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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448066/structural-basis-of-crispr-spycas9-inhibition-by-an-anti-crispr-protein
#1
De Dong, Minghui Guo, Sihan Wang, Yuwei Zhu, Shuo Wang, Zhi Xiong, Jianzheng Yang, Zengliang Xu, Zhiwei Huang
The CRISPR-Cas9 systems are bacterial encoded adaptive immune systems to defend against phages infection, through RNA-guided endonuclease activity of Cas9 to degrade double-stranded DNA bearing a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and complementary sequences to the guide RNA1,2,3,4,5. Recently, two anti-CRISPR proteins AcrIIA2 and AcrIIA4 from Listeria monocytogenes (Lmo) prophages have been identified, both of which potently inhibit Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9) and LmoCas9 activity in bacteria and human cells6...
April 27, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447992/intravital-microscopy-and-thrombus-induction-in-the-earlobe-of-a-hairless-mouse
#2
Daniel Strüder, Eberhard Grambow, Ernst Klar, Robert Mlynski, Brigitte Vollmar
Thrombotic complications of vascular diseases are one leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrial nations. Due to the complex interactions between cellular and non-cellular blood components during thrombus formation, reliable studies of the physiology and pathophysiology of thrombosis can only be performed in vivo. Therefore, this article presents an ear model in hairless mice and focuses on the in vivo analysis of microcirculation, thrombus formation, and thrombus evolution. By using intravital fluorescence microscopy and the intravenous (iv) application of the respective fluorescent dyes, a repetitive analysis of microcirculation in the auricle can easily be performed, without the need for surgical preparation...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446185/evidence-based-policymaking-is-not-like-evidence-based-medicine-so-how-far-should-you-go-to-bridge-the-divide-between-evidence-and-policy
#3
EDITORIAL
Paul Cairney, Kathryn Oliver
There is extensive health and public health literature on the 'evidence-policy gap', exploring the frustrating experiences of scientists trying to secure a response to the problems and solutions they raise and identifying the need for better evidence to reduce policymaker uncertainty. We offer a new perspective by using policy theory to propose research with greater impact, identifying the need to use persuasion to reduce ambiguity, and to adapt to multi-level policymaking systems.We identify insights from secondary data, namely systematic reviews, critical analysis and policy theories relevant to evidence-based policymaking...
April 26, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445834/light-harvesting-antenna-complexes-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens-implications-for-the-evolutionary-transition-from-green-algae-to-land-plants
#4
REVIEW
Masakazu Iwai, Makio Yokono
Plants have successfully adapted to a vast range of terrestrial environments during their evolution. To elucidate the evolutionary transition of light-harvesting antenna proteins from green algae to land plants, the moss Physcomitrella patens is ideally placed basally among land plants. Compared to the genomes of green algae and land plants, the P. patens genome codes for more diverse and redundant light-harvesting antenna proteins. It also encodes Lhcb9, which has characteristics not found in other light-harvesting antenna proteins...
April 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443534/developing-an-international-scoring-system-for-a-consensus-based-social-cognition-measure-msceit-managing-emotions
#5
G S Hellemann, M F Green, R S Kern, G Sitarenios, K H Nuechterlein
BACKGROUND: Measures of social cognition are increasingly being applied to psychopathology, including studies of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Tests of social cognition present unique challenges for international adaptations. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Managing Emotions Branch (MSCEIT-ME) is a commonly-used social cognition test that involves the evaluation of social scenarios presented in vignettes. METHOD: This paper presents evaluations of translations of this test in six different languages based on representative samples from the relevant countries...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443099/a-century-of-radiation-therapy-and-adaptive-immunity
#6
REVIEW
Dörthe Schaue
The coming of age for immunotherapy (IT) as a genuine treatment option for cancer patients through the development of new and effective agents, in particular immune checkpoint inhibitors, has led to a huge renaissance of an old idea, namely to harness the power of the immune system to that of radiation therapy (RT). It is not an overstatement to say that the combination of RT with IT has provided a new conceptual platform that has re-energized the field of radiation oncology as a whole. One only has to look at the immense rise in sessions at professional conferences and in grant applications dealing with this topic to see its emergence as a force, while the number of published reviews on the topic is staggering...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442431/reducing-isoform-complexity-of-human-tetraspanins-by-optimized-expression-in-dictyostelium-discoideum-enables-high-throughput-functional-read-out
#7
Tineke Scheltz, Julia von Bülow, Eric Beitz
The human tetraspanin family of scaffold proteins comprises 33 isoforms. Being integral membrane proteins, they organize a so-called tetraspanin web via homomeric and heteromeric protein-protein interactions with integrins, immunoglobulins, growth factors, receptor tyrosine kinases, proteases, signaling proteins, and viral capsid proteins. Tetraspanins promote cellular effects, such as adhesion, migration, invasion, signaling, membrane fusion, protein trafficking, cancer progression, and infections. The ubiquitous expression of multiple tetraspanin isoforms and partner proteins hampers specific interaction studies...
