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Referee football

Carlo Castagna, Mario Bizzini, Susana C Araújo Póvoas, Kai Schenk, Gery Büsser, Stefano DʼOttavio
Castagna, C, Bizzini, M, Araújo Póvoas, SC, Schenk, K, Büsser, G, and D'Ottavio, S. Aerobic fitness in top-class soccer referees. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-The aim of this study was to examine the aerobic fitness status of top-class male soccer officials using a cross-sectional design and known population group constructs. Fifty-two field referees (FRs, age 38.4 ± 3.3 years; height 181 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 76.8 ± 6.8 kg; body mass index [BMI] 23.4 ± 1.7 kg·m; body fat 20.4 ± 3.6%; and international refereeing experience 5 ± 3...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
António Manuel Gonçalves Baptista, Pedro M Serra, Colm McAlinden, Brendan T Barrett
Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season...
2017: PloS One
Nadia Gaoua, Rita F de Oliveira, Steve Hunter
Different professional domains require high levels of physical performance alongside fast and accurate decision-making. Construction workers, police officers, firefighters, elite sports men and women, the military and emergency medical professionals are often exposed to hostile environments with limited options for behavioral coping strategies. In this (mini) review we use football refereeing as an example to discuss the combined effect of intense physical activity and extreme temperatures on decision-making and suggest an explicative model...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Frowin Fasold, Peter Wühr, Daniel Memmert
Judging offside in football represents a typical go-nogo task (offside-raising the flag, no offside-no response). Nevertheless, several studies involved two-choice tasks (e.g. offside-press key A, no offside-press key B) to investigate potential sources of errors in offside situations. While go-nogo and choice-response tasks are commonly used in experimental psychology, response preferences may differ between the two tasks. Therefore, we investigated the impact of response requirements on offside judgments in a sample of male participants without experience in professional refereeing...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Research
Jochim Spitz, Koen Put, Johan Wagemans, A Mark Williams, Werner F Helsen
OBJECTIVES: Slow-motion replays of foul play situations are now used in the education and training of sports officials. We investigated the impact of video speed on the decision-making process of association football referees and how this interacted with expertise. METHODS: Three different groups of referees, varying in level of expertise, assessed video clips from an in-game perspective. Video clips represented corner kick and open play situations in which a foul occurred or not...
July 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
Ilker Yucesir, Banu Sahin Yildiz, Osman Coskun, Sertac Yakal, Bulent Bayraktar, Gokhan Metin, Mehmet Altan, Mustafa Yildiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Carlo Castagna, Mario Bizzini, Susana Cristina Araújo Póvoas, Stefano D'Ottavio
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of recall timing on training session rating of perceived exertion (S-RPE) in a population of method procedures well-familiarized athletes, during a 5-days training micro-cycle. METHODS: Fifty-one top class Field Referees (FR, age 38.4±3.3 years; height 181±5.6 cm; body mass 76.8±6.8 kg; body max index, 23.4±1.7 kg·m2; body fat 20.4±3.6%; international refereeing experience 5±3.5 years) from 43 National Football Associations worldwide, preselected by FIFA Refereeing Department for officiating during the FIFA WC 2014 Brazil volunteered for this study...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Vincent Gouttebarge, Urban Johnson, Pierre Rochcongar, Philippe Rosier, Gino Kerkhoffs
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and one-season incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among European professional football referees. A secondary aim was to explore the view of European professional football referees on consequences, support and needs related to these symptoms. METHODS: An observational prospective cohort study with three measurements over a follow-up period of one season (2015-2016) was conducted among central or assistant professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden...
February 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Ulas Gulec, Murat Yilmaz
Digital game-based learning environments provide emerging opportunities to overcome learning barriers by combining newly developed technologies and traditional game design. This study proposes a quantitative research approach supported by expert validation interviews to designing a game-based learning framework. The goal is to improve the learning experience and decision-making skills of soccer referees in Turkey. A serious game was developed and tested on a group of referees (N = 54). The assessment results of these referees were compared with two sample t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-ranked test for both the experimental group and the control group...
2016: SpringerPlus
Richard Pollard, Miguel A Gómez
Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (p<0...
September 2015: Collegium Antropologicum
Koen Put, Johan Wagemans, Jochim Spitz, A Mark Williams, Werner F Helsen
In association football, the difficulty in making offside decisions depends on both perceptual and cognitive processes. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to enhance the decision-making skills of assistant referees by further developing their ability to (1) time slice the incoming information flow into series of isolated time frames during an ongoing offside situation and (2) use this information to mentally read off the spatial positions of the key-role players. Training (n = 10) and control groups (n = 10) were exposed to a pre- and post-test, consisting of an offside decision-making and frame recognition test...
