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Marijuana and glaucoma

Fang Ko, Michael V Boland, Priya Gupta, Shekhar K Gadkaree, Susan Vitale, Eliseo Guallar, Di Zhao, David S Friedman
PURPOSE: To determine risk factors for glaucoma in a population-based study in the United States. METHODS: Participants age 40 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent questionnaires, physical examination, laboratory tests, and vision tests including fundus imaging. Glaucoma was determined based on expert grading of fundus photographs. Regression modeling of glaucoma risk factors was performed. RESULTS: Participants with glaucoma (172) were older (mean age 68...
April 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Rimplejeet Kaur, Sneha R Ambwani, Surjit Singh
Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It has been cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes since many centuries. Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries. The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and downs in the recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve "protective role" in many medical conditions...
2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Timothy E Albertson, James A Chenoweth, Daniel K Colby, Mark E Sutter
The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years...
February 2016: FP Essentials
Gary D Novack
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the current status of cannabis in the treatment of glaucoma, including the greater availability of marijuana in the USA. RECENT FINDINGS: The potency of marijuana, as measured by the concentration of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol, has increased from ∼2 to 3% in the 1970s to ∼20% today. Many US states have passed laws allowing either medicinal or recreational use of marijuana. SUMMARY: The pharmacology of marijuana and its effect on intraocular pressure has not changed since the research in the 1970s and 1980s...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Jayesh R Parmar, Benjamin D Forrest, Robert A Freeman
The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana...
July 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Karen E Moeller, Barbara Woods
OBJECTIVE: To determine pharmacy students' knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. METHODS: Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. RESULTS: Three hundred eleven students completed the survey...
August 25, 2015: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Xiaoshen Sun, Chaoying S Xu, Nisha Chadha, Allshine Chen, Ji Liu
Marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) but with limited duration of action and numerous adverse effects. Use of marijuana to lower IOP as a means of glaucoma treatment would require frequent use throughout the day, leading to significant adverse effects, possible progression toward Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and/or withdrawal symptoms. The treatment of glaucoma based on the cannabis plant or drugs based on the cannabinoid molecule should be considered carefully before being prescribed...
September 2015: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Tista S Ghosh, Michael Van Dyke, Ali Maffey, Elizabeth Whitley, Dana Erpelding, Larry Wolk
In 2000, Colorado residents voted to legalize marijuana use for medical conditions such as glaucoma, HIV–AIDS, cancer, seizures, and severe pain. From 2000 to 2009, medical marijuana was available in Colorado only from plants grown in noncommercial, home settings, and the number of medical users..
March 12, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Selim R Benbadis, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, Ali Bozorg, Melissa Giarratano, Kavita Kalidas, Lara Katzin, Derrick Robertson, Tuan Vu, Amanda Smith, Theresa Zesiewicz
Constituents of the Cannabis plant, cannabinoids, may be of therapeutic value in neurologic diseases. The most abundant cannabinoids are Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which possesses psychoactive properties, and cannabidiol, which has no intrinsic psychoactive effects, but exhibits neuroprotective properties in preclinical studies. A small number of high-quality clinical trials support the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity of multiple sclerosis, pain refractory to opioids, glaucoma, nausea and vomiting...
December 2014: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Rajul S Parikh, Shefali R Parikh
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Various randomized controlled clinical trials have shown that lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) does reduce progression of primary open-angle glaucoma. However, there is lots of interest in nonpharmacological options that includes lifestyle adjustment and alternative and complementary therapy (ACT). At least 5% glaucoma population uses ACT. Various lifestyle activities like exercise and alcohol can reduce IOP by 1 to 2 mm Hg but would have small effect on glaucoma...
