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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344791/sages-s-advanced-gi-mis-fellowship-curriculum-pilot-project
#1
Joshua J Weis, Matthew Goldblatt, Aurora Pryor, Brian J Dunkin, L Michael Brunt, Daniel B Jones, Daniel J Scott
BACKGROUND: The American health care system faces deficits in quality and quantity of surgeons. SAGES is a major stakeholder in surgical fellowship training and is responsible for defining the curriculum for the Advanced GI/MIS fellowship. SAGES leadership is actively adapting this curriculum. METHODS: The process of reform began in 2014 through a series of iterative meetings and discussions. A working group within the Resident and Fellow Training Committee reviewed case log data from 2012 to 2015...
January 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344462/introducing-mentoring-to-1st-year-medical-students-of-a-private-medical-college-in-north-india-a-pilot-study
#2
Sahiba Kukreja, Namrata Chhabra, Amandeep Kaur, Rohit Arora, Tejinder Singh
Background: The stress of complex medical course, emotional immaturity, and adaptations to new surroundings are the challenges faced by the new medical entrants. Therefore, mentorship program was introduced to support them for their academic and personal development. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to introduce and to assess the perception of mentors and mentees on mentorship program. Materials and Methods: A mentorship program was designed for Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) First Professional students...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342855/introduction-to-state-estimation-of-high-rate-system-dynamics
#3
Jonathan Hong, Simon Laflamme, Jacob Dodson, Bryan Joyce
Engineering systems experiencing high-rate dynamic events, including airbags, debris detection, and active blast protection systems, could benefit from real-time observability for enhanced performance. However, the task of high-rate state estimation is challenging, in particular for real-time applications where the rate of the observer's convergence needs to be in the microsecond range. This paper identifies the challenges of state estimation of high-rate systems and discusses the fundamental characteristics of high-rate systems...
January 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339521/immunogenetic-novelty-confers-a-selective-advantage-in-host-pathogen-coevolution
#4
Karl P Phillips, Joanne Cable, Ryan S Mohammed, Magdalena Herdegen-Radwan, Jarosław Raubic, Karolina J Przesmycka, Cock van Oosterhout, Jacek Radwan
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is crucial to the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and is among the most polymorphic gene families known. Its high diversity is usually attributed to selection imposed by fast-evolving pathogens. Pathogens are thought to evolve to escape recognition by common immune alleles, and, hence, novel MHC alleles, introduced through mutation, recombination, or gene flow, are predicted to give hosts superior resistance. Although this theoretical prediction underpins host-pathogen "Red Queen" coevolution, it has not been demonstrated in the context of natural MHC diversity...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337856/interaction-between-hepatitis-b-virus-and-toll-like-receptors-current-status-and-potential-therapeutic-use-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#5
REVIEW
Zhiyong Ma, Qian Cao, Yong Xiong, Ejuan Zhang, Mengji Lu
Immune defense against infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is complex and involves both host innate and adaptive immune systems. It is well accepted that the development of sufficient HBV-specific T cell and B cell responses are required for controlling an HBV infection. However, the contribution of innate immunity to removing HBV has been explored in recent years. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are recognized as the first line of antiviral immunity because they initiate intracellular signaling pathways to induce antiviral mediators such as interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines...
January 16, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336499/ecologically-driven-ultrastructural-and-hydrodynamic-designs-in-stomatopod-cuticles
#6
Lessa Kay Grunenfelder, Garrett Milliron, Steven Herrera, Isaias Gallana, Nicholas Yaraghi, Nigel Hughes, Kenneth Evans-Lutterodt, Pablo Zavattieri, David Kisailus
Ecological pressures and varied feeding behaviors in a multitude of organisms have necessitated the drive for adaptation. One such change is seen in the feeding appendages of stomatopods, a group of highly predatory marine crustaceans. Stomatopods include "spearers," who ambush and snare soft bodied prey, and "smashers," who bludgeon hard-shelled prey with a heavily mineralized club. The regional substructural complexity of the stomatopod dactyl club from the smashing predator Odontodactylus scyllarus represents a model system in the study of impact tolerant biominerals...
January 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335816/organ-reserve-excess-metabolic-capacity-and-aging
#7
Hani Atamna, Alfred Tenore, Forshing Lui, Joseph M Dhahbi
"Organ reserve" refers to the ability of an organ to successfully return to its original physiological state following repeated episodes of stress. Clinical evidence shows that organ reserve correlates with the ability of older adults to cope with an added workload or stress, suggesting a role in the process of aging. Although organ reserve is well documented clinically, it is not clearly defined at the molecular level. Interestingly, several metabolic pathways exhibit excess metabolic capacities (e.g., bioenergetics pathway, antioxidants system, plasticity)...
