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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819289/escrt-iii-membrane-trafficking-misregulation-contributes-to-fragile-x-syndrome-synaptic-defects
#1
Dominic J Vita, Kendal Broadie
The leading cause of heritable intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), is caused by loss of the mRNA-binding translational suppressor Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). In the Drosophila FXS disease model, we found FMRP binds shrub mRNA (human Chmp4) to repress Shrub expression, causing overexpression during the disease state early-use critical period. The FXS hallmark is synaptic overelaboration causing circuit hyperconnectivity. Testing innervation of a central brain learning/memory center, we found FMRP loss and Shrub overexpression similarly increase connectivity...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817118/altered-marginal-zone-and-innate-like-b-cells-in-aged-senescence-accelerated-samp8-mice-with-defective-igg1-responses
#2
Isabel Cortegano, Mercedes Rodríguez, Isabel Martín, Maria Carmen Prado, Carolina Ruíz, Rafael Hortigüela, Mario Alía, Marçal Vilar, Helena Mira, Eva Cano, Mercedes Domínguez, Belén de Andrés, María Luisa Gaspar
Aging has a strong impact on the activity of the immune system, enhancing susceptibility to pathogens and provoking a predominant pre-inflammatory status, whereas dampening responses to vaccines in humans and mice. Here, we demonstrate a loss of marginal zone B lymphocytes (MZ, CD19(+)CD45R(+)CD21(++)CD23(lo)) and a decrease of naive B cells (CD19(+)IgD(+)), whereas there is an enhancement of a CD19(+)CD45R(lo) innate-like B cell population (B1REL) and the so-called aged B cell compartment (ABC, CD45R(+)CD21(lo)CD23(lo)CD5(-)CD11b(-)) in aged senescence-accelerated (SAMP8) mice but not in aged senescence-resistant (SAMR1) mice...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816633/restoration-and-loss-after-disaster-applying-the-dual-process-model-of-coping-in-bereavement
#3
Ruth McManus, Tony Walter, Leon Claridge
The article asks whether disasters that destroy life but leave the material infrastructure relatively intact tend to prompt communal coping focussing on loss, while disasters that destroy significant material infrastructure tend to prompt coping through restoration / re-building. After comparing memorials to New Zealand's Christchurch earthquake and Pike River mine disasters, we outline circumstances in which collective restorative endeavour may be grassroots, organised from above, or manipulated, along with limits to effective restoration...
August 17, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814961/compound-schisandra-ginseng-notoginseng-lycium-extract-ameliorates-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-disorders-in-mice
#4
Ning Li, Cong Liu, Shu Jing, Mengyang Wang, Han Wang, Jinghui Sun, Chunmei Wang, Jianguang Chen, He Li
Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a day for 30 days and then mouse learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze and step-through tests...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814843/effects-of-hearing-loss-on-speech-recognition-under-distracting-conditions-and-working-memory-in-the-elderly
#5
Wondo Na, Gibbeum Kim, Gungu Kim, Woojae Han, Jinsook Kim
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to evaluate hearing-related changes in terms of speech-in-noise processing, fast-rate speech processing, and working memory; and to identify which of these three factors is significantly affected by age-related hearing loss. METHODS: One hundred subjects aged 65-84 years participated in the study. They were classified into four groups ranging from normal hearing to moderate-to-severe hearing loss. All the participants were tested for speech perception in quiet and noisy conditions and for speech perception with time alteration in quiet conditions...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814827/anticholinesterase-constituents-from-the-leaves-of-spondias-mombin-l-anacardiaceae
#6
Taiwo Olayemi Elufioye, Efere M Obuotor, Joseph M Agbedahunsi, Saburi A Adesanya
Spondias mombin has been used in traditional medicine for the management of several diseases, including memory loss. This study aimed to evaluate the cholinesterase inhibitory activity of the methanol extract of the leaves and its derived fractions, as well as carry out detailed phytochemical investigations leading to the isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from the plant. The acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and butyryl cholinesterase (BUChE) inhibitory activities were evaluated by colorimetric and thin-layer chromatography bioautographic assay techniques...
