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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528521/myeloid-populations-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases
#1
REVIEW
María Morell, Nieves Varela, Concepción Marañón
Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) encompass a wide spectrum of clinical signs as a reflection of their complex physiopathology. A variety of mechanisms related with the innate immune system are in the origin of the loss of self-tolerance in these diseases, and for most of them, the myeloid leukocytes are key actors. Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils are first-line immune effectors located in the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. They are crucial in the organization of the local and systemic responses to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and determine the intensity, orientation, and duration of the local immune response through the expression of chemokines, costimulatory or protolerogenic factors...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528205/heterotrimeric-complex-of-p38-mapk-pkc%C3%AE-and-tirap-is-required-for-ap1-mediated-inflammatory-response
#2
Mirza S Baig, Dongfang Liu, Kannan Muthu, Anjali Roy, Uzma Saqib, Adnan Naim, Syed M Faisal, Mansi Srivastava, Rohit Saluja
Inflammation could be described as a physiological response of the body to tissue injury, pathogen invasion, and irritants. During the inflammatory phase, cells of both the innate as well as adaptive immune system are activated and recruited to the site of inflammation. These mediators are downstream targets for the transcription factors; activator protein-1 (AP1), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer (NF-κB), signal transducers and activators of transcription factors (STAT1), as well as interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), which control the expression of most immunomodulatory genes...
May 18, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524866/succession-in-the-petroleum-reservoir-microbiome-through-an-oil-field-production-lifecycle
#3
Adrien Vigneron, Eric B Alsop, Bartholomeus P Lomans, Nikos C Kyrpides, Ian M Head, Nicolas Tsesmetzis
Subsurface petroleum reservoirs are an important component of the deep biosphere where indigenous microorganisms live under extreme conditions and in isolation from the Earth's surface for millions of years. However, unlike the bulk of the deep biosphere, the petroleum reservoir deep biosphere is subject to extreme anthropogenic perturbation, with the introduction of new electron acceptors, donors and exogenous microbes during oil exploration and production. Despite the fundamental and practical significance of this perturbation, there has never been a systematic evaluation of the ecological changes that occur over the production lifetime of an active offshore petroleum production system...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521747/insights-into-the-ancestral-organisation-of-the-mammalian-mhc-class-ii-region-from-the-genome-of-the-pteropid-bat-pteropus-alecto
#4
Justin H J Ng, Mary Tachedjian, Lin-Fa Wang, Michelle L Baker
BACKGROUND: Bats are an extremely successful group of mammals and possess a variety of unique characteristics, including their ability to co-exist with a diverse range of pathogens. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the most gene dense and polymorphic region of the genome and MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules play a vital role in the presentation of antigens derived from extracellular pathogens and activation of the adaptive immune response. Characterisation of the MHC-II region of bats is crucial for understanding the evolution of the MHC and of the role of pathogens in shaping the immune system...
May 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521174/high-degree-of-specificity-in-the-association-between-symbiotic-betaproteobacteria-and-the-host-euplotes-ciliophora-euplotia
#5
Claudia Vannini, Cristiana Sigona, Martin Hahn, Giulio Petroni, Masahiro Fujishima
The Betaproteobacteria-Euplotes association is an obligatory symbiotic system involving a monophyletic group of ciliate species and two betaproteobacteria species which can be alternatively present. Recent data showed that this relationship has been established more than once and that several symbiont-substitution events took place, revealing a complex and intriguing evolutionary path. Due to the different evolutionary pathways followed by the different symbionts, each bacterial strain could have differentially evolved and/or lost functional traits...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518128/an-in-vitro-caseum-binding-assay-that-predicts-drug-penetration-in-tuberculosis-lesions
#6
Jansy P Sarathy, Hsin-Pin Ho Liang, Danielle Weiner, Jacqueline Gonzales, Laura E Via, Véronique Dartois
The eradication of tuberculosis disease requires drug regimens that can penetrate the multiple layers of complex pulmonary lesions. Drug distribution in the caseous cores of cavities and lesions is especially crucial because they harbor subpopulations of drug-tolerant bacteria also commonly referred to as persisters. Existing methods for the measurement of drug penetration in tuberculosis lesions involve costly and time-consuming in vivo pharmacokinetic studies coupled to bioanalytical or imaging techniques...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516321/evaluating-local-adaptation-of-a-complex-phenotype-reciprocal-tests-of-pigmy-rattlesnake-venoms-on-treefrog-prey
#7
Sarah A Smiley-Walters, Terence M Farrell, H Lisle Gibbs
Theory predicts that predator-prey interactions can generate reciprocal selection pressures on species pairs, which can result in local adaptation, yet the presence and pattern of local adaptation is poorly studied in vertebrate predator-prey systems. Here, we used a reciprocal common garden (laboratory) experimental design involving comparisons between local and foreign populations to determine if local adaptation was present between a generalist predator-the pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius)-and a co-occurring prey-the squirrel treefrog (Hyla squirella)...
