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Andreea Seicean, Prateek Kumar, Sinziana Seicean, Duncan Neuhauser, Warren R Selman, Nicholas C Bambakidis
OBJECTIVE: There is conflicting and limited literature on the effect of intraoperative resident involvement on surgical outcomes. Our study assessed effects of resident involvement on outcomes in patients undergoing neurosurgery. METHODS: We identified 33,977 adult neurosurgical cases from 374 hospitals in the 2006-2012 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a prospectively collected national database with established reproducibility and validity. Outcomes were compared according to resident involvement before and after 1:1 matching on procedure and perioperative risk factors...
March 2018: Neurospine
Rodrigo Mogollón, Paulo H R Calil
It has been hypothesized that global warming will strengthen upwelling-favorable winds in the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) as a consequence of the increase of the land-sea thermal gradient along the Peruvian coast. The effect of strengthened winds in this region is assessed with the use of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model forced with projected and climatological winds. Strengthened winds induce an increase in primary production of 2% per latitudinal degree from 9.5°S to 5°S. In some important coastal upwelling sites primary production is reduced...
April 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Shweta AnilKumar, Shane C Allen, Nishat Tasnim, Tahmina Akter, Shinhye Park, Alok Kumar, Munmun Chattopadhyay, Yoshihiro Ito, Laura J Suggs, Binata Joddar
Three-dimensional bioprinting is an innovative technique in tissue engineering, to create layer-by-layer structures, required for mimicking body tissues. However, synthetic bioinks do not generally possess high printability and biocompatibility at the same time. So, there is an urgent need for naturally derived bioinks that can exhibit such optimized properties. We used furfuryl-gelatin as a novel, visible-light crosslinkable bioink for fabricating cell-laden structures with high viability. Hyaluronic acid was added as a viscosity enhancer and either Rose Bengal or Riboflavin was used as a visible-light crosslinker...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Tao Wu, Eva Brichtová, Jana Hudecová, Nikola Vršková, Jaroslav Šebestík, Petr Bouř
Lanthanide complexes are used as convenient spectroscopic probes for many biomolecules. Their binding to proteins is believed to be enhanced by the presence of histidine, but the strength of the interaction significantly varies across different systems. To understand the role of peptide length and sequence, short histidine-containing peptides were synthesized (His-Gly, His-Gly-Gly, His-Gly-Gly-Gly, Gly-His, Gly-His-Gly, His-His, and Gly-Gly-His) and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) induced at the [Eu(DPA)3]3- complex was measured using the Raman optical activity (ROA) spectrometer...
April 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Shok Ping Lim, Nikolaos Ioannou, Alan G Ramsay, David Darling, Joop Gäken, Ghulam J Mufti
MicroRNAs are short endogenous noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles in a diverse range of cellular processes. The miR-181 family is important in T cell development, proliferation, and activation. In this study, we have identified BRK1 as a potential target of miR-181c using a dual selection functional assay and have showed that miR-181c regulates BRK1 by translational inhibition. Given the importance of miR-181 in T cell function and the potential role of BRK1 in the involvement of WAVE2 complex and actin polymerization in T cells, we therefore investigated the influence of miR-181c-BRK1 axis in T cell function...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Cybele Lara R Abad, Raymund R Razonable
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a common pathogen worldwide, and it may cause significant infection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). We reviewed all reported TB cases to provide an update on its epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome after SOT. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID were reviewed from January 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 2016 using key words tuberculosis and solid organ transplant or transplantation. RESULTS: There were 187 publications reporting 2082 cases of TB among kidney (n=1719), liver (n=253), heart (n=77), lung (n=25), and kidney-pancreas (n=8) recipients...
April 15, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Gregory W Stull, Melanie Schori, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Our current understanding of flowering plant phylogeny provides an excellent framework for exploring various aspects of character evolution through comparative analyses. However, attempts to synthesize this phylogenetic framework with extensive morphological data sets have been surprisingly rare. Here, we explore character evolution in Asteridae (asterids), a major angiosperm clade, using an extensive morphological data set and a well-resolved phylogeny. METHODS: We scored 15 phenotypic characters (spanning chemistry, vegetative anatomy, and floral, fruit, and seed features) across 248 species for ancestral state reconstruction using a phylogenetic framework based on 73 plastid genes and the same 248 species...