2017: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813670/nkx2-1-is-required-in-the-embryonic-septum-for-cholinergic-system-development-learning-and-memory
#7
Lorenza Magno, Caswell Barry, Christoph Schmidt-Hieber, Polyvios Theodotou, Michael Häusser, Nicoletta Kessaris
The transcription factor NKX2-1 is best known for its role in the specification of subsets of cortical, striatal, and pallidal neurons. We demonstrate through genetic fate mapping and intersectional focal septal deletion that NKX2-1 is selectively required in the embryonic septal neuroepithelium for the development of cholinergic septohippocampal projection neurons and large subsets of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In the absence of NKX2-1, these neurons fail to develop, causing alterations in hippocampal theta rhythms and severe deficiencies in learning and memory...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806341/impact-of-cochlear-implantation-on-cognitive-functions-of-older-adults-pilot-test-results
#8
Dona M P Jayakody, Peter L Friedland, Esmeralda Nel, Ralph N Martins, Marcus D Atlas, Hamid R Sohrabi
BACKGROUND: A significant relationship between hearing loss and cognitive impairment has been previously reported. Overall, improvement in speech perception in quiet and quality of life has been observed after cochlear implantation. However, the impact of hearing loss treatment using cochlear implantation on cognitive functions is yet to be fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of cochlear implantation on cognitive and psychological functions of older adults...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806193/speech-perception-in-noise-and-listening-effort-of-older-adults-with-nonlinear-frequency-compression-hearing-aids
#9
James Shehorn, Nicole Marrone, Thomas Muller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this laboratory-based study was to compare the efficacy of two hearing aid fittings with and without nonlinear frequency compression, implemented within commercially available hearing aids. Previous research regarding the utility of nonlinear frequency compression has revealed conflicting results for speech recognition, marked by high individual variability. Individual differences in auditory function and cognitive abilities, specifically hearing loss slope and working memory, may contribute to aided performance...
August 10, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805291/harms-of-unsuccessful-donation-after-circulatory-death-an-exploratory-study
#10
Lauren J Taylor, Anne Buffington, Joseph R Scalea, Norman Fost, Kenneth D Croes, Joshua D Mezrich, Margaret L Schwarze
While donation after circulatory death (DCD) has expanded options for organ donation, many who wish to donate are still unable to do so. We conducted face-to-face interviews with family members (n=15) who had direct experience with unsuccessful DCD and five focus groups with professionals involved in the donation process. We used qualitative content analysis to characterize harms of non-donation as perceived by participants. Participants reported a broad spectrum of harms impacting organ recipients, donors and donor families...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804260/modelling-the-fear-of-crime
#11
Rafael Prieto Curiel, Steven Bishop
How secure people feel in a particular region is obviously linked to the actual crime suffered in that region but the exact relationship between crime and its fear is quite subtle. Two regions may have the same crime rate but their local perception of security may differ. Equally, two places may have the same perception of security even though one may have a significantly lower crime rate. Furthermore, a negative perception might persist for many years, even when crime rates drop. Here, we develop a model for the dynamics of the perception of security of a region based on the distribution of crime suffered by the population using concepts similar to those used for opinion dynamics...
July 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802932/anosmia-and-ageusia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Arjun Tarakad, Joseph Jankovic
Anosmia, the loss of sense of smell, is a common nonmotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ageusia, the loss of sense of taste, is additionally an underappreciated nonmotor feature of PD. The olfactory tract is involved early in PD as indicated by frequent occurrence of hyposmia or anosmia years or decades before motor symptoms and by autopsy studies showing early synuclein pathology in the olfactory tract and anterior olfactory nucleus even in the early stages of PD. Testing for olfaction consists of evaluation of olfactory thresholds, smell identification and discrimination, and olfactory memory...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801921/autophagy-impairment-by-caspase-1-dependent-inflammation-mediates-memory-loss-in-response-to-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-accumulation
#13
Lourdes Álvarez-Arellano, Martha Pedraza-Escalona, Tonali Blanco-Ayala, Nohemí Camacho-Concha, Javier Cortés-Mendoza, Leonor Pérez-Martínez, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva
β-Amyloid peptide accumulation in the cortex and in the hippocampus results in neurodegeneration and memory loss. Recently, it became evident that the inflammatory response triggered by β-Amyloid peptides promotes neuronal cell death and degeneration. In addition to inflammation, β-Amyloid peptides also induce alterations in neuronal autophagy, eventually leading to neuronal cell death. Thus, here we evaluated whether the inflammatory response induced by the β-Amyloid peptides impairs memory via disrupting the autophagic flux...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801194/medial-septum-modulates-hippocampal-gamma-activity-and-prepulse-inhibition-in-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-model-of-schizophrenia
#14
L Stan Leung, Jingyi Ma
We reviewed the participation of the septohippocampal system in an animal model of schizophrenia that was acutely induced by systemic injection of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist such as phencyclidine, MK-801 and ketamine. The NMDA receptor antagonist-induced model of schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions, including a decrease in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI), hyperlocomotion, decrease in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials and robust increase in hippocampal gamma (30-100Hz) oscillations...
