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Complex adaptive system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168203/the-wisdom-of-networks-a-general-adaptation-and-learning-mechanism-of-complex-systems-the-network-core-triggers-fast-responses-to-known-stimuli-innovations-require-the-slow-network-periphery-and-are-encoded-by-core-remodeling
#1
REVIEW
Peter Csermely
I hypothesize that re-occurring prior experience of complex systems mobilizes a fast response, whose attractor is encoded by their strongly connected network core. In contrast, responses to novel stimuli are often slow and require the weakly connected network periphery. Upon repeated stimulus, peripheral network nodes remodel the network core that encodes the attractor of the new response. This "core-periphery learning" theory reviews and generalizes the heretofore fragmented knowledge on attractor formation by neural networks, periphery-driven innovation, and a number of recent reports on the adaptation of protein, neuronal, and social networks...
November 23, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164190/upgrading-well-plates-using-open-microfluidic-patterning
#2
Samuel B Berry, Tianzi Zhang, John H Day, Xiaojing Su, Ilham Z Wilson, Erwin Berthier, Ashleigh B Theberge
Cellular communication between multiple cell types is a ubiquitous process that is responsible for vital physiological responses observed in vivo (e.g., immune response, organ function). Many in vitro coculture strategies have been developed, both in traditional culture and microscale systems, and have shown the potential to recreate some of the physiological behaviors of organs or groups of cells. A fundamental limitation of current systems is the difficulty of reconciling the additional engineering requirements for creating soluble factor signaling systems (e...
November 22, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163494/reproducibility-and-reuse-of-adaptive-immune-receptor-repertoire-data
#3
Felix Breden, Eline T Luning Prak, Bjoern Peters, Florian Rubelt, Chaim A Schramm, Christian E Busse, Jason A Vander Heiden, Scott Christley, Syed Ahmad Chan Bukhari, Adrian Thorogood, Frederick A Matsen Iv, Yariv Wine, Uri Laserson, David Klatzmann, Daniel C Douek, Marie-Paule Lefranc, Andrew M Collins, Tania Bubela, Steven H Kleinstein, Corey T Watson, Lindsay G Cowell, Jamie K Scott, Thomas B Kepler
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of immunoglobulin (B-cell receptor, antibody) and T-cell receptor repertoires has increased dramatically since the technique was introduced in 2009 (1-3). This experimental approach explores the maturation of the adaptive immune system and its response to antigens, pathogens, and disease conditions in exquisite detail. It holds significant promise for diagnostic and therapy-guiding applications. New technology often spreads rapidly, sometimes more rapidly than the understanding of how to make the products of that technology reliable, reproducible, or usable by others...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163052/the-thymus-neocortex-hypothesis-of-the-brain-a-cell-basis-for-recognition-and-instruction-of-self
#4
Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Florence Faure
The recognition of internal and external sources of stimuli, the self from non-self, seems to be an intrinsic property to the adequate functioning of the immune system and the nervous system, both complex network systems that have evolved to safeguard the self biological identity of the organism. The mammalian brain development relies on dynamic and adaptive processes that are now well described. However, the rules dictating this highly constrained developmental process remain elusive. Here we hypothesize that there is a cellular basis for brain selfhood, based on the analogy of the global mechanisms that drive the self/non-self recognition and instruction by the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159806/the-evolution-of-bite-force-in-horned-lizards-the-influence-of-dietary-specialization
#5
Jay J Meyers, Kiisa C Nishikawa, Anthony Herrel
Dietary specialization is an important driver of the morphology and performance of the feeding system in many organisms, yet the evolution of phenotypic specialization has only rarely been examined within a species complex. Horned lizards are considered primarily myrmecophagous (ant eating), but variation in diet among the 17 species of horned lizards (Phrynosoma) makes them an ideal group to examine the relationship between dietary specialization and the resultant morphological and functional changes of the feeding system...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158239/comparative-genomics-of-myxobacterial-chemosensory-systems
#6
Gaurav Sharma, Indu Khatri, Srikrishna Subramanian