January 15, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334893/high-sensitivity-hla-typing-by-saturated-tiling-capture-sequencing-stc-seq
#8
Yang Jiao, Ran Li, Chao Wu, Yibin Ding, Yanning Liu, Danmei Jia, Lifeng Wang, Xiang Xu, Jing Zhu, Min Zheng, Junling Jia
BACKGROUND: Highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are responsible for fine-tuning the adaptive immune system. High-resolution HLA typing is important for the treatment of autoimmune and infectious diseases. Additionally, it is routinely performed for identifying matched donors in transplantation medicine. Although many HLA typing approaches have been developed, the complexity, low-efficiency and high-cost of current HLA-typing assays limit their application in population-based high-throughput HLA typing for donors, which is required for creating large-scale databases for transplantation and precision medicine...
January 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334352/the-multimorbidity-cluster-analysis-tool-identifying-combinations-and-permutations-of-multiple-chronic-diseases-using-a-record-level-computational-analysis
#9
Kathryn Nicholson, Michael Bauer, Amanda Terry, Martin Fortin, Tyler Williamson, Amardeep Thind
Multimorbidity, or the co-occurrence of multiple chronic health conditions within an individual, is an increasingly dominant presence and burden in modern health care systems.  To fully capture its complexity, further research is needed to uncover the patterns and consequences of these co-occurring health states.  As such, the Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Tool and the accompanying Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Toolkit have been created to allow researchers to identify distinct clusters that exist within a sample of participants or patients living with multimorbidity...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332296/plant-cell-cultures-as-model-systems-to-study-programmed-cell-death
#10
Sara Cimini, Maria Beatrice Ronci, Elisabetta Barizza, Maria Concetta de Pinto, Vittoria Locato, Fiorella Lo Schiavo, Laura De Gara
The study of programmed cell death (PCD) activated in a certain group of cells is complex when analyzed in the whole plant. Plant cell suspension cultures are useful when investigating PCD triggered by environmental and developmental stimuli. Due to their homogeneity and the possibility to synchronize their responses induced by external stimuli, these cultures are used for studying the signaling pathways leading to PCD. The first problem in the analysis of PCD in cell cultures is the quantification of cell viability/death over time...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331353/mechanisms-of-sex-differences-in-fear-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Teniel Sonya Ramikie, Kerry James Ressler
Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability...
November 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331137/molecular-dynamics-based-enhanced-sampling-of-collective-variables-with-very-large-time-steps
#12
Pei-Yang Chen, Mark E Tuckerman
Enhanced sampling techniques that target a set of collective variables and that use molecular dynamics as the driving engine have seen widespread application in the computational molecular sciences as a means to explore the free-energy landscapes of complex systems. The use of molecular dynamics as the fundamental driver of the sampling requires the introduction of a time step whose magnitude is limited by the fastest motions in a system. While standard multiple time-stepping methods allow larger time steps to be employed for the slower and computationally more expensive forces, the maximum achievable increase in time step is limited by resonance phenomena, which inextricably couple fast and slow motions...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329437/association-of-extracellular-dntp-utilization-with-a-gmpap1-like-protein-identified-in-cell-wall-proteomic-analysis-of-soybean-roots
#13
Weiwei Wu, Yan Lin, Pandao Liu, Qianqian Chen, Jiang Tian, Cuiyue Liang
Plant root cell walls are dynamic systems that serve as the first plant compartment responsive to soil conditions, such as phosphorus (P) deficiency. To date, evidence for the regulation of root cell wall proteins (CWPs) by P deficiency remains sparse. In order to gain a better understanding of the roles played by CWPs in the roots of soybean (Glycine max) in adaptation to P deficiency, we conducted an iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) proteomic analysis. A total of 53 CWPs with differential accumulation in response to P deficiency were identified...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328132/digital-hologram-transformations-for-rgb-color-holographic-display-with-independent-image-magnification-and-translation-in-3d
#14
Piotr L Makowski, Weronika Zaperty, Tomasz Kozacki
A new framework for in-plane transformations of digital holograms (DHs) is proposed, which provides improved control over basic geometrical features of holographic images reconstructed optically in full color. The method is based on a Fourier hologram equivalent of the adaptive affine transformation technique [Opt. Express18, 8806 (2010)OPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.18.008806]. The solution includes four elementary geometrical transformations that can be performed independently on a full-color 3D image reconstructed from an RGB hologram: (i) transverse magnification; (ii) axial translation with minimized distortion; (iii) transverse translation; and (iv) viewing angle rotation...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325401/performance-based-financing-to-strengthen-the-health-system-in-benin-challenging-the-mainstream-approach
