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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776348/the-influence-of-cross-sectoral-treatment-models-on-patients-with-mental-disorders-in-germany-study-protocol-of-a-nationwide-long-term-evaluation-study-eva64
#1
Anne Neumann, Enno Swart, Dennis Häckl, Roman Kliemt, Stefanie March, Denise Küster, Katrin Arnold, Thomas Petzold, Fabian Baum, Martin Seifert, Jessika Weiß, Andrea Pfennig, Jochen Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Close, continuous and efficient collaboration between different professions and sectors of care is necessary to provide patient-centered care for individuals with mental disorders. The lack of structured collaboration between in- and outpatient care constitutes a limitation of the German health care system. Since 2012, a new law in Germany (§64b Social code book (SGB) V) has enabled the establishment of cross-sectoral and patient-centered treatment models in psychiatry. Such model projects follow a capitation budget, i...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776088/how-nonuniform-contact-profiles-of-t-cell-receptors-modulate-thymic-selection-outcomes
#2
Hanrong Chen, Arup K Chakraborty, Mehran Kardar
T cell receptors (TCRs) bind foreign or self-peptides attached to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and the strength of this interaction determines T cell activation. Optimizing the ability of T cells to recognize a diversity of foreign peptides yet be tolerant of self-peptides is crucial for the adaptive immune system to properly function. This is achieved by selection of T cells in the thymus, where immature T cells expressing unique, stochastically generated TCRs interact with a large number of self-peptide-MHC; if a TCR does not bind strongly enough to any self-peptide-MHC, or too strongly with at least one self-peptide-MHC, the T cell dies...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772680/the-crosstalk-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-pathways-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-complex-mechanisms-relevant-for-cancer-inflammation-and-infection
#3
REVIEW
M Lienhard Schmitz, M Samer Shaban, B Vincent Albert, Anke Gökçen, Michael Kracht
Stressful conditions occuring during cancer, inflammation or infection activate adaptive responses that are controlled by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. These systems can be triggered by chemical compounds but also by cytokines, toll-like receptor ligands, nucleic acids, lipids, bacteria and viruses. Despite representing unique signaling cascades, new data indicate that the UPR and NF-κB pathways converge within the nucleus through ten major transcription factors (TFs), namely activating transcription factor (ATF)4, ATF3, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP) homologous protein (CHOP), X-box-binding protein (XBP)1, ATF6α and the five NF-κB subunits...
May 16, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771210/variables-affecting-hospital-length-of-stay-a-scoping-review
#4
Sandra C Buttigieg, Lorraine Abela, Adriana Pace
Purpose Tertiary hospitals have registered an incremental rise in expenditure mostly because of the increasing demands by ageing populations. Reducing the length of stay (LOS) of patients within tertiary hospitals is one of the strategies, which has been used in the last decades to ensure health care systems' sustainability. Furthermore, LOS is one of the key performance indicators, which is widely used to assess hospital efficiency. Hence, it is crucial that policy makers use evidence-based practices in health care to aim for optimal LOS...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769300/schlieren-photography-on-freely-flying-hawkmoth
#5
Yun Liu, Jesse Roll, Stephen Van Kooten, Xinyan Deng
The aerodynamic force on flying insects results from the vortical flow structures that vary both spatially and temporally throughout flight. Due to these complexities and the inherent difficulties in studying flying insects in a natural setting, a complete picture of the vortical flow has been difficult to obtain experimentally. In this paper, Schlieren , a widely used technique for highspeed flow visualization, was adapted to capture the vortex structures around freely flying hawkmoth ( Manduca ). Flow features such as leading-edge vortex, trailing-edge vortex, as well as the full vortex system in the wake were visualized directly...
May 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766612/visuomotor-coordination-and-cortical-connectivity-of-modular-motor-learning
#6
Pablo I Burgos, Juan J Mariman, Scott Makeig, Gonzalo Rivera-Lillo, Pedro E Maldonado
The ability to transfer sensorimotor skill components to new actions and the capacity to use skill components from whole actions are characteristic of the adaptability of the human sensorimotor system. However, behavioral evidence suggests complex limitations for transfer after combined or modular learning of motor adaptations. Also, to date, only behavioral analysis of the consequences of the modular learning has been reported, with little understanding of the sensorimotor mechanisms of control and the interaction between cortical areas...