April 22, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441763/improving-passive-time-reversal-underwater-acoustic-communications-using-subarray-processing
#8
Chengbing He, Lianyou Jing, Rui Xi, Qinyuan Li, Qunfei Zhang
Multichannel receivers are usually employed in high-rate underwater acoustic communication to achieve spatial diversity. In the context of multichannel underwater acoustic communications, passive time reversal (TR) combined with a single-channel adaptive decision feedback equalizer (TR-DFE) is a low-complexity solution to achieve both spatial and temporal focusing. In this paper, we present a novel receiver structure to combine passive time reversal with a low-order multichannel adaptive decision feedback equalizer (TR-MC-DFE) to improve the performance of the conventional TR-DFE...
April 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440712/gelatin-albumin-hybrid-nanoparticles-as-matrix-metalloproteinases-degradable-delivery-systems-for-breast-cancer-therapy
#9
Vahid Heravi Shargh, Hubert Hondermarck, Mingtao Liang
AIM: To develop matrix metalloproteinase-responsive gelatin-albumin hybrid nanoparticles encapsulating a selective tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) inhibitor GNF-5837 (Gel-Alb-GNF HNPs) and to demonstrate their anticancer effects in breast cancer. METHODS: Gel-Alb-GNF HNPs were prepared using a pH-controlled complexation process from cationic gelatin, dextran sulfate and albumin-bound GNF-5837. The anticancer activities of Gel-Alb-GNF HNPs were tested in a panel of subtype-specific breast cancer cell lines...
April 25, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438998/cas1-and-the-csy-complex-are-opposing-regulators-of-cas2-3-nuclease-activity
#10
MaryClare F Rollins, Saikat Chowdhury, Joshua Carter, Sarah M Golden, Royce A Wilkinson, Joseph Bondy-Denomy, Gabriel C Lander, Blake Wiedenheft
The type I-F CRISPR adaptive immune system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14) consists of two CRISPR loci and six CRISPR-associated (cas) genes. Type I-F systems rely on a CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided surveillance complex (Csy complex) to bind foreign DNA and recruit a trans-acting nuclease (i.e., Cas2/3) for target degradation. In most type I systems, Cas2 and Cas3 are separate proteins involved in adaptation and interference, respectively. However, in I-F systems, these proteins are fused into a single polypeptide...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436906/nonlinear-decoupling-control-with-anfis-based-unmodeled-dynamics-compensation-for-a-class-of-complex-industrial-processes
#11
Yajun Zhang, Tianyou Chai, Hong Wang, Dianhui Wang, Xinkai Chen
Complex industrial processes are multivariable and generally exhibit strong coupling among their control loops with heavy nonlinear nature. These make it very difficult to obtain an accurate model. As a result, the conventional and data-driven control methods are difficult to apply. Using a twin-tank level control system as an example, a novel multivariable decoupling control algorithm with adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)-based unmodeled dynamics (UD) compensation is proposed in this paper for a class of complex industrial processes...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436837/passive-bci-in-operational-environments-insights-recent-advances-and-future-trends
#12
Pietro Arico, Gianluca Borghini, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Nicolina Sciaraffa, Alfredo Colosimo, Fabio Babiloni
OBJECTIVE: this mini-review aims to highlight recent important aspects to consider and evaluate when passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) systems would be developed and used in operational environments, and remarks future directions of their applications. METHODS: Electroencephalography (EEG)-based pBCI has become an important tool for real-time analysis of brain activity, since it could potentially provide, covertly - without distracting the user from the main task - and objectively - not affected by the subjective judgement of an observer or the user itself - information about the operator cognitive state...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436561/the-interplay-between-aridity-and-competition-determines-colonization-ability-exclusion-and-ecological-segregation-in-the-heteroploid-brachypodium-distachyon-species-complex
#13
Pedro J Rey, Antonio J Manzaneda, Julio M Alcántara
A higher competitive advantage of polyploid plants compared with their parental diploids is frequently invoked to explain their establishment success, colonization of novel environments and cytotypic ecological segregation, yet there is scarce experimental evidence supporting such hypotheses. Here, we investigated whether differential competitive ability of species of the Brachypodium distachyon (Poaceae) species complex, a model system for genomic, ecological and evolutionary studies of temperate grasses, contributes to explaining their ecological segregation as well as their coexistence in diploid/allotetraploid contact zones...
