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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107375/narcolepsy-type-1-is-associated-with-a-systemic-increase-and-activation-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-with-a-systemic-activation-of-global-t-cells
#1
Michel Lecendreux, Guillaume Churlaud, Fabien Pitoiset, Armelle Regnault, Tu Anh Tran, Roland Liblau, David Klatzmann, Michelle Rosenzwajg
Narcolepsy is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) has been shown to result from a selective loss of hypothalamic hypocretin-secreting neurons with patients typically showing low CSF-hypocretin levels (<110 pg/ml). This specific loss of hypocretin and the strong association with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele led to the hypothesis that NT1 could be an immune-mediated pathology. Moreover, susceptibility to NT1 has recently been associated with several pathogens, particularly with influenza A H1N1 virus either through infection or vaccination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106117/norovirus-p-particle-based-active-a%C3%AE-immunotherapy-elicits-sufficient-immunogenicity-and-improves-cognitive-capacity-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Lu Fu, Yingnan Li, Yue Hu, Yayuan Zheng, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Hui Wu, Xianghui Yu, Wei Kong
Disease-modifying immunotherapies focusing on reducing amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition are the main treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the Aβ immunotherapies has produced clinically meaningful results to date. The main reason for this lack of efficacy is that the vaccine induces insufficiently high antibody titers, as it contains small B-cell epitope of Aβ to avoid Aβ42-specific T-cell activation. With the aim of generating a potent AD vaccine, we designed the protein PP-3copy-Aβ1-6-loop123, comprising three copies of Aβ1-6 inserted into three loops of a novel vaccine platform, the norovirus P particle, which could present Aβ at its surface and remarkably enhance the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105985/impact-of-traumatic-brain-injury-on-dopaminergic-transmission
#3
Yuan-Hao Chen, Eagle Yi-Kung, Tung-Tai Kuo, Jonathan Miller, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J
Brain trauma is often associated with severe morbidity and is a major public health concern. Even when injury is mild and no obvious anatomic disruption is seen, many individuals suffer disabling neuropsychological impairments such as memory loss, mood dysfunction, substance abuse, and adjustment disorder. These changes may be related to subtle disruption of neural circuits as well as functional changes at the neurotransmitter level. In particular, there is considerable evidence that dopamine physiology in the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways might be impaired after TBI...
January 20, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105774/stiffness-controlled-thermoresponsive-hydrogels-for-cell-harvesting-with-sustained-mechanical-memory
#4
Xingliang Fan, Lu Zhu, Ke Wang, Bingjie Wang, Yaozu Wu, Wei Xie, Chengyu Huang, Barbara Pui Chan, Yanan Du
Most mechanobiological investigations focused on in situ mechanical regulation of cells on stiffness-controlled substrates with few downstream applications, as it is still challenging to harvest and expand mechanically primed cells by enzymatic digestion (e.g., trypsin) without interrupting cellular mechanical memory between passages. This study develops thermoresponsive hydrogels with controllable stiffness to generate mechanically primed cells with intact mechanical memory for augmented wound healing. No significant cellular property alteration of the fibroblasts primed on thermoresponsive hydrogels with varied stiffness has been observed through thermoresponsive harvesting...
January 20, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105289/development-of-4-heteroarylamino-1-azaspiro-oxazole-5-3-bicyclo-2-2-2-octanes-as-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-agonists
#5
Matthew D Hill, Haiquan Fang, H Dalton King, Christiana I Iwuagwu, Ivar M McDonald, James Cook, F Christopher Zusi, Robert A Mate, Ronald J Knox, Debra Post-Munson, Amy Easton, Regina Miller, Kimberley Lentz, Wendy Clarke, Yulia Benitex, Nicholas Lodge, Robert Zaczek, Rex Denton, Daniel Morgan, Linda Bristow, John E Macor, Richard Olson
We describe the synthesis of quinuclidine-containing spiroimidates and their utility as α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonists. A convergent synthetic route allowed for rapid SAR investigation and provided a diverse set of fused 6,5-heteroaryl analogs. Two potent and selective α7 nAChR partial agonists, (1'S,3'R,4'S)-N-(7-bromopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl)-4H-1'-azaspiro[oxazole-5,3'-bicyclo[2.2.2]octan]-2-amine (20) and (1'S,3'R,4'S)-N-(7-chloropyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl)-4H-1'-azaspiro[oxazole-5,3'-bicyclo[2...