May 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516301/application-fields-for-the-new-object-management-group-omg-standards-case-management-model-and-notation-cmmn-and-decision-management-notation-dmn-in-the-perioperative-field
#8
M Wiemuth, D Junger, M A Leitritz, J Neumann, T Neumuth, O Burgert
PURPOSE: Medical processes can be modeled using different methods and notations. Currently used modeling systems like Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) are not capable of describing the highly flexible and variable medical processes in sufficient detail. METHODS: We combined two modeling systems, Business Process Management (BPM) and Adaptive Case Management (ACM), to be able to model non-deterministic medical processes. We used the new Standards Case Management Model and Notation (CMMN) and Decision Management Notation (DMN)...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515484/the-complex-tibial-organ-of-the-new-zealand-ground-weta-sensory-adaptations-for-vibrational-signal-detection
#9
Johannes Strauß, Kathryn Lomas, Laurence H Field
In orthopteran insects, a complex tibial organ has evolved to detect substrate vibrations and/or airborne sound. Species of New Zealand weta (Anostostomatidae) with tympanal ears on the foreleg tibia use this organ to communicate by sound, while in atympanate species (which communicate by substrate drumming) the organ is unstudied. We investigated the complex tibial organ of the atympanate ground weta, Hemiandrus pallitarsis, for vibration detection adaptations. This system contains four sensory components (subgenual organ, intermediate organ, crista acustica homolog, accessory organ) in all legs, together with up to 90 scolopidial sensilla...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513284/best-practices-for-population-genetic-analyses
#10
Niklaus J Grünwald, Sydney Everhart, Brian J Knaus, Zhian N Kamvar
Population genetic analysis is a powerful tool to understand how pathogens emerge and adapt. However, determining the genetic structure of populations requires complex knowledge on a range of subtle skills that are often not explicitly stated in book chapters or review articles on population genetics. What is a good sampling strategy? How many isolates should I sample? How do I include positive and negative controls in my molecular assays? What marker system should I use? This review will attempt to address many of these practical questions that are often not readily answered from reading books or reviews on the topic, but emerge from discussions with colleagues and from practical experience...
May 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512663/advancing-the-integration-of-hospital-it-pitfalls-and-perspectives-when-replacing-specialized-software-for-high-risk-environments-with-enterprise-system-extensions
#11
Carsten Engelmann, Dzifa Ametowobla
BACKGROUND: Planning and controlling surgical operations hugely impacts upon productivity, patient safety, and surgeons' careers. Established, specialized software for this task is being increasingly replaced by "Operating Room (OR)-modules" appended to enterprise-wide resource planning (ERP) systems. As a result, usability problems are re-emerging and require developers' attention. OBJECTIVE: Systematic evaluation of the functionality and social repercussions of a global, market-leading IT business control system (SAP R3, Germany), adapted for real-time OR process steering...
May 17, 2017: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510537/converging-evolution-leads-to-near-maximal-junction-diversity-through-parallel-mechanisms-in-b-and-t-cell-receptors
#12
Jennifer Israel Cohen, Jeroen Heijst, Jacob Glanville, Yoram Louzoun
T and B cell receptor (TCR and BCR) complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) genetic diversity is produced through multiple diversification and selection stages. Potential holes in the CDR3 repertoire were argued to be linked to immunodeficiencies and diseases. In contrast with BCRs, TCRs have practically no Dβ germline genetic diversity, and the question whether they can produce a diverse CDR3 repertoire emerges. In order to address the genetic diversity of the adaptive immune system, appropriate quantitative measures for diversity and large scale sequencing are required...
May 16, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510459/efficient-round-trip-time-optimisation-for-replica-exchange-enveloping-distribution-sampling-re-eds
#13
Dominik Sidler, Michael Cristofol Clough, Sereina Riniker
Replica-exchange enveloping distribution sampling (RE-EDS) allows the efficient estimation of free-energy differences between multiple end-states from a single molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In EDS, a reference state is sampled, which can be tuned by two kinds of parameters, i.e. smoothness parameters(s) and energy offsets, such that all end-states are sufficiently sampled. The choice of these parameters is, however, not trivial. Replica exchange (RE) or parallel tempering is a widely applied technique to enhance sampling...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510303/cucurbit-8-uril-and-14-3-3-based-binary-bivalent-supramolecular-protein-assembly-platform-and-co-crystal-structure
#14
Pim de Vink, Jeroen Briels, Thomas Schrader, Lech Milroy, Luc Brunsveld, Christian Ottmann
Interactions between proteins frequently employ recognition sequences that engage in multivalent binding events. Dimeric 14-3-3 adapter proteins represent a prominent example, typically binding partner proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent mono- or bivalent manner. Here we describe the development of a cucurbit[8]uril (Q8)-based supramolecular system, which in conjunction with the 14-3-3 protein dimer acts as a binary and bivalent protein assembly platform. We fused the phenylalanine-glycine-glycine (FGG) tripeptide motif to the N-terminus of the 14-3-3-binding epitope of the estrogen receptor α (ERα), for selective binding to Q8...
