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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741403/symptoms-of-common-mental-disorders-among-professional-football-referees-a-one-season-prospective-study-across-europe
#1
Vincent Gouttebarge, Urban Johnson, Pierre Rochcongar, Philippe Rosier, Gino Kerkhoffs
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and one-season incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among European professional football referees. A secondary aim was to explore the view of European professional football referees on consequences, support and needs related to these symptoms. METHODS: An observational prospective cohort study with three measurements over a follow-up period of one season (2015-2016) was conducted among central or assistant professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden...
October 14, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330888/a-serious-game-for-improving-the-decision-making-skills-and-knowledge-levels-of-turkish-football-referees-according-to-the-laws-of-the-game
#2
Ulas Gulec, Murat Yilmaz
Digital game-based learning environments provide emerging opportunities to overcome learning barriers by combining newly developed technologies and traditional game design. This study proposes a quantitative research approach supported by expert validation interviews to designing a game-based learning framework. The goal is to improve the learning experience and decision-making skills of soccer referees in Turkey. A serious game was developed and tested on a group of referees (N = 54). The assessment results of these referees were compared with two sample t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-ranked test for both the experimental group and the control group...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898053/comparison-of-home-advantage-in-college-and-professional-team-sports-in-the-united-states
#3
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Richard Pollard, Miguel A Gómez
Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (p<0...
September 2015: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25972094/using-web-based-training-to-enhance-perceptual-cognitive-skills-in-complex-dynamic-offside-events
#4
Koen Put, Johan Wagemans, Jochim Spitz, A Mark Williams, Werner F Helsen
In association football, the difficulty in making offside decisions depends on both perceptual and cognitive processes. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to enhance the decision-making skills of assistant referees by further developing their ability to (1) time slice the incoming information flow into series of isolated time frames during an ongoing offside situation and (2) use this information to mentally read off the spatial positions of the key-role players. Training (n = 10) and control groups (n = 10) were exposed to a pre- and post-test, consisting of an offside decision-making and frame recognition test...
2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25878073/fifa-11-an-effective-programme-to-prevent-football-injuries-in-various-player-groups-worldwide-a-narrative-review
#5
REVIEW
Mario Bizzini, Jiri Dvorak
In 2009, FIFA promoted and disseminated the FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the programme was based on a randomised controlled study and one countrywide campaign in amateur football that significantly reduced injuries and healthcare costs. Since the FIFA 11+ launch, key publications have confirmed the preventive effects of the programme and have evaluated its performance effects in female as well as male amateur football players...
May 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25844939/football-fan-aggression-the-importance-of-low-basal-cortisol-and-a-fair-referee
#6
Leander van der Meij, Fabian Klauke, Hannah L Moore, Yannick S Ludwig, Mercedes Almela, Paul A M van Lange
Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74) saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25781870/body-composition-evolution-in-elite-football-referees-an-eleven-years-retrospective-study
#7
J A Casajús, A Gonzalez-Aguero
Fitness, and specifically body composition of football referees requires attention in order to achieve the highest possible standards. The aim of the present study was to describe body composition of elite Spanish football referees over 11 years. Data from 2001 to 2012 pre-seasons were analyzed from a total of 470 referees of 1(st) and 2(nd) categories in Spanish male football (1C and 2C respectively). Body mass index (BMI), sum of 6 skinfolds (6SS) and percentage of body fat (%BF) were assessed. 2-independent samples Student's t-test between categories, and ANOVA tests with Bonferroni post-hoc analyses among seasons were applied...
June 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25692858/assessment-of-p-wave-duration-and-p-wave-dispersion-in-high-level-football-referees
#8
Ilker Yucesir, Banu Sahin Yildiz, Osman Coskun, Sertac Yakal, Bulent Bayraktar, Gokhan Metin, Mehmet Altan, Mustafa Yildiz
BACKGROUND: P wave dispersion and P wave maximal duration reflect the activation of atrial muscle and is influenced by the mass of the excited tissue. It may reflect atrial remodelling, most likely atrial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to measure P wave duration and P wave dispersion in the high level football referees. METHODS: We recruited 104 elite and national referees with a training history of many years. The control group was made of 32 healthy sedentary subjects...
January 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25143006/finale-furioso-referee-biased-injury-times-and-their-effects-on-home-advantage-in-football
#9
Dennis Riedl, Bernd Strauss, Andreas Heuer, Oliver Rubner
The role of referees has become a central issue in the investigation of home advantage. The main aim of this study was a thorough examination of the referee bias concerning injury time in football, which is currently seen as an important example for the assertion that referees contribute to home advantage. First, we use archival data from the German Bundesliga (seasons 2000/2001-2010/2011) to confirm the existence of an asymmetry in the allocation of injury time. We show this asymmetry to be a bias by ruling out hitherto remaining alternative explanations (effect = 18 s, P < 0...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25051652/refereeing-the-public-health
#10
Hosea H Harvey
Between January 2009 and October 2013, 49 states and the District of Columbia passed laws focusing on mitigating the consequences of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in organized youth sports. Using historical, contextual, and empirical methods, this Article describes the content, goals, and structure of youth sports TBI laws, while hypothesizing about their underlying legislative logic and long-term public health consequences. The Article's empirical evidence suggests two key findings: first, that a dominant interest group, the National Football League, helped to define the problem and its associated solutions for the vast majority of states, thus curving the legislative story are in favor of its policy prescriptions; second, that existing youth sports TBI laws are focused on secondary, not primary, prevention, and may thus shift attention away from more comprehensive solutions...
