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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906494/alcohol-dependent-molecular-adaptations-of-the-nmda-receptor-system
#1
REVIEW
Nadege Morisot, Dorit Ron
Phenotypes such as motivation to consume alcohol, goal-directed alcohol seeking and habit formation contribute to the mechanisms underlying heavy alcohol use. Learning and memory processes greatly contribute to the establishment and maintenance of these behavioral phenotypes. The N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a driving force of synaptic plasticity, a key cellular hallmark of learning and memory. Here, we describe data in rodents and humans linking signaling molecules that center around the NMDARs and behaviors associated with the development and/or maintenance of alcohol abuse...
December 1, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906279/adaptive-multifocus-image-fusion-using-block-compressed-sensing-with-smoothed-projected-landweber-integration-in-the-wavelet-domain
#2
Unni V S, Deepak Mishra, G R K S Subrahmanyam
The need for image fusion in current image processing systems is increasing mainly due to the increased number and variety of image acquisition techniques. Image fusion is the process of combining substantial information from several sensors using mathematical techniques in order to create a single composite image that will be more comprehensive and thus more useful for a human operator or other computer vision tasks. This paper presents a new approach to multifocus image fusion based on sparse signal representation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903719/the-segregation-and-integration-of-distinct-brain-networks-and-their-relationship-to-cognition
#3
Jessica R Cohen, Mark D'Esposito
: A critical feature of the human brain that gives rise to complex cognition is its ability to reconfigure its network structure dynamically and adaptively in response to the environment. Existing research probing task-related reconfiguration of brain network structure has concluded that, although there are many similarities in network structure during an intrinsic, resting state and during the performance of a variety of cognitive tasks, there are meaningful differences as well. In this study, we related intrinsic, resting state network organization to reconfigured network organization during the performance of two tasks: a sequence tapping task, which is thought to probe motor execution and likely engages a single brain network, and an n-back task, which is thought to probe working memory and likely requires coordination across multiple networks...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902485/impacts-of-cigarette-smoking-on-immune-responsiveness-up-and-down-or-upside-down
#4
REVIEW
Feifei Qiu, Chun-Ling Liang, Huazhen Liu, Yu-Qun Zeng, Shaozhen Hou, Song Huang, Xiaoping Lai, Zhenhua Dai
Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901481/human-pancreatic-cancer-xenografts-recapitulate-key-aspects-of-cancer-cachexia
#5
Daniel Delitto, Sarah M Judge, Andrea E Delitto, Rachel L Nosacka, Fernanda G Rocha, Bayli B DiVita, Michael H Gerber, Thomas J George, Kevin E Behrns, Steven J Hughes, Shannon M Wallet, Andrew R Judge, Jose G Trevino
Cancer cachexia represents a debilitating syndrome that diminishes quality of life and augments the toxicities of conventional treatments. Cancer cachexia is particularly debilitating in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Mechanisms responsible for cancer cachexia are under investigation and are largely derived from observations in syngeneic murine models of cancer which are limited in PC. We evaluate the effect of human PC cells on both muscle wasting and the systemic inflammatory milieu potentially contributing to PC-associated cachexia...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900850/hybridization-between-pollination-syndromes-as-an-ecological-and-evolutionary-resource
#6
Quentin Cronk, Ji Yong Yang
In plants, pollination syndromes (the correlated presence of many features of relevance to pollination mode, for instance pollination by a particular animal clade) are a striking feature of plant biodiversity, providing great floral phenotypic diversity (Fenster et al. ). Adaptation to a particular animal pollinator provides an explanation for why recently diverged plants can have such extreme differentiation in floral form. One might expect such elaborate adaptations to provide a high degree of pollinator specificity and hence reproductive isolation, but there are many cases where substantial gene flow exists between extreme floral morphs (see Table 1), and the resulting hybrids may be highly fertile...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900827/the-role-of-latitudinal-genetic-and-temperature-variation-in-the-induction-of-diapause-of-papilio-glaucus-lepidoptera-papilionidae
#7
Sean F Ryan, Patti Valella, Gabrielle Thivierge, Matthew L Aardema, J Mark Scriber
A key adaptation in insects for dealing with variable environmental conditions is the ability to diapause. The tiger swallowtail butterflies, Papilio glaucus and P. canadensis are ideal species to explore the genetic causes and population genetic consequences of diapause because divergence in this trait is believed to be a salient factor in maintaining a hybrid zone between these species. Yet little is known about the factors that influence diapause induction in this system. Here we explored how spatial (latitudinal), environmental (temperature) and genetic (hybridization) factors affect diapause induction in this system...
