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Marijuana and Seizures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696387/cannabidiol-as-a-new-treatment-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#1
Evan J Hess, Kirsten A Moody, Alexandra L Geffrey, Sarah F Pollack, Lauren A Skirvin, Patricia L Bruno, Jan L Paolini, Elizabeth A Thiele
OBJECTIVE: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder with highly variable expression. The most common neurologic manifestation of TSC is epilepsy, which affects approximately 85% of patients, 63% of whom develop treatment-resistant epilepsy. Herein, we evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive compound derived from the marijuana plant, as an adjunct to current antiepileptic drugs in patients with refractory seizures in the setting of TSC...
October 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673500/near-infrared-spectroscopy-combined-with-chemometrics-for-growth-stage-classification-of-cannabis-cultivated-in-a-greenhouse-from-seized-seeds
#2
Bruna Tassi Borille, Marcelo Caetano Alexandre Marcelo, Rafael Scorsatto Ortiz, Kristiane de Cássia Mariotti, Marco Flôres Ferrão, Renata Pereira Limberger
Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis, Cannabaceae), popularly called marijuana, is one of the oldest plants known to man and it is the illicit drug most used worldwide. It also has been the subject of increasing discussions from the scientific and political points of view due to its medicinal properties. In recent years in Brazil, the form of cannabis drug trafficking has been changing and the Brazilian Federal Police has exponentially increased the number of seizures of cannabis seeds sent by the mail. This new form of trafficking encouraged the study of cannabis seeds seized germinated in a greenhouse through NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics...
September 22, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660881/use-of-marijuana-for-medical-purposes
#3
EDITORIAL
Jarosław Pinkas, Piotr Jabłoński, Michal Kidawa, Waldemar Wierzba
Cannabis is the most popular illicit drug on the European market. Over 16 million young Europeans have used it at least once in the last few years. The recent trends in the consumption of marihuana differ between countries. Some countries face an increase in the prevalence of cannabis use, including Poland, where the level cannabis use has been systematically increasing since the 1990's. According to a recent ESPAD study, 19% of Polish adolescents aged 15-16 have used cannabis in the last year. Marihuana is also a leading substance when analyzing the data of seizures and crimes...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587196/from-cannabis-to-cannabidiol-to-treat-epilepsy-where-are-we
#4
Pellegrino Lippiello, Simona Balestrini, Antonio Leo, Antonietta Coppola, Rita Citraro, Maurizio Elia, Emilio Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro
BACKGROUND: Several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), about 25, are currently clinically available for the treatment of patients with epilepsy. Despite this armamentarium and the many recently introduced AEDs, no major advances have been achieved considering the number of drug resistant patients, while many benefits have been indeed obtained for other clinical outcomes (e.g. better tolerability, less interactions). Cannabinoids have long been studied for their potential therapeutical use and more recently phytocannabinoids have been considered a valuable tool for the treatment of several neurological disorders including epilepsy...
August 31, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568641/marijuana-use-in-adults-admitted-to-a-canadian-epilepsy-monitoring-unit
#5
Andreu Massot-Tarrús, Richard S McLachlan
OBJECTIVES: Epidemiologic evidence supporting antiseizure properties of cannabis is limited and controversial. We determined the prevalence of marijuana use and its perceived effects in patients with and without epilepsy. METHODS: Information was collected over 14months from consecutive adult patients admitted to an epilepsy monitoring unit using a 27-item anonymous questionnaire. Patients with cognitive impairment unable to understand the questions or give informed consent and readmissions were not recruited...
October 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400773/quantification-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-herbal-smoking-blends-using-nmr
#6
Simon J Dunne, Jenny P Rosengren-Holmberg
Herbal smoking blends containing synthetic cannabinoids have become popular alternatives to marijuana. These products were previously sold in pre-packaged foil bags, but nowadays seizures usually contain synthetic cannabinoid powders together with unprepared plant materials. A question often raised by the Swedish police is how much smoking blend can be prepared from certain amounts of banned substance, in order to establish the severity of the crime. To address this question, information about the synthetic cannabinoid content in both the powder and the prepared herbal blends is necessary...