January 2011: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Káthia M Honório, Emmanuela F de Lima, Marcos G Quiles, Roseli A F Romero, Fábio A Molfetta, Albérico B F da Silva
Cannabinoid compounds have widely been employed because of its medicinal and psychotropic properties. These compounds are isolated from Cannabis sativa (or marijuana) and are used in several medical treatments, such as glaucoma, nausea associated to chemotherapy, pain and many other situations. More recently, its use as appetite stimulant has been indicated in patients with cachexia or AIDS. In this work, the influence of several molecular descriptors on the psychoactivity of 50 cannabinoid compounds is analyzed aiming one obtain a model able to predict the psychoactivity of new cannabinoids...
June 2010: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Henry Jampel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2010: Journal of Glaucoma
Gilberto Gerra, Amir Zaimovic, Maria L Gerra, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Andrea Cippitelli, Giovanni Serpelloni, Lorenzo Somaini
For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma...
January 2010: Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery
Stephen Yazulla
The active component of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces numerous beneficial effects, including analgesia, appetite stimulation and nausea reduction, in addition to its psychotropic effects. THC mimics the action of endogenous fatty acid derivatives, referred to as endocannabinoids. The effects of THC and the endocannabinoids are mediated largely by metabotropic receptors that are distributed throughout the nervous and peripheral organ systems. There is great interest in endocannabinoids for their role in neuroplasticity as well as for therapeutic use in numerous conditions, including pain, stroke, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis, fertility, neurodegenerative diseases, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma and inflammatory diseases, among others...
September 2008: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Natalya M Kogan, Raphael Mechoulam
Cannabis sativa L. preparations have been used in medicine for millenia. However, concern over the dangers of abuse led to the banning of the medicinal use of marijuana in most countries in the 1930s. Only recently, marijuana and individual natural and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as chemically related compounds, whose mechanism of action is still obscure, have come back to being considered of therapeutic value. However, their use is highly restricted. Despite the mild addiction to cannabis and the possible enhancement of addiction to other substances of abuse, when combined with cannabis, the therapeutic value of cannabinoids is too high to be put aside...
2007: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Matthew J Seamon, Jennifer A Fass, Maria Maniscalco-Feichtl, Nada A Abu-Shraie
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, therapeutic uses, safety, drug-drug interactions, and drug-disease interactions of medical marijuana are reviewed, and the legal issues related to its use and the implications of medical marijuana for the pharmacist are presented. SUMMARY: Marijuana contains more than 460 active chemicals and over 60 unique cannabinoids. The legal landscape surrounding marijuana is surprisingly complex and unsettled. In the United States, 11 states and several municipalities have legalized medical marijuana...
May 15, 2007: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Angela Alsasua del Valle
1. Preparations from Cannabis sativa (marijuana) have been used for many centuries both medicinally and recreationally. 2. Recent advances in the knowledge of its pharmacological and chemical properties in the organism, mainly due to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and the physiological roles played by the endocannabinoids have opened up new strategies in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. 3. Potential therapeutic uses of cannabinoid receptor agonists include the management of spasticity and tremor in multiple sclerosis/spinal cord injury, pain, inflammatory disorders, glaucoma, bronchial asthma, cancer, and vasodilation that accompanies advanced cirrhosis...
July 2006: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
P Robson
Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures. It reached a position of prominence within Western medicine in the nineteenth century but became mired in disrepute and legal controls early in the twentieth century. Despite unremitting world-wide suppression, recreational cannabis exploded into popular culture in the 1960s and has remained easily obtainable on the black market in most countries ever since. This ready availability has allowed many thousands of patients to rediscover the apparent power of the drug to alleviate symptoms of some of the most cruel and refractory diseases known to humankind...
2005: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Mohamed Ben Amar
In order to assess the current knowledge on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids, a meta-analysis was performed through Medline and PubMed up to July 1, 2005. The key words used were cannabis, marijuana, marihuana, hashish, hashich, haschich, cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, dronabinol, nabilone, levonantradol, randomised, randomized, double-blind, simple blind, placebo-controlled, and human. The research also included the reports and reviews published in English, French and Spanish. For the final selection, only properly controlled clinical trials were retained, thus open-label studies were excluded...
April 21, 2006: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Peter Trittibach, Beatrice E Frueh, David Goldblum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2005: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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