November 29, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899566/asymmetric-positioning-of-cas1-2-complex-and-integration-host-factor-induced-dna-bending-guide-the-unidirectional-homing-of-protospacer-in-crispr-cas-type-i-e-system
#8
K N R Yoganand, R Sivathanu, Siddharth Nimkar, B Anand
CRISPR-Cas system epitomizes prokaryote-specific quintessential adaptive defense machinery that limits the genome invasion of mobile genetic elements. It confers adaptive immunity to bacteria by capturing a protospacer fragment from invading foreign DNA, which is later inserted into the leader proximal end of CRIPSR array and serves as immunological memory to recognize recurrent invasions. The universally conserved Cas1 and Cas2 form an integration complex that is known to mediate the protospacer invasion into the CRISPR array...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898382/towards-real-time-estimation-of-muscle-fiber-conduction-velocity-using-delay-locked-loop
#9
Lin Xu, Chiara Rabotti, Massimo Mischi
Decrease in muscle-fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) during sustained contraction has been widely accepted as myoelectric manifestation of muscle fatigue. Several methods have been proposed in the literature for MFCV estimation by analysing surface electromyography (EMG), e.g., cross-correlation (CC) function and maximum likelihood (ML). However, for all the available methods, windowing of the EMG signal and computationally demanding calculations are required, limiting the possibility to continuously monitor muscle fatigue in real time...
November 24, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898011/update-on-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-treatments-in-ischemic-stroke
#10
REVIEW
Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Alessandra Vecchié, Matteo Casula, Federico Carbone, Franco Dallegri, Fabrizio Montecucco
After an acute ischemic stroke (AIS), inflammatory processes are able to concomitantly induce both beneficial and detrimental effects. In this narrative review, we updated evidence on the inflammatory pathways and mediators that are investigated as promising therapeutic targets. We searched for papers on PubMed and MEDLINE up to August 2016. The terms searched alone or in combination were: ischemic stroke, inflammation, oxidative stress, ischemia reperfusion, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, autoimmunity...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895507/fc-gamma-receptors-glycobiology-and-therapeutic-prospects
#11
REVIEW
Jerrard M Hayes, Mark R Wormald, Pauline M Rudd, Gavin P Davey
Therapeutic antibodies hold great promise for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases, and developments in antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies continue to enhance treatment options for patients. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies are proteins with complex modifications, which have a significant impact on their function. The most important of these modifications is glycosylation, the addition of conserved glycans to the antibody Fc region, which is critical for its interaction with the immune system and induction of effector activities such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, complement activation and phagocytosis...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893860/blocking-synthesis-of-the-variant-surface-glycoprotein-coat-in-trypanosoma-brucei-leads-to-an-increase-in-macrophage-phagocytosis-due-to-reduced-clearance-of-surface-coat-antibodies
#12
Jackie L Y Cheung, Nadina V Wand, Cher-Pheng Ooi, Sophie Ridewood, Richard J Wheeler, Gloria Rudenko
The extracellular bloodstream form parasite Trypanosoma brucei is supremely adapted to escape the host innate and adaptive immune system. Evasion is mediated through an antigenically variable Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) coat, which is recycled at extraordinarily high rates. Blocking VSG synthesis triggers a precytokinesis arrest where stalled cells persist for days in vitro with superficially intact VSG coats, but are rapidly cleared within hours in mice. We therefore investigated the role of VSG synthesis in trypanosome phagocytosis by activated mouse macrophages...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892936/influence-of-early-life-exposure-host-genetics-and-diet-on-the-mouse-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome
#13
Antoine M Snijders, Sasha A Langley, Young-Mo Kim, Colin J Brislawn, Cecilia Noecker, Erika M Zink, Sarah J Fansler, Cameron P Casey, Darla R Miller, Yurong Huang, Gary H Karpen, Susan E Celniker, James B Brown, Elhanan Borenstein, Janet K Jansson, Thomas O Metz, Jian-Hua Mao
Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease(1), we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut. We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system(2) to discover that early life history impacts the microbiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889205/structural-analysis-of-multi-component-amyloid-systems-by-chemometric-saxs-data-decomposition
#14
Fátima Herranz-Trillo, Minna Groenning, Andreas van Maarschalkerweerd, Romà Tauler, Bente Vestergaard, Pau Bernadó
Formation of amyloids is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative pathologies. Structural investigation of these complex transformation processes poses significant experimental challenges due to the co-existence of multiple species. The additive nature of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data allows for probing the evolution of these mixtures of oligomeric states, but the decomposition of SAXS data into species-specific spectra and relative concentrations is burdened by ambiguity. We present an objective SAXS data decomposition method by adapting the multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) chemometric method...