#15
Elisabeth Paul, Mohamed Lamine Dramé, Jean-Pierre Kashala, Armand Ekambi Ndema, Marcel Kounnou, Julien Codjovi Aïssan, Karel Gyselinck
BACKGROUND: Performance-based financing (PBF) is often proposed as a way to improve health system performance. In Benin, PBF was launched in 2012 through a World Bank-supported project. The Belgian Development Agency (BTC) followed suit through a health system strengthening (HSS) project. This paper analyses and draws lessons from the experience of BTC-supported PBF alternative approach - especially with regards to institutional aspects, the role of demand-side actors, ownership, and cost-effectiveness - and explores the mechanisms at stake so as to better understand how the "PBF package" functions and produces effects...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325042/biochemistry-of-complex-glycan-depolymerisation-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#16
Didier Ndeh, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota (HGM) makes an important contribution to health and disease. It is a complex microbial community of trillions of microbes with a majority of its members represented within two phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, although it also contains species of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Reflecting its importance, the HGM is sometimes referred to as an 'organ' as it performs functions analogous to systemic tissues within the human host. The major nutrients available to the HGM are host and dietary complex carbohydrates...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324932/the-neurophysiological-and-evolutionary-considerations-of-close-combat-a-modular-approach
#17
Kostas Dervenis, Evangelos Tsialogiannis
Close Combat may be identified as a physical confrontation involving armed or unarmed fighting, lethal and/or non-lethal methods, or even simply escape from and/or de-escalation of the confrontation. Our model hypothesizes that distinct areas of the brain are utilized for specific levels of violence, based on evolutionary criteria, and that these levels of violence bring into effect distinct physiological criteria and kinesiology. This model is outlined similar to Paul D. MacLean's triune brain theory, but incorporates distinct processes inherent to the autonomic nervous system (i...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324691/physiological-and-comparative-genomic-analysis-of-arthrobacter-sp-srs-w-1-2016-provides-insights-on-niche-adaptation-for-survival-in-uraniferous-soils
#18
Ashvini Chauhan, Ashish Pathak, Rajneesh Jaswal, Bobby Edwards Iii, Demario Chappell, Christopher Ball, Reyna Garcia-Sillas, Paul Stothard, John Seaman
Arthrobacter sp. strain SRS-W-1-2016 was isolated on high concentrations of uranium (U) from the Savannah River Site (SRS) that remains co-contaminated by radionuclides, heavy metals, and organics. SRS is located on the northeast bank of the Savannah River (South Carolina, USA), which is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) managed ecosystem left historically contaminated from decades of nuclear weapons production activities. Predominant contaminants within the impacted SRS environment include U and Nickel (Ni), both of which can be transformed microbially into less toxic forms via metal complexation mechanisms...
January 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321902/early-phenology-and-growth-trait-variation-in-closely-related-european-pine-species
#19
Witold Wachowiak, Annika Perry, Kevin Donnelly, Stephen Cavers
Closely related taxa occupying different environments are valuable systems for studying evolution. In this study, we examined differences in early phenology (bud set, bud burst) and early growth in a common garden trial of closely related pine species: Pinus sylvestris, P. mugo, and P. uncinata. Seeds for the trial were sourced from populations across the ranges of each species in Europe. Over first 4 years of development, clear differences were observed between species, while the most significant intraspecific differentiation was observed among plants from P...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321302/rapid-seasonal-evolution-in-innate-immunity-of-wild-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Emily L Behrman, Virginia M Howick, Martin Kapun, Fabian Staubach, Alan O Bergland, Dmitri A Petrov, Brian P Lazzaro, Paul S Schmidt
Understanding the rate of evolutionary change and the genetic architecture that facilitates rapid adaptation is a current challenge in evolutionary biology. Comparative studies show that genes with immune function are among the most rapidly evolving genes across a range of taxa. Here, we use immune defence in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster to understand the rate of evolution in natural populations and the genetics underlying rapid change. We probed the immune system using the natural pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and Providencia rettgeri to measure post-infection survival and bacterial load of wild D...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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