May 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765307/a-novel-integrative-mechanism-in-anxiolytic-behavior-induced-by-galanin-2-neuropeptide-y-y1-receptor-interactions-on-medial-paracapsular-intercalated-amygdala-in-rats
#7
Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Luis Santín, Carmelo Millón, Belén Gago, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Miguel A Barbancho, Miguel Pérez de la Mora, José Narváez, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
Anxiety is evoked by a threatening situation and display adaptive or defensive behaviors, found similarly in animals and humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (NPYY1R) and Galanin (GAL) receptor 2 (GALR2) interact in several regions of the limbic system, including the amygdala. In a previous study, GALR2 enhanced NPYY1R mediated anxiolytic actions on spatiotemporal parameters in the open field and elevated plus maze, involving the formation of GALR2/NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes in the amygdala. Moreover, the inclusion of complementary ethological parameters provides a more comprehensive profile on the anxiolytic effects of a treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764890/marathon-kids-uk-study-design-and-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-evaluation-of-a-school-based-running-programme
#8
Anna E Chalkley, Ash C Routen, Jo P Harris, Lorraine A Cale, Trish Gorely, Lauren B Sherar
INTRODUCTION: Schools are promising settings for physical activity promotion; however, they are complex and adaptive systems that can influence the quality of programme implementation. This paper presents an evaluation of a school-based running programme (Marathon Kids). The aims of this study are (1) to identify the processes by which schools implement the programme, (2) identify and explain the contextual factors affecting implementation and explications of effectiveness and (3) examine the relationship between the level of implementation and perceived outcomes...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764109/knowledge-translation-in-healthcare-towards-understanding-its-true-complexities-comment-on-using-complexity-and-network-concepts-to-inform-healthcare-knowledge-translation
#9
Joachim P Sturmberg
This commentary argues that to fully appreciate the complexities of knowledge transfer one firstly has to distinguish between the notions of "data, information, knowledge and wisdom," and that the latter two are highly context sensitive. In particular one has to understand knowledge as being personal rather than objective, and hence there is no form of knowledge that a-priori is more authoritative than another. Secondly, knowledge transfer in organisations can only be successful if the organisation is organised and managed as a "complex adaptive organisation" - its key characteristics arising from it's a-priori defined common "purpose, goals and values...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761969/-a-numerical-simulation-of-dendritic-cells-migration-and-induction-of-t-cell-specific-proliferation-during-the-initiation-of-skin-inflammatory
#10
Wenhui Hu, Wenzhu Huang, Zuquan Hu, Zhu Zeng
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent and specialized antigen-presenting cells (APCs) currently known, which play a crucial role in initiating and amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune responses. During the process of immune function, migration ability of DCs and the number of effector T cells which activated by DCs are closely related to the efficiency of immune function. However, because of the complexity of immune system, in the immune response process caused by the skin chronic inflammatory, much is still unknown about the dynamic changes of cell count with time...
October 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761399/chromatin-immunoprecipitation-in-macrophages
#11
Germain Rousselet
Macrophages are highly polymorphic depending upon their cellular origin and their tissue environment. The different forms that a macrophage can adopt fundamentally reflect different transcription patterns. In addition, macrophages are exquisitely sensitive to a wide variety of signals coming from either infectious agents or damaged tissues. Most of the responses to these signals involve rapid and massive modifications of transcription. The control of transcription relies on the one hand on the posttranslational modification of histones, and on the other hand on the binding on the chromatin of multiple protein complexes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761394/polarizing-macrophages-in-vitro
#12
Xuan Huang, Yong Li, Mingui Fu, Hong-Bo Xin
Macrophages are a heterogeneous population of innate myeloid cells involved in health and disease, which are the most functionally diverse cells of the hematopoietic system. The main functions of macrophages include responding to pathogens and modulating the adaptive immune response, induction and resolution of inflammation, tissue repair, and homeostasis. Macrophages exhibit remarkable plasticity, in which the different populations of macrophages with distinct physiological and pathological roles can be developed in response to different stimuli...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761100/moving-the-cellular-peptidome-by-transporters
#13
REVIEW
Rupert Abele, Robert Tampé
Living matter is defined by metastability, implying a tightly balanced synthesis and turnover of cellular components. The first step of eukaryotic protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) leads to peptides, which are subsequently degraded to single amino acids by an armada of proteases. A small fraction of peptides, however, escapes further cytosolic destruction and is transported by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lysosomes. The ER-resident heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a crucial component in adaptive immunity for the transport and loading of peptides onto major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760781/understanding-aneuploidy-in-cancer-through-the-lens-of-system-inheritance-fuzzy-inheritance-and-emergence-of-new-genome-systems
#14
REVIEW
Christine J Ye, Sarah Regan, Guo Liu, Sarah Alemara, Henry H Heng
Background: In the past 15 years, impressive progress has been made to understand the molecular mechanism behind aneuploidy, largely due to the effort of using various -omics approaches to study model systems (e.g. yeast and mouse models) and patient samples, as well as the new realization that chromosome alteration-mediated genome instability plays the key role in cancer. As the molecular characterization of the causes and effects of aneuploidy progresses, the search for the general mechanism of how aneuploidy contributes to cancer becomes increasingly challenging: since aneuploidy can be linked to diverse molecular pathways (in regards to both cause and effect), the chances of it being cancerous is highly context-dependent, making it more difficult to study than individual molecular mechanisms...