July 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354925/medical-marijuana-for-epilepsy
#7
Murali K Kolikonda, Kavitha Srinivasan, Manasa Enja, Vishwanath Sagi, Steven Lippmann
Treatment-refractory epilepsy remains an important clinical problem. There is considerable recent interest by the public and physicians in using medical marijuana or its derivatives to treat seizures. The endocannabinoid system has a role in neuronal balance and ictal control. There is clinical evidence of success in diminishing seizure frequencies with cannabis derivatives, but also documentation about exacerbating epilepsy or of no discernible effect. There are lay indications and anecdotal reports of success in attenuating the severity of epilepsy, but without solid investigational corroboration...
March 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27248776/reasons-for-energy-drink-use-and-reported-adverse-effects-among-adolescent-emergency-department-patients
#8
Sean Patrick Nordt, Ilene Claudius, Cyrus Rangan, Erick Armijo, Peter Milano, Sheryl Yanger, Christian Tomaszsewski
OBJECTIVES: There is concern of energy drink use by adolescents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy drink consumption use, frequency, age of first use, reasons for use, influences of choice of brand, and adverse events recorded in a predominant Latino adolescent population. METHODS: Subjects between the ages of 13 and 19 years utilizing emergency department services for any reason at a large county hospital answered a questionnaire about energy drink usage...
February 10, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086601/endocannabinoid-system-a-multi-facet-therapeutic-target
#9
REVIEW
Rimplejeet Kaur, Sneha R Ambwani, Surjit Singh
Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It has been cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes since many centuries. Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries. The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and downs in the recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve "protective role" in many medical conditions...
2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984292/practice-update-review-of-anticonvulsant-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Derek J Chong, Andrew M Lerman
Since 2010, the Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of four new anti-epilepsy drugs (AEDs) for the treatment of epilepsy in the USA: clobazam (Onfi), ezogabine (Potiga), perampanel (Fycompa), and eslicarbazepine (Aptiom) as well as two extended release formulations, topiramate ER (Qudexy XR and Trokendi) and oxcarbazepine ER (Oxtellar). This not only provides practitioners ample choice to match medication profiles to their patients' preferences and co-morbidities better, but also challenges us to be proficient in the use of all...
April 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929665/a-urinary-test-procedure-for-identification-of-cannabidiol-in-patients-undergoing-medical-therapy-with-marijuana
#11
Paul T Wertlake, Michael D Henson
Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD) to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is psychoactive...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892745/plant-derived-and-endogenous-cannabinoids-in-epilepsy
#12
Alberto Verrotti, Miriam Castagnino, Mauro Maccarrone, Filomena Fezza
Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs and its anticonvulsant properties have been known since the last century. The aim of this review was to analyze the efficacy of cannabis in the treatment of epilepsy in adults and children. In addition, a description of the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in epilepsy is given in order to provide a biochemical background to the effects of endogenous cannabinoids in our body. General tolerability and adverse events associated with cannabis treatment are also investigated...
May 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862498/synthetic-cannabinoids-2015-an-update-for-pediatricians-in-clinical-practice
#13
REVIEW
Daniel Castellanos, Leonard M Gralnik
Synthetic cannabinoids are a group of substances in the world of designer drugs that have become increasingly popular over the past few years. Synthetic cannabinoids are a chemically diverse group of compounds functionally similar to THC. Since first appearing on the world market a few years ago these compounds have evolved rapidly. Newer more potent analogues have been developed. Identifying youth who abuse these substances can be difficult. Newer forms of consumption have also evolved. These products are now manufactured in products that look like natural cannabis resin and in liquid cartridges used in electronic cigarettes...