August 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798977/risperidone-and-aripiprazole-alleviate-prenatal-valproic-acid-induced-abnormalities-in-behaviors-and-dendritic-spine-density-in-mice
#15
Yuta Hara, Yukio Ago, Atsuki Taruta, Shigeru Hasebe, Haruki Kawase, Wataru Tanabe, Shinji Tsukada, Takanobu Nakazawa, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Toshio Matsuda, Kazuhiro Takuma
RATIONALE: Rodents exposed prenatally to valproic acid (VPA) exhibit autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like behavioral abnormalities. We recently found that prenatal VPA exposure causes hypofunction of the prefrontal dopaminergic system in mice. This suggests that the dopaminergic system may be a potential pharmacological target for treatment of behavioral abnormalities in ASD patients. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we examined the effects of antipsychotic drugs, which affect the dopaminergic system, on the social interaction deficits, recognition memory impairment, and reduction in dendritic spine density in the VPA mouse model of ASD...
August 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798681/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-treatment-enhances-hemodynamics-and-ameliorates-memory-deficits-in-rats-with-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#16
Zhilin Xiong, Weibiao Lu, Lihui Zhu, Ling Zeng, Changzheng Shi, Zhen Jing, Yonghui Xiang, Wenxian Li, Chi Kwan Tsang, Yiwen Ruan, Li'an Huang
Our previous study has revealed that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) activates a compensatory vascular mechanism attempting to maintain an optimal cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, this compensation fails to prevent neuronal death and cognitive impairment because neurons die prior to the restoration of normal CBF. Therefore, pharmacological invention may be critical to enhance the CBF for reducing neurodegeneration and memory deficit. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a compound isolated from the seeds of Chinese celery and has been proven to be able to prevent neuronal loss, reduce inflammation and ameliorate memory deficits in acute ischemic animal models and stroke patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797599/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-analysis-of-neurochemical-changes-in-the-atrophic-hippocampus-of-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#17
Shengxiang Liang, Jia Huang, Weilin Liu, Hao Jin, Long Li, Xiufeng Zhang, Binbin Nie, Ruhui Lin, Jing Tao, Shujun Zhao, Baoci Shan, Lidian Chen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuropathological changes and progressive cognitive decline, which is associated with the volume loss and neurochemical alterations. However, the specific neurochemical alterations in cerebral regions that contribute to cognitive decline still remain unknown. In the present study, we measured cerebral morphological and neurochemical alterations using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in an AD model of APP/PS1 transgenic mice...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793136/an-exploration-of-the-associations-among-hearing-loss-physical-health-and-visual-memory-in-adults-from-west-central-alabama
#18
Marcia J Hay-McCutcheon, Adriana Hyams, Xin Yang, Jason Parton, Brianna Panasiuk, Sarah Ondocsin, Mary Margaret James, Forrest Scogin
Purpose: The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the associations among hearing loss, physical health, and visual memory in adults living in rural areas, urban clusters, and an urban city in west Central Alabama. Method: Two hundred ninety-seven adults (182 women, 115 men) from rural areas, urban clusters, and an urban city of west Central Alabama completed a hearing assessment, a physical health questionnaire, a hearing handicap measure, and a visual memory test...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792672/constitutive-loss-and-acute-pharmacological-manipulation-of-erbb4-signaling-do-not-affect-attention-and-inhibitory-control-in-mice
#19
Elena Marchisella, Ruud Wijnands, Bastijn Koopmans, Sabine Spijker, Maarten Loos
The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4 and its ligand trophic factors of the neuregulin (NRG) family have been associated with schizophrenia and other mental disorders in human genetic studies. In vivo studies in mice have shown how abnormal Nrg-ErbB4 signaling leads to deviant behaviors relevant to distinct aspects of schizophrenia, including hyperactivity, sensory gating deficits, working and spatial memory deficits and impaired social behavior. However, so far little is known on the role of ErbB4 in attention and inhibitory control, two aspects of executive functions that are impaired in schizophrenia...
August 9, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792623/delay-discounting-of-losses-in-alcohol-use-disorders-and-antisocial-psychopathology-effects-of-a-working-memory-load
#20
Kyle Gerst, Rachel L Gunn, Peter R Finn
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with increased discounting of delayed rewards and reduced executive working memory (eWM) capacity. This association is amplified when comorbid with antisocial psychopathology (AP). Furthermore, recent studies suggest that reduced WM capacity is associated with disinhibited decisions reflected by increased impulsive decision-making on the delay discounting of rewards task. While discounting of delayed rewards is well studied, the discounting of delayed losses (DDL) has received significantly less experimental attention...
August 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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