2018: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759013/adapting-to-a-shifting-health-care-landscape-illinois-breast-and-cervical-cancer-program-lead-agencies-perspectives
#15
Yamile Molina, Cindy San Miguel, Stephanie Sanz, Liliana San Miguel, Kristin Rankin, Arden Handler
Understanding how safety net programs adapt to systemic health care changes is pivotal for creating feasible recommendations for policy implementation. This study characterizes perspectives of Lead Agency (LA) coordinators of the Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program (IBCCP) in response to sociopolitical changes at state and national levels. Our cross-sectional study included 29 semistructured telephone interviews between December 2015 and January 2016. Respondents indicated some changes in the priority population served, changes in referrals and clinical services, and, a continued commitment to IBCCP...
May 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758683/markovian-robots-minimal-navigation-strategies-for-active-particles
#16
Luis Gómez Nava, Robert Großmann, Fernando Peruani
We explore minimal navigation strategies for active particles in complex, dynamical, external fields, introducing a class of autonomous, self-propelled particles which we call Markovian robots (MR). These machines are equipped with a navigation control system (NCS) that triggers random changes in the direction of self-propulsion of the robots. The internal state of the NCS is described by a Boolean variable that adopts two values. The temporal dynamics of this Boolean variable is dictated by a closed Markov chain-ensuring the absence of fixed points in the dynamics-with transition rates that may depend exclusively on the instantaneous, local value of the external field...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758636/emergent-explosive-synchronization-in-adaptive-complex-networks
#17
Vanesa Avalos-Gaytán, Juan A Almendral, I Leyva, F Battiston, V Nicosia, V Latora, S Boccaletti
Adaptation plays a fundamental role in shaping the structure of a complex network and improving its functional fitting. Even when increasing the level of synchronization in a biological system is considered as the main driving force for adaptation, there is evidence of negative effects induced by excessive synchronization. This indicates that coherence alone cannot be enough to explain all the structural features observed in many real-world networks. In this work, we propose an adaptive network model where the dynamical evolution of the node states toward synchronization is coupled with an evolution of the link weights based on an anti-Hebbian adaptive rule, which accounts for the presence of inhibitory effects in the system...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758287/pseudomonas-putida-as-a-functional-chassis-for-industrial-biocatalysis-from-native-biochemistry-to-trans-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Pablo I Nikel, Víctor de Lorenzo
The itinerary followed by Pseudomonas putida from being a soil-dweller and plant colonizer bacterium to become a flexible and engineer-able platform for metabolic engineering stems from its natural lifestyle, which is adapted to harsh environmental conditions and all sorts of physicochemical stresses. Over the years, these properties have been capitalized biotechnologically owing to the expanding wealth of genetic tools designed for deep-editing the P. putida genome. A suite of dedicated vectors inspired in the core tenets of synthetic biology have enabled to suppress many of the naturally-occurring undesirable traits native to this species while enhancing its many appealing properties, and also to import catalytic activities and attributes from other biological systems...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757293/a-rapid-and-facile-pipeline-for-generating-genomic-point-mutants-in-c-elegans-using-crispr-cas9-ribonucleoproteins
#19
Harriet Prior, Lauren MacConnachie, Jose L Martinez, Georgina C B Nicholl, Asim A Beg
The clustered regularly interspersed palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) prokaryotic adaptive immune defense system has been co-opted as a powerful tool for precise eukaryotic genome engineering. Here, we present a rapid and simple method using chimeric single guide RNAs (sgRNA) and CRISPR-Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) for the efficient and precise generation of genomic point mutations in C. elegans. We describe a pipeline for sgRNA target selection, homology-directed repair (HDR) template design, CRISPR-Cas9-RNP complexing and delivery, and a genotyping strategy that enables the robust and rapid identification of correctly edited animals...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756227/the-genetic-nomenclature-of-recessive-cerebellar-ataxias
#20
REVIEW
Malco Rossi, Mathieu Anheim, Alexandra Durr, Christine Klein, Michel Koenig, Matthis Synofzik, Connie Marras, Bart P van de Warrenburg
The recessive cerebellar ataxias are a large group of degenerative and metabolic disorders, the diagnostic management of which is difficult because of the enormous clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Because of several limitations, the current classification systems provide insufficient guidance for clinicians and researchers. Here, we propose a new nomenclature for the genetically confirmed recessive cerebellar ataxias according to the principles and criteria laid down by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Task Force on Classification and Nomenclature of Genetic Movement Disorders...
May 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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