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104350/neonatal-exposure-to-bde-209-impaired-learning-and-memory-decreased-expression-of-hippocampal-core-snares-and-synaptophysin-in-adult-rats
#6
Xiong Li, Chunmei Wang, Wen Wang, Chengwei Yue, Yan Tang
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants. While the mechanism remains unknown, the potential neurotoxic effects of PBDEs remain a relevant issue. In the present study, neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were administered BDE 209 (1, 10, or 20mg/kg body weight) or peanut oil once daily from postnatal day (PND) 5 to PND 10. We examined the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze and the working and reference memory by eight-arm radial maze in the stage of adulthood...
January 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103594/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-prevalence-and-correlates-pre-and-post-bariatric-surgery-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#7
Friedrich Nielsen, Ekaterini Georgiadou, Merle Bartsch, Svenja Langenberg, Astrid Müller, Martina de Zwaan
OBJECTIVE: Previous research shows an association between obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study compares pre- and post-bariatric surgery patients using the internationally used Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS™) to screen for ADHD. METHODS: Matched samples pre- (N = 120) and post-bariatric surgery (N = 128) were compared using self-rating instruments to assess ADHD-relevant symptomatology, depression, eating-related psychopathology, and BMI...
January 20, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102395/sesamol-ameliorates-high-fat-and-high-fructose-induced-cognitive-defects-via-improving-insulin-signaling-disruption-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Zhigang Liu, Yali Sun, Qinglian Qiao, Tong Zhao, Wentong Zhang, Bo Ren, Qian Liu, Xuebo Liu
Sesamol, a nutritional component from sesame, possesses antioxidant, lipid lowering and antidepressant activities. Nonetheless, few studies report its effects on high-energy-dense diet-induced cognitive loss. The present research aimed to elucidate the action of sesamol on high-fat and high-fructose (HFFD) "western"-diet-induced central nervous system insulin resistance and learning and memory impairment, and further determined the possible underlying mechanism. 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into 3 groups with/without sesamol in the drinking water (0...
January 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100252/a-cognitive-electrophysiological-signature-differentiates-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-normal-aging
#9
Juan Li, Lucas S Broster, Gregory A Jicha, Nancy B Munro, Frederick A Schmitt, Erin Abner, Richard Kryscio, Charles D Smith, Yang Jiang
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive and effective biomarkers for early detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) before measurable changes in behavioral performance remain scarce. Cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) measure synchronized synaptic neural activity associated with a cognitive event. Loss of synapses is a hallmark of the neuropathology of early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ERP responses during working memory retrieval discriminate aMCI from cognitively normal controls (NC) matched in age and education...
January 19, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099989/effects-of-a-dietary-ketone-ester-on-hippocampal-glycolytic-and-tca-cycle-intermediates-and-amino-acids-in-a-3xtgad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Robert J Pawlosky, Martin F Kemper, Yoshihero Kashiwaya, M Todd King, Mark P Mattson, Richard L Veech
In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a triple transgenic (3xTgAD) mouse model of AD low glucose metabolism in the brain precedes loss of memory and cognitive decline. The metabolism of ketones in the brain by-passes glycolysis and therefore may correct several deficiencies that are associated with glucose hypometabolism. A dietary supplement composed of an ester of D-β-hydroxybutyrate and R-1,3 butane diol referred to as ketone ester (KE) was incorporated into a rodent diet and fed to 3xTgAD mice for 8 months...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099083/update-on-alzheimer-s-disease-therapy-and-prevention-strategies
#11
W Vallen Graham, Alessandra Bonito-Oliva, Thomas P Sakmar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the primary cause of age-related dementia. Effective strategies to prevent and treat AD remain elusive despite major efforts to understand its basic biology and clinical pathophysiology. Significant investments in therapeutic drug discovery programs over the past two decades have yielded some important insights but no blockbuster drugs to alter the course of disease. Because significant memory loss and cognitive decline are associated with neuron death and loss of gray matter, especially in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, some focus in drug development has shifted to early prevention of cellular pathology...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098937/sodium-selenate-treatment-improves-symptoms-and-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-malin-deficient-mouse-model-of-lafora-disease
#12
Gentzane Sánchez-Elexpuru, José M Serratosa, Marina P Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To search for new therapies aimed at ameliorating the neurologic symptoms and epilepsy developing in patients with Lafora disease. METHODS: Lafora disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in either the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Epm2a(-/-) and Epm2b(-/-) mice display neurologic and behavioral abnormalities similar to those found in patients. Selenium is a potent antioxidant and its deficiency has been related to the development of certain diseases, including epilepsy...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098452/a-perspective-on-crocus-sativus-l-saffron-constituent-corcin-a-potent-water-soluble-antioxidant-and-potential-therapy-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