April 14, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Hui Li, Wenzhuo Chen, Fenfen Xu, Xiaodong Fan, Tongxiang Liang, Xiaopeng Qi, Wei Tian
Fluorescent supramolecular polymers are an important kind of smart material. In this work, a new fluorescent supramolecular hyperbranched polymer (FSHP) is constructed by orthogonal self-assembly: pillararene-based host-guest interaction and metal ion complexation interaction. The FSHP exhibits concentration-controllable fluorescence emissions. The photoluminescence spectra and light-emitting colors of FSHP can be effectively tuned by changing metal ion types or using mixed metal ions. The fluorescence quenching of FSHP solutions or FSHP-based films would occur when removing the metal ions from the backbone of FSHP...
April 14, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Steve Hwang, Floortje van Nooten, Ted Wells, Aisling Ryan, Bruce Crawford, Christopher Evans, Marci English
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain (NP) is a complex, chronic pain state initiated by a primary lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system and presents as a variety of symptoms across multiple disease states. OBJECTIVE: To develop a patient-centred conceptual model of symptoms and impacts in subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) or post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) that can inform the measurement strategy in clinical trials. METHOD: Thirty subjects with DPN or PHN participated in in-person interviews which were performed until saturation was achieved...
April 15, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Dattatraya Hanumant Dethe, Saikat Das, Vijay Kumar B, Nisar Ahmed Mir
Enantiospecific total syntheses of (+)-hapalindole H, (-)-12-epi-hapalindole U, formal synthesis of (+)-hapalindole Q and (+)-12-epi-fischerindole U isothiocyanate have been described. Key steps of our approach feature expedient, highly regio- and diastereoselective Lewis acid catalyzed Friedel-Crafts reaction of indole with cyclic allylic alcohols and intramolecular reductive Heck reaction. Efficiency of the synthetic route also relies on an alkynyl aluminate complex driven regioselective nucleophilic epoxide opening from sterically hindered site...
April 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ke Cao, Mingxuan Zhang, Guoliang Liu
The effects of end group and molecular weight on the yellowness of telechelic polyetherimide (PEI) are investigated. Electron-withdrawing dianhydride end groups reduce the yellowness and increase the transparency of PEI regardless of the molecular weight. Electron-donating phenyl, amine, and phthalic end groups increase the yellowness of PEI but the effect depends on the molecular weight. As the molecular weight is increased, the yellowness of PEIs with electron-donating end groups initially decreases due to a decreasing end-group density and then increases due to an increasing probability of charge-transfer complex formation...
April 14, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Tadao Takada, Syunya Ishino, Ami Takata, Mitsunobu Nakamura, Mamoru Fujitsuka, Tetsuro Majima, Kazushige Yamana
We have demonstrated the rapid electron transfer in homo- and hetero-complexes composed of the parent perylenediimide (PDI, PH) and pyrrolidine-substituted PDI (PN) in DNA analyzed by steady-state fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption measurements. The DNA molecules possessing PH and PN were prepared by our recently developed method using the reaction of enzymatically-generated abasic sites, by which the PDI molecules can be incorporated as base surrogates within the DNA base stack. The melting temperature analysis showed that the PH and PN monomer, and their homo- and heterodimers can contribute to the stabilization of the DNA duplex...
April 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Lijun Wang, Haoqing Yang, Xiao Lin, Yangyang Cao, Peipei Gao, Ying Zheng, Zhipeng Fan
OBJECTIVES: Dental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-mediated pulp-dentin regeneration is considered a potential approach for the regeneration of damaged teeth. Enhancing MSC-mediated pulp-dentin regeneration is based on an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying directed cell differentiation process. Histone demethylation enzyme, lysine demethylase 1A (KDM1A) can regulate the differentiation of some MSCs, but its role in dental tissue-derived MSCs is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We obtained SCAPs from immature teeth...