May 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508221/rapid-reverse-genetics-systems-for-rhabdoviruses-from-forward-to-reverse-and-back-again
#15
Tobias Nolden, Stefan Finke
Methods to recover recombinant negative strand RNA viruses (rNSVs) from cloned cDNAs have been significantly improved in more than two decades of NSV reverse genetics . In particular, for non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses (NNSVs ) like rhabdoviruses , time-consuming generation of reverse genetics systems by stitching PCR subfragments of genomic rhabdovirus cDNAs using ligase-based conventional cloning approaches limited the number of available recombinant virus cDNA clones. As genetic variability is considered an intrinsic feature of RNA viruses, it is thus reasonable to conclude that reverse genetics approaches to investigate natural virus functions and pathogenesis require improved systems that reflect the complexity of naturally occurring wild-type viruses, and that largely exclude adaption to cell culture conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508153/cellular-and-molecular-perspectives-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
REVIEW
Douglas J Veale, Carl Orr, Ursula Fearon
Synovial immunopathology in rheumatoid arthritis is complex involving both resident and infiltrating cells. The synovial tissue undergoes significant neovascularization, facilitating an influx of lymphocytes and monocytes that transform a typically acellular loose areolar membrane into an invasive tumour-like pannus. The microvasculature proliferates to form straight regularly-branching vessels; however, they are highly dysfunctional resulting in reduced oxygen supply and a hypoxic microenvironment. Autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies are found at an early stage, often before arthritis has developed, and they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA...
May 15, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506781/implementation-of-quality-management-for-clinical-bacteriology-in-low-resource-settings
#17
REVIEW
Barbara Barbé, Cedric P Yansouni, Dissou Affolabi, Jan Jacobs
BACKGROUND: The declining trend of malaria and the recent prioritization of containment of antimicrobial resistance have created a momentum to implement clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings (LRS). Successful implementation relies on guidance by a quality management system (QMS). Over the past decade, international initiatives were launched towards implementation of QMS in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. AIMS: To describe the progress towards accreditation of medical laboratories and to identify the challenges and "Best practices" for implementation of QMS in clinical bacteriology in LRS...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505961/effects-of-dual-task-conditions-on-cervical-spine-movement-variability
#18
Daniel Niederer, Lutz Vogt, Johanna Vogel, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: The potential to accurately perform cervical movements during more challenging tasks might be of importance to prevent dysfunctional motion characteristics. Although sensorimotor function during dual-task conditions are of increasing interest in biomedical and rehabilitation research, effects of such conditions on movement consistency of the neck have not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: In this crossover MiSpEx(Medicine in Spine Exercise)-diagnostic study, we aimed to explore differences between single and dual-task conditions on cervical movement variability...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505840/evolutionary-fields-can-explain-patterns-of-high-dimensional-complexity-in-ecology
#19
James Wilsenach, Pietro Landi, Cang Hui
One of the properties that make ecological systems so unique is the range of complex behavioral patterns that can be exhibited by even the simplest communities with only a few species. Much of this complexity is commonly attributed to stochastic factors that have very high-degrees of freedom. Orthodox study of the evolution of these simple networks has generally been limited in its ability to explain complexity, since it restricts evolutionary adaptation to an inertia-free process with few degrees of freedom in which only gradual, moderately complex behaviors are possible...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505137/airborne-infrared-and-visible-image-fusion-combined-with-region-segmentation
#20
Yujia Zuo, Jinghong Liu, Guanbing Bai, Xuan Wang, Mingchao Sun
This paper proposes an infrared (IR) and visible image fusion method introducing region segmentation into the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) region. This method should effectively improve both the target indication and scene spectrum features of fusion images, and the target identification and tracking reliability of fusion system, on an airborne photoelectric platform. The method involves segmenting the region in an IR image by significance, and identifying the target region and the background region; then, fusing the low-frequency components in the DTCWT region according to the region segmentation result...
May 15, 2017: Sensors
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