2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Mario Bizzini, Jiri Dvorak
In 2009, FIFA promoted and disseminated the FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the programme was based on a randomised controlled study and one countrywide campaign in amateur football that significantly reduced injuries and healthcare costs. Since the FIFA 11+ launch, key publications have confirmed the preventive effects of the programme and have evaluated its performance effects in female as well as male amateur football players...
May 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Leander van der Meij, Fabian Klauke, Hannah L Moore, Yannick S Ludwig, Mercedes Almela, Paul A M van Lange
Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74) saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume...
2015: PloS One
J A Casajús, A Gonzalez-Aguero
Fitness, and specifically body composition of football referees requires attention in order to achieve the highest possible standards. The aim of the present study was to describe body composition of elite Spanish football referees over 11 years. Data from 2001 to 2012 pre-seasons were analyzed from a total of 470 referees of 1(st) and 2(nd) categories in Spanish male football (1C and 2C respectively). Body mass index (BMI), sum of 6 skinfolds (6SS) and percentage of body fat (%BF) were assessed. 2-independent samples Student's t-test between categories, and ANOVA tests with Bonferroni post-hoc analyses among seasons were applied...
June 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Ilker Yucesir, Banu Sahin Yildiz, Osman Coskun, Sertac Yakal, Bulent Bayraktar, Gokhan Metin, Mehmet Altan, Mustafa Yildiz
BACKGROUND: P wave dispersion and P wave maximal duration reflect the activation of atrial muscle and is influenced by the mass of the excited tissue. It may reflect atrial remodelling, most likely atrial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to measure P wave duration and P wave dispersion in the high level football referees. METHODS: We recruited 104 elite and national referees with a training history of many years. The control group was made of 32 healthy sedentary subjects...
January 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Dennis Riedl, Bernd Strauss, Andreas Heuer, Oliver Rubner
The role of referees has become a central issue in the investigation of home advantage. The main aim of this study was a thorough examination of the referee bias concerning injury time in football, which is currently seen as an important example for the assertion that referees contribute to home advantage. First, we use archival data from the German Bundesliga (seasons 2000/2001-2010/2011) to confirm the existence of an asymmetry in the allocation of injury time. We show this asymmetry to be a bias by ruling out hitherto remaining alternative explanations (effect = 18 s, P < 0...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
Hosea H Harvey
Between January 2009 and October 2013, 49 states and the District of Columbia passed laws focusing on mitigating the consequences of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in organized youth sports. Using historical, contextual, and empirical methods, this Article describes the content, goals, and structure of youth sports TBI laws, while hypothesizing about their underlying legislative logic and long-term public health consequences. The Article's empirical evidence suggests two key findings: first, that a dominant interest group, the National Football League, helped to define the problem and its associated solutions for the vast majority of states, thus curving the legislative story are in favor of its policy prescriptions; second, that existing youth sports TBI laws are focused on secondary, not primary, prevention, and may thus shift attention away from more comprehensive solutions...
2014: Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics
Koen Put, Johan Wagemans, Jochim Spitz, Manuel Armenteros Gallardo, A Mark Williams, Werner F Helsen
We examined whether the use of three-dimensional (3D) simulations in an off-field offside decision-making task is beneficial compared to the more widely available two-dimensional (2D) simulations. Thirty-three assistant referees, who were all involved in professional football, participated in the experiment. They assessed 40 offside situations in both 2D and 3D formats using a counterbalanced design. A distinction was made between offside situations near (i.e., 15 m) and far (i.e., 30 m) from the touchline...
2014: Journal of Sports Sciences
T Tajima, E Chosa, K Kawahara, Y Nakamura, D Yoshikawa, N Yamaguchi, T Kashiwagi
The present study aims to improve medical systems by designing objective safety assessment criteria for rugby competitions. We evaluated 195 competitions between 2002 and 2011 using an original safety scale comprising the following sections: 1) competence of staff such as referees, medical attendants and match day doctor; 2) environment such as weather, wet bulb globe temperature and field conditions; and 3) emergency medical care systems at the competitions. Each section was subdivided into groups A, B and C according to good, normal or fair degrees of safety determined by combinations of the results...
November 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Vitor Hugo Teixeira, Liliana Gonçalves, Tiago Meneses, Pedro Moreira
There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4...
2014: Journal of Sports Sciences
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