2014: Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24857384/the-use-of-2d-and-3d-information-in-a-perceptual-cognitive-judgement-task
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Koen Put, Johan Wagemans, Jochim Spitz, Manuel Armenteros Gallardo, A Mark Williams, Werner F Helsen
We examined whether the use of three-dimensional (3D) simulations in an off-field offside decision-making task is beneficial compared to the more widely available two-dimensional (2D) simulations. Thirty-three assistant referees, who were all involved in professional football, participated in the experiment. They assessed 40 offside situations in both 2D and 3D formats using a counterbalanced design. A distinction was made between offside situations near (i.e., 15 m) and far (i.e., 30 m) from the touchline...
2014: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24838268/comprehensive-safety-management-and-assessment-at-rugby-football-competitions
#12
T Tajima, E Chosa, K Kawahara, Y Nakamura, D Yoshikawa, N Yamaguchi, T Kashiwagi
The present study aims to improve medical systems by designing objective safety assessment criteria for rugby competitions. We evaluated 195 competitions between 2002 and 2011 using an original safety scale comprising the following sections: 1) competence of staff such as referees, medical attendants and match day doctor; 2) environment such as weather, wet bulb globe temperature and field conditions; and 3) emergency medical care systems at the competitions. Each section was subdivided into groups A, B and C according to good, normal or fair degrees of safety determined by combinations of the results...
November 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24784464/nutritional-intake-of-elite-football-referees
#13
Vitor Hugo Teixeira, Liliana Gonçalves, Tiago Meneses, Pedro Moreira
There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4...
2014: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24444247/comparison-of-home-advantage-in-men-s-and-women-s-football-leagues-in-europe
#14
Richard Pollard, Miguel A Gómez
Most research into home advantage is based on men's sports. This article analyses home advantage in the women's domestic football leagues of Europe and makes a comparison with the corresponding men's football leagues. A total of 47,042 games were included. From 2004 to 2010, home advantage existed in the domestic women's soccer leagues of all 26 European countries analysed, ranging from 51.0% to 58.8% and averaging 54.2%. In every country, this was less than the corresponding men's home advantage which averaged 60...
2014: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24444239/artificial-turf-surfaces-perception-of-safety-sporting-feature-satisfaction-and-preference-of-football-users
#15
Pablo Burillo, Leonor Gallardo, Jose Luis Felipe, Ana Maria Gallardo
The aim of this research is to understand the experience of the football sector on the use of artificial turf (satisfaction, safety, sporting feature, or the advantages and disadvantages). The study was conducted on a random selection of 627 male participants (404 amateur/semi-professional footballers, 101 coaches and 122 referees) that regularly train/compete on artificial turf in Spanish football leagues. The results of the skin abrasion, muscle strain and the possibility of sustaining an injury, on a Likert-type 10-point interval scale, gave a perception of 'somewhat dissatisfied' for the participants...
2014: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24444213/home-advantage-and-referee-bias-in-european-football
#16
Chris Goumas
Home advantage is well documented in a wide range of team sports including association football (soccer). Home team crowd support has been shown to be a likely causal factor and its influence on referee decision-making appears to play a significant role. Match data from the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League and Europa League were used to investigate referee bias in terms of the association between match location (home vs. away) and disciplinary sanctions used by football referees...
2014: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24444210/foul-or-dive-motor-contributions-to-judging-ambiguous-foul-situations-in-football
#17
Peter G Renden, Sander Kerstens, Raôul R D Oudejans, Rouwen Cañal-Bruland
Football (soccer) referees frequently face situations in which they have to distinguish dives and fouls. Yet, little is known about the contributing factors that characterise the ability to judge these ambiguous situations correctly. To this end, in the current article we tested the hypothesis that motor experience of observers contributes to the visual identification of deceptive actions. Thereto, we asked skilled football referees, skilled football players, wheelchair bounded football fans (thus with limited motor experience) and novices to judge whether potential tackle situations in football were either fouls or dives...
2014: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24427414/incidence-nature-and-pattern-of-injuries-to-referees-in-a-premier-football-soccer-league-a-prospective-study
#18
Ramin Kordi, Alireza Chitsaz, Mohsen Rostami, Reza Mostafavi, Mahmoodreza Ghadimi
BACKGROUND: Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. HYPOTHESIS: The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup...
September 2013: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24334319/experts-in-offside-decision-making-learn-to-compensate-for-their-illusory-perceptions
#19
Koen Put, V C Baldo M, André M Cravo, Johan Wagemans, Werner F Helsen
In association football, the flash-lag effect appears to be a viable explanation for erroneous offside decision making. Due to this spatiotemporal illusion, assistant referees (ARs) perceive the player who receives the ball ahead of his real position. In this experiment, a laboratory decision-making task was used to demonstrate that international top-class ARs, compared with amateur soccer players, do not have superior perceptual sensitivity. They clearly modify their decision criterion according to the contextual needs and, therefore, show a higher response bias toward not responding to the stimulus, in particular in the most difficult situations...
December 2013: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24149881/may-i-curse-a-referee-swear-words-and-consequences
#20
Andrea Praschinger, Christine Pomikal, Stefan Stieger
The purpose of this study was to determine whether male and female soccer (football) referees would execute the Laws of the Game despite players' verbal abuse. Law 12 (Fouls and misconduct) instructs the referees as to how they should react when a player, substitute or substituted player expresses a swear word. The player should be issued a red card. Referees (n = 113) were presented with 28 swear words and asked how they would respond if this situation occurred in a real game (red card, yellow/blue card [blue cards are used in juvenile games, player leaves field of game for 10 minutes], admonition, no reaction)...
2011: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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