November 9, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887640/functional-and-regulatory-profiling-of-energy-metabolism-in-fission-yeast
#15
Michal Malecki, Danny A Bitton, Maria Rodríguez-López, Charalampos Rallis, Noelia Garcia Calavia, Graeme C Smith, Jürg Bähler
BACKGROUND: The control of energy metabolism is fundamental for cell growth and function and anomalies in it are implicated in complex diseases and ageing. Metabolism in yeast cells can be manipulated by supplying different carbon sources: yeast grown on glucose rapidly proliferates by fermentation, analogous to tumour cells growing by aerobic glycolysis, whereas on non-fermentable carbon sources metabolism shifts towards respiration. RESULTS: We screened deletion libraries of fission yeast to identify over 200 genes required for respiratory growth...
November 25, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885259/trackntrace-a-simple-and-extendable-open-source-framework-for-developing-single-molecule-localization-and-tracking-algorithms
#16
Simon Christoph Stein, Jan Thiart
Super-resolution localization microscopy and single particle tracking are important tools for fluorescence microscopy. Both rely on detecting, and tracking, a large number of fluorescent markers using increasingly sophisticated computer algorithms. However, this rise in complexity makes it difficult to fine-tune parameters and detect inconsistencies, improve existing routines, or develop new approaches founded on established principles. We present an open-source MATLAB framework for single molecule localization, tracking and super-resolution applications...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885191/-modeling-and-simulation-of-trabecular-pattern-formation-in-a-cancellous-bone-defect-under-mechanical-forces
#17
Taiji Adachi
Understanding regeneration of the trabecular structure in cancellous bone defects is an important issue in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Biochemical and biomechanical viewpoints are indispensable for understanding the fundamental mechanism that underlies the regeneration of the trabecular structure. In vitro observations of the Turing pattern-like bone differentiation into osteoblasts from human mesenchymal stem cells suggest that mathematical modeling and simulation based on a reaction-diffusion system model would help us to understand the mechanism of trabecular pattern formation during cancellous bone regeneration...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883377/borrelia-burgdorferi-%C3%A2-morphological-structure-and-motility-as-adaptation-for-transmission-and-survival-in-the-habitat-of-a-tick-vertebrate-setup
#18
Paweł Penza, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Piotr Czupryna, Sławomir Pancewicz, Joanna Zajkowska
Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem chronic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) spirochete transmitted by Ixodes. This bacterium has a remarkable ability to survive in tick-vertebrate setup. Its infection causes diagnostic and clinical difficulties. It was distinguished as a separate disease entity over 30 years ago. Observations made by Steere et al. proved to be a milestone since they found correlation between the occurrence of skin and joint lesions with tick bites. Further studies showed that the disease affects not only joints and skin, but also nervous and circulatory systems...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883001/psoriasis
#19
Jacqueline E Greb, Ari M Goldminz, James T Elder, Mark G Lebwohl, Dafna D Gladman, Jashin J Wu, Nehal N Mehta, Andrew Y Finlay, Alice B Gottlieb
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder with cutaneous and systemic manifestations and substantial negative effects on patient quality of life. Psoriasis has a strong, albeit polygenic, genetic basis. Whereas approximately half of the accountable genetic effect of psoriasis maps to the major histocompatibility complex, >70 other loci have been identified, many of which implicate nuclear factor-κB, interferon signalling and the IL-23-IL-23 receptor axis. Psoriasis pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and immune cell infiltration in the dermis and epidermis involving the innate and adaptive immune systems, with important roles for dendritic cells and T cells, among other cells...
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881881/spintronic-nanodevices-for-bioinspired-computing
#20
Julie Grollier, Damien Querlioz, Mark D Stiles
Bioinspired hardware holds the promise of low-energy, intelligent, and highly adaptable computing systems. Applications span from automatic classification for big data management, through unmanned vehicle control, to control for biomedical prosthesis. However, one of the major challenges of fabricating bioinspired hardware is building ultra-high-density networks out of complex processing units interlinked by tunable connections. Nanometer-scale devices exploiting spin electronics (or spintronics) can be a key technology in this context...
October 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE
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