, Joanne R Hale, Rebecca S Wilson, Andrew P Bagshaw
Introduction: Despite the thalamus' dense connectivity with both cortical and subcortical structures, few studies have specifically investigated how thalamic connectivity changes with age and how such changes are associated with behavior. This study investigated the effect of age on thalamo-cortical and thalamo-hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) and the association between thalamic FC and visual-spatial memory and reaction time (RT) performance in older adults. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were obtained from younger ( n  = 20) and older ( n  = 20) adults...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670649/synaptic-plasticity-and-excitation-inhibition-balance-in-the-dentate-gyrus-insights-from-in-vivo-recordings-in-neuroligin-1-neuroligin-2-and-collybistin-knockouts
#7
REVIEW
Peter Jedlicka, Julia Muellerleile, Stephan W Schwarzacher
The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a role in spatial learning and memory and is thought to encode differences between similar environments. The integrity of excitatory and inhibitory transmission and a fine balance between them is essential for efficient processing of information. Therefore, identification and functional characterization of crucial molecular players at excitatory and inhibitory inputs is critical for understanding the dentate gyrus function. In this minireview, we discuss recent studies unraveling molecular mechanisms of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmission, long-term synaptic plasticity, and dentate granule cell excitability in the hippocampus of live animals...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669582/galantamine-improves-cognition-hippocampal-inflammation-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-mice
#8
Yi Liu, Yuyun Zhang, Xian Zheng, Tongyong Fang, Xia Yang, Xuan Luo, Anlei Guo, Kelly A Newell, Xu-Feng Huang, Yinghua Yu
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) levels are higher in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and are associated with neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, while neural cholinergic signaling controls inflammation. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of galantamine, a clinically approved cholinergic agent, in alleviating LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive decline as well as the associated mechanism...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668078/adherence-and-immune-response-to-revaccination-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-at-a-pediatric-onco-hematology-reference-center
#9
Fernanda Gouveia-Alves, Roseane Gouveia, Valéria C Ginani, Adriana Seber, Danielle A Kuramoto, Gabriel F A Murad, Fernanda G Spina, Antonio S Petrilli, Victor G Zecchin, Celso Granato, Fabianne Carlesse, M Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Revaccination after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is necessary to compensate for the loss of immunological memory. The aims of this study were to evaluate the adherence to revaccination schedule and the humoral immune response to different vaccine antigens in HSCT pediatric and young adult patients. METHODS: Patients submitted to HSCT for over 3 years were recruited. After written informed consent, a questionnaire was filled in, the vaccination card was analyzed, a blood sample was collected and tested by ELISA for diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, measles, rubella and varicella antibodies...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667314/the-diary-of-a-nonagenarian-centenarian-woman-with-dementia-memory-loss-life-changes-and-community-care-in-japan
#10
Sayuri Suwa, Saori Otani, Mayuko Tsujimura, Kotoko Nogawa, Yoko Shiya
AIM: This study aimed to explore the experiences and thoughts of a nonagenarian-centenarian woman with dementia living alone, through detailed analysis of her unsolicited diary. DATA SOURCE: After receiving consent from Aki (a pseudonym), her family and caregivers, copies of her diaries, hand-written in Japanese, were provided for analysis. METHODS: The content of the diaries was broadly organized into themes and qualitative content analysis carried out for each theme along a sequential timeline...
April 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667271/syndrome-and-outcome-of-antibody-negative-limbic-encephalitis
#11
Francesc Graus, Domingo Escudero, Laura Oleaga, Jordi Bruna, Alberto Villarejo-Galende, Jordi Ballabriga, María Inés Barceló, Francisco Gilo, Stoyan Popkirov, Pavel Stourac, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical characteristics of 12 patients with limbic encephalitis (LE) who were antibody-negative after a comprehensive immunological study. METHODS: Review of clinical records of 163 patients with LE. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain, cultured neurons, and cell-based assays were used to identify neuronal autoantibodies. Patients were included if 1) there was adequate clinical, CSF, and MRI information to classify the syndrome as LE, 2) MRI images were accesible for central review, and 3) serum and CSF were available and confirmed negative for neuronal antibodies...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667130/beneficial-effects-of-the-calcium-channel-blocker-ctk-01512-2-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Rodrigo B M Silva, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Jaderson C da Costa, Marcus V Gomez, Maria M Campos
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a critical role in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). CTK 01512-2 is a recombinant version of the peptide Phα1β derived from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, which inhibits N-type VGCC/TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. We investigated the effects of this molecule in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effects of CTK 01512-2 were compared to those displayed by ziconotide-a selective N-type VGCC blocker clinically used for chronic pain-and fingolimod-a drug employed for MS treatment...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666041/secure-logistic-regression-based-on-homomorphic-encryption-design-and-evaluation
#13
Miran Kim, Yongsoo Song, Shuang Wang, Yuhou Xia, Xiaoqian Jiang
BACKGROUND: Learning a model without accessing raw data has been an intriguing idea to security and machine learning researchers for years. In an ideal setting, we want to encrypt sensitive data to store them on a commercial cloud and run certain analyses without ever decrypting the data to preserve privacy. Homomorphic encryption technique is a promising candidate for secure data outsourcing, but it is a very challenging task to support real-world machine learning tasks. Existing frameworks can only handle simplified cases with low-degree polynomials such as linear means classifier and linear discriminative analysis...