February 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26787773/the-pharmacological-basis-of-cannabis-therapy-for-epilepsy
#14
REVIEW
Doodipala Samba Reddy, Victoria M Golub
Recently, cannabis has been suggested as a potential alternative therapy for refractory epilepsy, which affects 30% of epilepsy, both adults and children, who do not respond to current medications. There is a large unmet medical need for new antiepileptics that would not interfere with normal function in patients with refractory epilepsy and conditions associated with refractory seizures. The two chief cannabinoids are Δ-9-tetrahyrdrocannabinol, the major psychoactive component of marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of marijuana...
April 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26661945/evaluation-of-a-13-loci-str-multiplex-system-for-cannabis-sativa-genetic-identification
#15
Rachel Houston, Matthew Birck, Sheree Hughes-Stamm, David Gangitano
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit substance in the USA. The development of a validated method using Cannabis short tandem repeats (STRs) could aid in the individualization of samples as well as serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases. For this purpose, a modified 13-loci STR multiplex method was optimized and evaluated according to ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. A real-time PCR quantification method for C. sativa was developed and validated, and a sequenced allelic ladder was also designed to accurately genotype 199 C...
May 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26657499/characterizing-the-smell-of-marijuana-by-odor-impact-of-volatile-compounds-an-application-of-simultaneous-chemical-and-sensory-analysis
#16
Somchai Rice, Jacek A Koziel
Recent U.S. legislation permitting recreational use of marijuana in certain states brings the use of marijuana odor as probable cause for search and seizure to the forefront of forensic science, once again. This study showed the use of solid-phase microextraction with multidimensional gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and simultaneous human olfaction to characterize the total aroma of marijuana. The application of odor activity analysis offers an explanation as to why high volatile chemical concentration does not equate to most potent odor impact of a certain compound...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26633945/translating-nature-to-nurture-back-to-the-future-for-new-epilepsy-therapies
#17
Steven C Schachter
An emerging strategy for finding new epilepsy therapies is focused on botanicals (as illustrated by recent attention to medical marijuana), given their centuries-old traditions of use in treatment of convulsive seizures, contemporary anecdotal reports of efficacy in persons with epilepsy, and identification of underlying mechanisms of action that are relevant to epilepsy. Hundreds of plant extracts have been found to block seizures in acute animal seizure models, with actions that include effects on GABA receptors and voltage-gated ion channels as well as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects...
November 2015: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26460022/prenatal-exposure-to-cannabinoids-evokes-long-lasting-functional-alterations-by-targeting-cb1-receptors-on-developing-cortical-neurons
#18
Adán de Salas-Quiroga, Javier Díaz-Alonso, Daniel García-Rincón, Floortje Remmers, David Vega, María Gómez-Cañas, Beat Lutz, Manuel Guzmán, Ismael Galve-Roperh
The CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main target of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most prominent psychoactive compound of marijuana, plays a crucial regulatory role in brain development as evidenced by the neurodevelopmental consequences of its manipulation in animal models. Likewise, recreational cannabis use during pregnancy affects brain structure and function of the progeny. However, the precise neurobiological substrates underlying the consequences of prenatal THC exposure remain unknown. As CB1 signaling is known to modulate long-range corticofugal connectivity, we analyzed the impact of THC exposure on cortical projection neuron development...
November 3, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26443472/medical-marijuana-patient-counseling-points-for-health-care-professionals-based-on-trends-in-the-medical-uses-efficacy-and-adverse-effects-of-cannabis-based-pharmaceutical-drugs
#19
Jayesh R Parmar, Benjamin D Forrest, Robert A Freeman
The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana...
July 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26408165/cannabis-and-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-epilepsy
#20
REVIEW
István Katona
The antiepileptic potential of Cannabis sativa preparations has been historically recognized. Recent changes in legal restrictions and new well-documented cases reporting remarkably strong beneficial effects have triggered an upsurge in exploiting medical marijuana in patients with refractory epilepsy. Parallel research efforts in the last decade have uncovered the fundamental role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in controlling neuronal network excitability raising hopes for cannabinoid-based therapeutic approaches...
2015: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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