The chemosensory system (CSS) is amongst the most complex organizations of proteins functioning cooperatively to regulate bacterial motility and other cellular activities. These systems have been studied extensively in bacteria and usually, they are present as a single system. Eight CSS, the highest number in bacteria, have been reported in Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 which are involved in coordinating diverse functions. Here, we have explored and compared the CSS in all available genomes of order Myxococcales...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155800/nicotinic-receptors-mediate-stress-nicotine-detrimental-interplay-via-dopamine-cells-activity
#7
C Morel, S P Fernandez, F Pantouli, F J Meye, F Marti, S Tolu, S Parnaudeau, H Marie, F Tronche, U Maskos, M Moretti, C Gotti, M-H Han, A Bailey, M Mameli, J Barik, P Faure
Epidemiological studies report strong association between mood disorders and tobacco addiction. This high comorbidity requires adequate treatment but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We demonstrate that nicotine exposure, independent of drug withdrawal effects, increases stress sensitivity, a major risk factor in mood disorders. Nicotine and stress concur to induce long-lasting cellular adaptations within the dopamine (DA) system. This interplay is underpinned by marked remodeling of nicotinic systems, causing increased ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons' activity and stress-related behaviors, such as social aversion...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155669/centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-public-health-response-to-humanitarian-emergencies-2007-2016
#8
Andrew T Boyd, Susan T Cookson, Mark Anderson, Oleg O Bilukha, Muireann Brennan, Thomas Handzel, Colleen Hardy, Farah Husain, Barbara Lopes Cardozo, Carlos Navarro Colorado, Cyrus Shahpar, Leisel Talley, Michael Toole, Michael Gerber
Humanitarian emergencies, including complex emergencies associated with fragile states or areas of conflict, affect millions of persons worldwide. Such emergencies threaten global health security and have complicated but predictable effects on public health. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Response and Recovery Branch (ERRB) (Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health) contributes to public health emergency responses by providing epidemiologic support for humanitarian health interventions...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153170/a-100-year-review-stress-physiology-including-heat-stress
#9
R J Collier, B J Renquist, Y Xiao
Stress is an external event or condition that places a strain on a biological system. The animal response to a stress involves the expenditure of energy to remove or reduce the impact of the stress. This increases maintenance requirements of the animal and results in loss of production. The biological response to stress is divided into acute and chronic phases, with the acute phase lasting hours to a few days and the chronic phase lasting several days to weeks. The acute response is driven by homeostatic regulators of the nervous and endocrine systems and the chronic phase by homeorhetic regulators of the endocrine system...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153131/donor-sirp-%C3%AE-polymorphisms-widening-the-innate-to-adaptive-continuum-in-allograft-rejection
#10
Madhav C Menon, Peter S Heeger
In the usual paradigm, self:nonself recognition is attributed to calls of the adaptive immune system, owing to variations in specialized genes encoded within the major histocompatibility complex loci. However, an increasing body of data has shown that cells of the innate immune system also have self:nonself recognition functions relevant to organ transplantation, and this trait may derive from genes located outside the major histocompatibility complex loci. A recent publication identifies the donor SIRP-α gene as a non-major histocompatibility complex locus responsible for nonself recognition by monocytes, with variability resulting in changes in the surface interaction of SIRP-α with its ligand CD47...
December 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152819/the-application-of-systems-thinking-concepts-methods-and-tools-to-global-health-practices-an-analysis-of-case-studies
#11
Jessica Wilkinson, Morgan Goff, Evan Rusoja, Carl Hanson, Robert Chad Swanson
OBJECTIVES: This review of systems thinking (ST) case studies seeks to compile and analyse cases from ST literature and provide practitioners with a reference for ST in health practice. Particular attention was given to (1) reviewing the frequency and use of key ST terms, methods, and tools in the context of health, and (2) extracting and analysing longitudinal themes across cases. METHODS: A systematic search of databases was conducted, and a total of 36 case studies were identified...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151679/is-it-possible-to-implement-a-complex-adaptive-systems-approach-for-marine-systems-the-experience-of-italy-and-the-adriatic-sea
#12
Emanuele Bigagli
•This paper evaluates the implementation of the MSFD in the Adriatic Sea.•The MSFD is the first policy for marine complex adaptive systems in the EU.•Ecological and jurisdictional boundaries overlap and cross-border cooperation is low.•Integrative assessments of marine systems may be impossible to achieve.•Relative isolation of theoretical approaches and management practices.