April 17, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665283/accelerated-executive-functions-decline-and-gray-matter-structural-changes-in-middle-aged-type-1-diabetes-patients-with-proliferative-retinopathy
#14
Eelco van Duinkerken, Martijn D Steenwijk, Martin Klein, Frederik Barkhof, Daniel C Mograbi, Michaela Diamant, Frank J Snoek, Richard G Ijzerman
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine trajectories of cognitive and cortical changes over time in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy. METHODS: Twenty-five patients and 25 controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging twice in 3.56 ± 0.65 and 3.94 ± 0.91 years respectively (P = 0.098). Cognitive assessment included the domains of general cognitive ability, memory, information processing speed, executive functions, attention, motor and psychomotor speed...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660945/trpc1-null-exacerbates-memory-deficit-and-apoptosis-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE
#15
Mengzhu Li, Enjie Liu, Qiuzhi Zhou, Shihong Li, Xin Wang, Yanchao Liu, Lin Wang, Dongsheng Sun, Jinwang Ye, Yuan Gao, Xifei Yang, Jianjun Liu, Ying Yang, Jian-Zhi Wang
The transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channels are widely expressed in nervous system but their functions remain largely unclear. Here, we found that TRPC1 deletion did not affect learning and memory in physiological conditions, while it aggravated learning and memory deficits induced by amyloid-β (Aβ), the major component of the senile plaques observed in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Further studies demonstrated that TRPC1 deletion did not affect cell apoptosis in physiological condition, but it exacerbated the Aβ-induced cell death in mouse hippocampus...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660932/neuroprotective-effects-of-ferruginol-jatrophone-and-junicedric-acid-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-injury-in-hippocampal-neurons
#16
Juan M Zolezzi, Carolina B Lindsay, Felipe G Serrano, Roxana C Ureta, Cristina Theoduloz, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers have been recognized as early neurotoxic intermediates with a key role in the synaptic dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ oligomers block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and impair rodent spatial memory. Additionally, the presence of Aβ oligomers is associated with imbalanced intracellular calcium levels and apoptosis in neurons. In this context, we evaluated the effects of three diterpenes (ferruginol, jatrophone, and junicedric acid) that are found in medicinal plants and have several forms of biological activity...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660023/radiation-induces-age-dependent-deficits-in-cortical-synaptic-plasticity
#17
Die Zhang, Wei Zhou, Thanh Thai Lam, Connie Weng, Lawrence Bronk, Duo Ma, Qiang Wang, Joseph G Duman, Patrick M Dougherty, David R Grosshans
Background: Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction is a significant side effect of cranial irradiation for brain tumors. Clinically, pediatric patients are more vulnerable than adults. However, the underlying mechanisms of dysfunction, including reasons for age dependence, are still largely unknown. Previous studies have focused on the loss of hippocampal neuronal precursor cells and deficits in memory. However, survivors may also experience deficits in attention, executive function, or other non-hippocampal-dependent cognitive domains...
April 6, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659623/loss-of-cxcr6-coreceptor-usage-characterizes-pathogenic-lentiviruses
#18
Katherine S Wetzel, Yanjie Yi, Anjana Yadav, Anya M Bauer, Ezekiel A Bello, Dino C Romero, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Beatrice H Hahn, Mirko Paiardini, Guido Silvestri, Martine Peeters, Ronald G Collman
Pandemic HIV-1 originated from the cross-species transmission of SIVcpz, which infects chimpanzees, while SIVcpz itself emerged following the cross-species transmission and recombination of monkey SIVs, with env contributed by the SIVgsn/mus/mon lineage that infects greater spot-nosed, mustached and mona monkeys. SIVcpz and HIV-1 are pathogenic in their respective hosts, while the phenotype of their SIVgsn/mus/mon ancestors is unknown. However, two well-studied SIV infected natural hosts, sooty mangabeys (SMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs), typically remain healthy despite high viral loads; these species express low levels of the canonical coreceptor CCR5, and recent work shows that CXCR6 is a major coreceptor for SIV in these hosts...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659380/effect-of-pioglitazone-and-simvastatin-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-amyloidogenesis-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-possible-role-of-glutamatergic-pathway-and-oxidative-stress
#19
Sara Thabit, Nesrine S E El Sayed
Neuroinflammation and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain are well known characteristics of neurodegeneration. Diabetes and hypercholesterolemia are the main risk factors leading to memory loss and cognitive impairment. Recently, it was found that statins and thiazolidinediones have promising anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects that could delay neurodegeneration and neuronal loss in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of simvastatin, pioglitazone, and their combination in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis...
April 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659179/nk-cell-and-th17-responses-are-differentially-induced-in-murine-cytomegalovirus-infected-renal-allografts-and-vary-according-to-recipient-virus-dose-and-strain
#20
Mao Li, Srinivasa Boddeda, Bo Chen, Qiang Zeng, Trenton R Schoeb, Victoria M Velazquez, Masako Shimamura
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) donor positive (D+) serostatus with acute rejection is associated with renal allograft loss, but the impact of recipient positive (R+) serostatus is unclear. In an allogeneic renal transplant model, antiviral natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cell memory responses in murine CMV (MCMV) D+/R+ transplants were compared to D-/R- and D+/R- transplants, with recipient infection varied by MCMV dose and strain. D+/R- transplants had high primary antiviral cytolytic (interferon-γ+) and cytotoxic (granzyme B+) NK responses, whereas NK memory responses were lower in D+/R+ recipients receiving a high primary MCMV dose...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
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