April 15, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Rylan Kautz, David D Ordinario, Vivek Tyagi, Priyam Patel, Tam N Nguyen, Alon A Gorodetsky
Cephalopods (e.g., squid, octopuses, and cuttlefish) have long fascinated scientists and the general public alike due to their complex behavioral characteristics and remarkable camouflage abilities. As such, these animals are explored as model systems in neuroscience and represent a well-known commercial resource. Herein, selected literature examples related to the electrical properties of cephalopod-derived biopolymers (eumelanins, chitosans, and reflectins) and to the use of these materials in voltage-gated devices (i...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Antoine Simonneau, Michel Etienne
This Concept article highlights recent research on Lewis acid adducts of dinitrogen complexes, including our contributions. After a reminder of the early works, it is demonstrated that such kind of species offer a new platform for dinitrogen functionalization as well as valuable models for the understanding of elementary steps of (bio)catalytic cycles. When possible, parallels regarding this mode of activation from the orbital point of view are drawn between the different systems discussed herein.
April 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jelena Petronijević, Nenad Janković, Tatjana P Stanojković, Nenad Joksimović, Nađa Đ Grozdanić, Milan Vraneš, Aleksandar Tot, Zorica Bugarčić
In order to investigate new potential therapeutically active agents, we investigated the biological properties of two small libraries of quinoxalinones and 1,4-benzoxazin-2-ones. The results obtained showed that compounds 5, 9-11 have good cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells where the lowest IC50 value (10.46 ± 0.82 μM/mL) was measured for compound 10. Additionally, the most active compounds (5, 9-11) showed much better selectivity for MRC-5 cells (up to 17.4) compared to cisplatin. In vitro evaluation of the inhibition of the enzyme α-glucosidase showed that compounds 10 and 11 exert significant inhibition of the enzyme at 52...
April 14, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
Karlie S McDonald, Alistair J Hobday, Elizabeth A Fulton, Peter A Thompson
The effects of anthropogenic global environmental change on biotic and abiotic processes have been reported in aquatic systems across the world. Complex synergies between concurrent environmental stressors and the resilience of the system to regime shifts, which vary in space and time, determine the capacity for marine systems to maintain structure and function with global environmental change. Consequently, an interdisciplinary approach that facilitates the development of new methods for the exchange of knowledge between scientists across multiple scales is required to effectively understand, quantify and predict climate impacts on marine ecosystem services...
April 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Farahnaz Nejatidanesh, Omid Savabi, Ghazal Savabi, Mehdi Razavi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different cleaning regimens on retentive strength of saliva-contaminated implant-supported zirconia copings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy solid titanium abutments with 5.5 mm height (Straumann) were attached to the regular neck implant analogs (Straumann). The abutment-analog complex was mounted vertically in an autopolymerized T-shaped acrylic resin block. Seventy zirconia copings with an occlusal loop were made...
April 15, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Zhong-Li Wang, Keju Sun, Joel Henzie, Xianfeng Hao, Cuiling Li, Toshiaki Takei, Yong-Mook Kang, Yusuke Yamauchi
The redox units of polyaniline (PAni) are used cooperatively, and in situ, to assemble ruthenium (Ru) nanoclusters in a hierarchically ordered carbon electrode. The oxidized quinonoid imine (QI) units in PAni bond Ru complex ions selectively, whereas reduced benzenoid amine (BA) units cannot. By electrochemically tuning the ratio of QI to BA, Ru complexes are spatially confined in the outer layer of hierarchical PAni frameworks. Carbonization of Ru-PAni hybrids induces nucleation on the outer surface of the carbon support, generating nearly monodisperse Ru nanoclusters...
April 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA and are pivotal posttranscriptional regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity. They act by regulating the expression of multiple immune genes, thus, are the important elements to the complex immune regulatory network. Deregulated expression of specific miRNAs can lead to potential autoimmunity, immune tolerance, hyper-inflammatory phenotype, and cancer initiation and progression. In this review, we discuss the contributory pathways and mechanisms by which several miRNAs influence the development of innate immunity and fine-tune immune response...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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