John W Finley, Song Gao
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. Several factors are thought to play roles in the development and course of AD. Existing medical therapies only alleviate and delay cognitive symptoms. Current research has been focused on developing antibodies to remove the targets of β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau protein. This approach has achieved removal of A, however, no long term success to AD patients reported. The biological properties of saffron, the dry stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098244/stochastic-evolution-in-populations-of-ideas
#14
Robin Nicole, Peter Sollich, Tobias Galla
It is known that learning of players who interact in a repeated game can be interpreted as an evolutionary process in a population of ideas. These analogies have so far mostly been established in deterministic models, and memory loss in learning has been seen to act similarly to mutation in evolution. We here propose a representation of reinforcement learning as a stochastic process in finite 'populations of ideas'. The resulting birth-death dynamics has absorbing states and allows for the extinction or fixation of ideas, marking a key difference to mutation-selection processes in finite populations...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096524/a-case-of-seronegative-limbic-encephalitis-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-possible-overlapping-syndrome
#15
Zerrin Karaaslan, Özlem Mercan, Erdem Tüzün, Handan Mısırlı, Recai Türkoğlu
BACKGROUND Autoimmune encephalitis might coexist in patients with autoimmune demyelinating disorders. CASE REPORT We report on a case of a 45-year-old female multiple sclerosis (MS) patient presenting with acute onset short-term memory loss, altered mental status, inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and an MRI lesion on the left temporal lobe. An extensive panel for neuronal autoantibodies proved negative. Neuropsychological symptoms gave a prompt response to immunotherapy but nevertheless control MRI showed left hippocampal atrophy...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096497/bdnf-regains-function-in-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-deficits-caused-by-diencephalic-damage
#16
Lindsey C Vedder, Lisa M Savage
Thiamine deficiency (TD), commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, leads to diencephalic damage, hippocampal dysfunction, and spatial learning and memory deficits. We show a decrease in the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at CA3-CA1 synapses, independent of sex, following diencephalic damage induced by TD in rats. Thus, despite a lack of extensive hippocampal cell loss, diencephalic brain damage down-regulates plastic processes within the hippocampus, likely contributing to impaired hippocampal-dependent behaviors...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094952/effect-of-an-enhanced-nose-to-brain-delivery-of-insulin-on-mild-and-progressive-memory-loss-in-the-senescence-accelerated-mouse
#17
Noriyasu Kamei, Misa Tanaka, Hayoung Choi, Nobuyuki Okada, Takamasa Ikeda, Rei Itokazu, Mariko Takeda-Morishita
Insulin is now considered to be a new drug candidate for treating dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease, whose pathologies are linked to insulin resistance in the brain. Our recent work has clarified that a noncovalent strategy involving cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can increase the direct transport of insulin from the nasal cavity into the brain parenchyma. The present study aimed to determine whether the brain insulin level increased by intranasal coadministration of insulin with the CPP penetratin has potential for treating dementia...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094647/using-drawings-as-a-reflective-tool-to-enhance-communication-in-dementia-care
#18
Phil McEvoy, Sue Bellass
Communication skills training can be a valuable means of supporting professional and family carers of people with dementia. Most communication skills training programmes for those caring for people with dementia focus on dementia awareness and the technical aspects of communication, such as the pace and volume of the carer's speech. However, it is also important to examine what is conveyed about a carer's internal experience in their non-verbal interactions with people living with dementia. This article explores how drawings can be used to help carers to reflect on what is communicated and question any hidden assumptions...
January 4, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094021/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-encephalopathy-in-susac-s-syndrome-case-report
#19
Magdalena Roessler-Górecka, Tadeusz Mendel, Justyna Wiśniowska, Joanna Seniów
Susac's Syndrome (SS) is a rare, autoimmune angiopathy characterized by hearing loss, retinal artery occlusions and encephalopathy, which is usually expressed in multifocal neurological signs and symptoms, confusion state and cognitive impairment. There have been few descriptions of neuropsychological assessment of SS. We present a case study of 29-year-old woman who developed full SS. During the post-acute stage of disease, she was admitted to neurorehabilitation ward to improve her cognitive-behavioral and motor functioning...
January 10, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093507/mosaic-expression-of-atrx-in-the-central-nervous-system-causes-memory-deficits
#20
Renee J Tamming, Jennifer R Siu, Yan Jiang, Marco A M Prado, Frank Beier, Nathalie G Bérubé
The rapid modulation of chromatin organization is thought to play a critical role in cognitive processes such as memory consolidation. This is supported in part by the dysregulation of many chromatin remodeling proteins in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. A key example is ATRX, an X-linked gene commonly mutated in individuals with syndromic and non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID). The consequences of Atrx inactivation on learning and memory have been difficult to evaluate due to the early lethality of hemizygous-null animals...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
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