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Marijuana and nausea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900531/accidental-cannabis-poisoning-in-the-elderly
#1
Anja Zupan Mežnar, Miran Brvar, Gregor Kralj, Dragan Kovačič
There are two main varieties of Cannabis sativa plant, namely, hemp which is cultivated for fiber and seeds and contains low amounts of psychoactive cannabinoids and the other which is cultivated for the drug cannabis or marijuana. Increasing popularity of hemp food products and alleged beneficial effects of cannabinoids in the drug variety of cannabis might lead to confusion in the lay population and unintentional ingestion of marijuana, as described in this case report. During a workshop on the use of hemp for medicinal purposes, there was a degustation of various hemp food products including also cookies that were brought by one of the attendees...
November 29, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846066/prevalence-and-patterns-of-marijuana-use-in-young-adults-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Uma Padhye Phatak, Danilo Rojas-Velasquez, Anthony Porto, Dinesh S Pashankar
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies in adults report symptom relief with marijuana use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed the prevalence, pattern, effects and adverse effects of marijuana use in young adults with IBD. METHODS: We conducted a prospective questionnaire survey study at a pediatric IBD clinic. All patients (18 to 21 years of age) answered anonymous questionnaires about demographics, IBD, medications and marijuana use. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients (Mean age 18...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792038/role-of-cannabis-in-digestive-disorders
#3
Hemant Goyal, Umesh Singla, Urvashi Gupta, Elizabeth May
Cannabis sativa, a subspecies of the Cannabis plant, contains aromatic hydrocarbon compounds called cannabinoids. [INCREMENT]-Tetrahydrocannabinol is the most abundant cannabinoid and is the main psychotropic constituent. Cannabinoids activate two types of G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors: cannabinoid type 1 receptor and cannabinoid type 2 receptor. There has been ongoing interest and development in research to explore the therapeutic potential of cannabis. [INCREMENT]-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts biological functions on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
October 27, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757817/novel-treatments-for-cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-beyond-ondansetron-and-amitriptyline
#4
Sanjay Bhandari, Thangam Venkatesan
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by episodic nausea and vomiting. Initially thought to only affect children, CVS in adults was often misdiagnosed with significant delays in therapy. Over the last decade, there has been a considerable increase in recognition of CVS in adults but there continues to be a lack of knowledge about management of this disorder. This paper seeks to provide best practices in the treatment of CVS and also highlight some novel therapies that have the potential in better treating this disorder in the future...
October 18, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27407130/cannabinoids-for-symptom-management-and-cancer-therapy-the-evidence
#5
REVIEW
Mellar P Davis
Cannabinoids bind not only to classical receptors (CB1 and CB2) but also to certain orphan receptors (GPR55 and GPR119), ion channels (transient receptor potential vanilloid), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Cannabinoids are known to modulate a multitude of monoamine receptors. Structurally, there are 3 groups of cannabinoids. Multiple studies, most of which are of moderate to low quality, demonstrate that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and oromucosal cannabinoid combinations of THC and cannabidiol (CBD) modestly reduce cancer pain...
July 2016: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274310/dronabinol-for-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-unresponsive-to-antiemetics
#6
REVIEW
Megan Brafford May, Ashley E Glode
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most common symptoms feared by patients, but may be prevented or lessened with appropriate medications. Several antiemetic options exist to manage CINV. Corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists, and neurokinin receptor antagonists are the classes most commonly used in the prevention of CINV. There are many alternative drug classes utilized for the prevention and management of CINV such as antihistamines, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, cannabinoids, and dopamine receptor antagonists...
2016: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249079/cannabis-and-neuropsychiatry-1-benefits-and-risks
#7
Chittaranjan Andrade
Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098832/endocannabinoid-related-lipids-are-increased-during-an-episode-of-cyclic-vomiting-syndrome
#8
T Venkatesan, Y Zadvornova, H Raff, C J Hillard
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are important neuromodulators of nausea and vomiting. This led us to hypothesize that patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) have lower serum endocannabinoids (eCBs) and higher salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. METHODS: Serum eCBs and related lipids, N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and salivary cortisol, and alpha amylase (index of sympathetic nervous system activity) were measured in 22 CVS patients (age 40 ± 11, female = 17) in the well and sick phases and 12 matched controls (age 37 ± 12, female = 10)...
September 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26881768/the-changing-drug-culture-medical-and-recreational-marijuana
#9
REVIEW
Timothy E Albertson, James A Chenoweth, Daniel K Colby, Mark E Sutter
The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years...
February 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26626034/challenges-with-acute-care-and-response-to-treatment-among-adult-patients-with-cyclic-vomiting-syndrome
#10
Ashley D Jensen
Cyclic vomiting syndrome is a chronic gastrointestinal tract disorder. The symptoms include cycles of extreme nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain separated by periods of wellness. Previous research suggests a quality gap in early recognition and appropriate management of adults with cyclic vomiting syndrome. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adult patients' experiences with cyclic vomiting syndrome, including challenges receiving a diagnosis and responses to treatment. This study was conducted using a phenomenological research design...