November 15, 2017: Ocean & Coastal Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150984/how-the-environment-shapes-animal-signals-a-test-of-the-acoustic-adaptation-hypothesis-in-frogs
#13
Sandra Goutte, Alain Dubois, Samuel D Howard, Rafael Márquez, Jodi J L Rowley, J Maximilian Dehling, Philippe Grandcolas, Rongchuan Xiong, Frédéric Legendre
Long distance acoustic signals are widely used in animal communication systems and, in many cases, essential for reproduction. The Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis (AAH) implies that acoustic signals should be selected for further transmission and better content integrity under the acoustic constraints of the habitat in which they are produced. In the present study, we test predictions derived from the AAH in frogs. Specifically, we focus on the difference between torrent frogs and frogs calling in less noisy habitats...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149792/case-management-for-people-with-dementia-and-its-translations-a-discussion-paper
#14
Steve Iliffe, Jane Wilcock, Michal Synek, Radek Carboch, Dana Hradcová, Iva Holmerová
Case management is generally seen as a way to provide efficient, cost-saving person-centred care for people with dementia by connecting together fragmented services, but the available evidence in favour of its merits is often considered inconclusive, unclear and sketchy. This discussion paper investigates the evidence of the benefit of case management for people with dementia and explores the complexity of the concept and the experiences of its implementation. It offers a comprehensive framework for conceptualising various types of case management and asks the question: who can be a case manager? Building on examples from three European countries it addresses the problem of the expansion and adoption of the case management method...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149319/from-bouncing-back-to-nurturing-emergence-reframing-the-concept-of-resilience-in-health-systems-strengthening
#15
Edwine W Barasa, Keith Cloete, Lucy Gilson
Recent health system shocks such as the Ebola disease outbreak have focused global health attention on the notion of resilient health systems. In this commentary, we reflect on the current framing of the concept of resilience in health systems discourse and propose a reframing. Specifically, we propose that: (1) in addition to sudden shocks, health systems face the ongoing strain of multiple factors. Health systems need the capacity to continue to deliver services of good quality and respond effectively to wider health challenges...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149059/a-high-performance-portable-transient-electro-magnetic-sensor-for-unexploded-ordnance-detection
#16
Haofeng Wang, Shudong Chen, Shuang Zhang, Zhiwen Yuan, Haiyang Zhang, Dong Fang, Jun Zhu
Portable transient electromagnetic (TEM) systems can be well adapted to various terrains, including mountainous, woodland, and other complex terrains. They are widely used for the detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO). As the core component of the portable TEM system, the sensor is constructed with a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. Based on the primary field of the transmitting coil and internal noise of the receiving coil, the design and testing of such a sensor is described in detail. Results indicate that the primary field of the transmitting coil depends on the diameter, mass, and power of the coil...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#17
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148171/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-pht1-phosphate-transporters-in-wheat-in-controlled-environments-and-in-the-field
#18
A Grün, P Buchner, M R Broadley, M J Hawkesford
Phosphorus (P) is an important macronutrient with critical functions in plants. Phosphate (Pi) transporters which mediate Pi acquisition and Pi translocation within the plant are key factors in Pi deficiency responses. However, their relevance for adaptation to long-term Pi limitation under agronomic conditions, particularly in wheat, remains unknown. Here, we describe the identification of the complete Pi transporter gene family (Pht1) in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Gene expression profiles were compared for hydroponic and field-grown plant tissues of wheat at multiple developmental stages...
November 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148102/adaptive-integrated-parallel-reception-excitation-and-shimming-ipres-a-with-microelectromechanical-systems-switches
#19
Dean Darnell, Yixin Ma, Hongyuan Wang, Fraser Robb, Allen W Song, Trong-Kha Truong
PURPOSE: Integrated parallel reception, excitation, and shimming coil arrays with N shim loops per radio-frequency (RF) coil element (iPRES(N)) allow an RF current and N direct currents (DC) to flow in each coil element, enabling simultaneous reception/excitation and shimming of highly localized B0 inhomogeneities. The purpose of this work was to reduce the cost and complexity of this design by reducing the number of DC power supplies required by a factor N, while maintaining a high RF and shimming performance...
November 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147898/-don-t-mind-the-gap-reflections-on-improvement-science-as-a-paradigm
#20
Trenholme Junghans
Responding to this issue's invitation to bring new disciplinary insights to the field of improvement science, this article takes as its starting point one of the field's guiding metaphors: the imperative to "mind the gap". Drawing on insights from anthropology, history, and philosophy, the article reflects on the origins and implications of this metaphoric imperative, and suggests some ways in which it might be in tension with the means and ends of improvement. If the industrial origins of improvement science in the twentieth century inform a metaphor of gaps, chasms, and spaces of misalignment as invariably imperfect and potentially dangerous, and therefore requiring bridging or closure, other currents that feed the discipline of improvement science suggest the potential value and uses of spaces of openness and ambiguity...
November 17, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
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