April 24, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434972/one-bacillus-to-rule-them-all-investigating-broad-range-host-adaptation-in-mycobacterium-bovis
#14
REVIEW
Adrian R Allen
Recent advances are permitting researchers to undertake largescale comparative genomics studies within and between bacterial species to determine the types of genetic change that underpin the phenotypic spectrum that runs from strict host adaptation to generalist. Within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) of bacilli, there is much heterogeneity in host specificity. Globally, Mycobacterium bovis exhibits a broad host range encompassing domesticated bovine and wildlife animals unlike the human adapted specialist M...
April 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433479/modeling-short-range-substitution-order-and-disorder-in-crystals-application-to-the-ga-si-distribution-in-a-natrolite-zeolite
#15
Sylvian Cadars, Nak Ho Ahn, Kirill Okhotnikov, Jiho Shin, Aurélie Vicente, Suk Bong Hong, Christian Fernandez
Atomic substitutions are a central feature of the physicochemical properties of an increasing number of solid-state materials. The complexity that this chemical disorder locally generates in otherwise crystalline solids poses a major challenge to the understanding of the relationships between the structure and properties of materials at the atomic and molecular level. Strategies designed to efficiently explore the ensemble of local chemical environments present in disordered crystals and predict their signatures in local spectroscopies such as solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are therefore essential...
April 13, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433010/about-the-nature-of-halogen-bond-interaction-under-the-spatial-confinement
#16
Agnieszka Roztoczyńska, Paweł Lipkowski, Justyna Kozłowska, Wojciech Bartkowiak
Nowadays, much attention is put toward the description of noncovalent complexes exposed to the high pressure or embedded in confining environments. Such conditions may strongly modify the physical and chemical properties of molecular systems. This study focuses on the theoretical description of the confinement induced changes in geometry and energetic parameters of the halogen bonded FCl⋯CNF complex. A model analytical potential is applied to render the effect of orbital compression. In order to analyze the nature of halogen bond interaction, in the presence of spatial confinement, the supermolecular approach together with the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory is used...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432914/adaptive-optimization-of-ultrasound-beamforming-sound-velocity-using-sub-aperture-differential-phase-gradient
#17
Che-Chou Shen, Hsiao-Chi Yang
Ultrasound array imaging systems rely on a presumed beamforming sound velocity to calculate the time compensation of each element for receive focusing. The mismatch between the tissue sound velocity and the beamforming sound velocity can degrade the focusing quality due to loss of phase coherence. Since the tissue sound velocity cannot be known in prior, an adaptive optimization of beamforming sound velocity is required to improve the image quality. Differential phase gradient of channel data is proposed to estimate the optimal sound velocity for beamforming...
April 12, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431090/current-status-of-the-blue-butterfly-in-fukushima-research
#18
Joji M Otaki, Wataru Taira
Adverse biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident have been revealed using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, since 2012, which were often considered incompatible with the conventional understanding of radiation biology. This discrepancy likely originates from different system conditions and methodologies. In this article, we first respond to comments from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) regarding our study; "technical errors" in unit usage and mathematical models noted by UNSCEAR are not errors but reflect our research philosophy not to introduce theoretical assumptions associated with unit conversion and mathematical fit...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428392/ecosystem-management-as-a-wicked-problem
#19
REVIEW
Ruth DeFries, Harini Nagendra
Ecosystems are self-regulating systems that provide societies with food, water, timber, and other resources. As demands for resources increase, management decisions are replacing self-regulating properties. Counter to previous technical approaches that applied simple formulas to estimate sustainable yields of single species, current research recognizes the inherent complexity of ecosystems and the inability to foresee all consequences of interventions across different spatial, temporal, and administrative scales...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428054/modified-nanoparticle-mediated-il-12-immunogene-therapy-for-colon-cancer
#20
Xiaoxiao Liu, Xiang Gao, Songping Zheng, Bilan Wang, Yanyan Li, Chanjuan Zhao, Yagmur Muftuoglu, Song Chen, Ying Li, Haiyan Yao, Hui Sun, Qing Mao, Chao You, Gang Guo, Yuquan Wei
For the past few years, immunotherapy has recently shown considerable clinical benefit in CRC therapy, and the application of immunologic therapies in cancer treatments continues to increase perennially. Interleukin-12, an ideal candidate for tumor immunotherapy, could activate both innate and adaptive immunities. In this study, we developed a novel gene delivery system with a self-assembly method by MPEG-PLA and DOTAP(DMP) with zeta-potential value of 38.5mV and size of 37.5nm. The supernatant of lymphocytes treated with supernatant from Ct26 transfected pIL12 with DMP could inhibit Ct26 cells growth ex vivo...
April 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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