November 2015: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26461168/sex-differences-in-cannabis-withdrawal-symptoms-among-treatment-seeking-cannabis-users
#11
Evan S Herrmann, Elise M Weerts, Ryan Vandrey
Over 300,000 individuals enter treatment for cannabis-use disorders (CUDs) in the United States annually. Cannabis withdrawal is associated with poor CUD-treatment outcomes, but no prior studies have examined sex differences in withdrawal among treatment-seeking cannabis users. Treatment-seeking cannabis users (45 women and 91 men) completed a Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (Budney, Novy, & Hughes, 1999, Budney, Moore, Vandrey, & Hughes, 2003) at treatment intake to retrospectively characterize withdrawal symptoms experienced during their most recent quit attempt...
December 2015: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26443472/medical-marijuana-patient-counseling-points-for-health-care-professionals-based-on-trends-in-the-medical-uses-efficacy-and-adverse-effects-of-cannabis-based-pharmaceutical-drugs
#12
Jayesh R Parmar, Benjamin D Forrest, Robert A Freeman
The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana...
July 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26185942/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-marijuana-is-both-antiemetic-and-proemetic
#13
REVIEW
Marvin Louis Roy Y Lu, Markus D Agito
Although marijuana is sometimes used to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, when used long-term it can have a paradoxical hyperemetic effect known as cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Knowledge of this phenomenon may reduce the ordering of unnecessary and expensive investigations, as well as inappropriate medical and surgical treatment in patients presenting with recurrent vomiting of unknown cause. This article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of this emerging condition...
July 2015: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26132518/synthetic-cannabinoids
#14
REVIEW
Brooke Mills, Andres Yepes, Kenneth Nugent
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis...
July 2015: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26103031/medical-marijuana-for-treatment-of-chronic-pain-and-other-medical-and-psychiatric-problems-a-clinical-review
#15
REVIEW
Kevin P Hill
IMPORTANCE: As of March 2015, 23 states and the District of Columbia had medical marijuana laws in place. Physicians should know both the scientific rationale and the practical implications for medical marijuana laws. OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, indications, and laws related to medical marijuana use. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The medical literature on medical marijuana was reviewed from 1948 to March 2015 via MEDLINE with an emphasis on 28 randomized clinical trials of cannabinoids as pharmacotherapy for indications other than those for which there are 2 US Food and Drug Administration-approved cannabinoids (dronabinol and nabilone), which include nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in wasting illnesses...
June 23, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25970871/chronic-pain-management-legal-and-licensure-issues
#16
Ku-Lang Chang, Roger Fillingim, Robert W Hurley, Siegfried Schmidt
Legal and licensure issues are an inevitable aspect of treating patients with chronic pain. Clinicians need to ensure compliance with state medical board and federal guidelines. Prescription drug abuse continues to be a significant problem. Despite the legalization of medical marijuana in some states, there is currently no medical indication for prescribing marijuana; the exceptions are dronabinol and nabilone. These are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and dronabinol also is approved for anorexia in patients with AIDS or cancer...
May 2015: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25946754/q-a-with-grower-tim-cullen-interview-by-mary-winter
#17
Tim Cullen
Tim Cullen is CEO and founder of the Colorado Harvest Company and Evergreen Apothecary, an expanding business in Denver that grows and sells marijuana. His most lucrative store averages 200 to 300 sales a day, with roughly 80 percent being for recreational purposes. The former high school biology teacher became interested in marijuana when he saw how it helped his father control the pain and nausea of Crohn's Disease, which Cullen himself developed later. He began growing marijuana in his basement in Colorado, where growing medical marijuana for personal use has been legal for 12 years...
March 2015: State Legislatures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25929220/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome
#18
Lynn Heise
Legalization of marijuana use will increase the number of people who will become long-term users. A prior medical record review study in Australia, in 2004, identified 19 chronic marijuana users who entered the emergency department with recurrent vomiting associated with abdominal pain. Routine treatment of the nausea and vomiting, associated with the chronic marijuana abuse, with antiemetics is ineffective in patients with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Narcotics do not relieve the abdominal pain but may cause worsening rebound pain...
April 2015: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25774930/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-a-cause-of-refractory-nausea-and-vomiting-in-pregnancy
#19
Veronica I Alaniz, Jill Liss, Torri D Metz, Elaine Stickrath
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a condition present among chronic cannabis users resulting in abdominal pain, intractable nausea and vomiting, and compulsive bathing behaviors. Given the recent legalization of marijuana in certain areas of the United States, the incidence of this condition may increase among pregnant women. CASE: We report the case of a pregnant 28-year-old woman with multiple admissions for episodic nausea and vomiting resulting in Mallory-Weiss esophageal tears, dehydration, and abdominal pain who was noted to be showering compulsively during her hospitalizations...
June 2015: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25715910/the-role-of-cannabinoids-in-regulation-of-nausea-and-vomiting-and-visceral-pain
#20
REVIEW
Zubair Malik, Daniel Baik, Ron Schey
Marijuana derived from the plant Cannabis sativa has been used for the treatment of many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and others. However, its psychotropic side effects have often limited its use. Several cannabinoid receptors, which include the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), CB2, and possibly GPR55, have been identified throughout the GI tract. These receptors may play a role in the regulation of food intake, nausea and emesis, gastric secretion and gastroprotection, GI motility, ion transport, visceral sensation, intestinal inflammation, and cell proliferation in the gut...
February 2015: Current Gastroenterology Reports
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