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Ohad S Bentur, Galit Sarig, Benjamin Brenner, Giris Jacob
Stress, the nonspecific response to any demand for change, is an adaptive response of the human body to various stimulants. As such, stress-induced hypercoagulation may represent an adaptive response to bleeding. Numerous epidemiological studies have revealed that a correlation exists between stress and thrombotic risk and biochemically, links of the relationship between psychological stress and coagulation pathways have been made. The stress reaction is coupled with neurohormonal changes mediated mainly by the sympathetic neural system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Hua Yao, Jinqi Ma
The present paper investigates the enhancement of the therapeutic effect of Paclitaxel (a potent anticancer drug) by increasing its cellular uptake in the cancerous cells with subsequent reduction in its cytotoxic effects. To fulfill these goals the Paclitaxel (PTX)-Biotinylated PAMAM dendrimer complexes were prepared using biotinylation method. The primary parameter of Biotinylated PAMAM with a terminal HN2 group - the degree of biotinylation - was evaluated using HABA assay. The basic integrity of the complex was studied using DSC...
2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Pang-Hu Zhou, Bo Qiu, Rong-Hui Deng, Hua-Jie Li, Xiong-Feng Xu, Xi-Fu Shang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interleukin (IL)-1β plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) can prevent the generation of active IL-1β. This study aimed to explore the chondroprotective effects of hyaluronic acid-chitosan nanoparticles containing plasmid DNA encoding CrmA (HA/CS-CrmA) in a rat OA model. METHODS: HA/CS-CrmA nanoparticles were synthesized through the complex coacervation of cationic polymers. The characteristics, toxicity, and transfection of the nanoparticles were investigated...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ben Serrien, Naaike Verhaeghe, Silke Verhaeghe, Bruno Tassignon, Jean-Pierre Baeyens
Hysteresis in the coordination of movement can be described in the language of coordination dynamics as an asymmetrical response of a system's order parameter with respect to opposite changes in a control parameter. For movement tasks involving a large number of active degrees-of-freedom, the order parameter can be modelled with a pattern recognition approach like Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). This study explored this method in a rope-skipping task, which involves the coordinated oscillation of several segments in the lower and upper limb and trunk and we compared the results to a classical order parameter like continuous relative phase...
June 15, 2018: Human Movement Science
Anand Archana, Benoit Thibodeau, Naomi Geeraert, Min Nina Xu, Shuh-Ji Kao, David M Baker
Elevated nutrient inputs have led to increased eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems worldwide. An understanding of the relative contribution of different nutrient sources is imperative for effective water quality management. Stable isotope values of nitrate (δ15 NNO3- , δ18 ONO3- ) can complement conventional water quality monitoring programs to help differentiate natural sources of NO3 - from anthropogenic inputs and estimate the processes involved in N cycling within an ecosystem. We measured nutrient concentrations, δ15 NNO3- , and δ18 ONO3- in 76 locations along a salinity gradient from the lower end of the Pearl River Estuary, one of China's largest rivers discharging into the South China Sea, towards the open ocean...
June 5, 2018: Water Research
Yasser Morera-Gómez, Jesús Miguel Santamaría, David Elustondo, Carlos Manuel Alonso-Hernández, David Widory
The constant increase of anthropogenic emissions of aerosols, usually resulting from a complex mixture from various sources, leads to a deterioration of the ambient air quality. The stable isotope compositions (δ13 C and δ15 N) of total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN) in both PM10 and emissions from potential sources were investigated for first time in a rural and an urban Caribbean costal sites in Cuba to better constrain the origin of the contamination. Emissions from road traffic, power plant and shipping emissions were discriminated by coupling their C and N contents and corresponding isotope signatures...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Erica Garbin Risson, Ana Paula Serpa, Jéssica Jacques Berger, Renata Fabiola Heil Koerbel, Andrei Koerbel
OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord stimulation has been proven highly effective in the treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). The definitive implantation of a neurostimulator is usually preceded by a therapeutic test (trial), which has the purpose of identifying whether the patient would respond positively to neuromodulation or not. The present study aims to analyze the surgical results of spinal cord stimulation in type 1 CRPS patients who have not undergone trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2011 to August 2017, 160 patients underwent implantation of spinal cord neurostimulator...
June 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Jing Guo, Jian Yang, Peter M Visscher
Natural selection can shape the genetic architecture of complex traits. In human populations, signals of positive selection at genetic loci have been detected through a variety of genome-wide scanning approaches without the knowledge of how genes affect traits or fitness. In the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided unprecedented insights into the genetic basis of quantitative variation in complex traits. Summary statistics generated from these GWAS have been shown to be an extraordinary data source that can be utilized to detect and quantify natural selection in the genetic architecture of complex traits...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Qin Wang, Zecheng Zuo, Xu Wang, Qing Liu, Lianfeng Gu, Yoshito Oka, Chentao Lin
Cryptochromes (CRYs) are blue light receptors that mediate light regulation of plant growth and development. Land plants possess various numbers of cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which serve overlapping and partially redundant functions in different plant species. Cryptochromes exist as physiologically inactive monomers in darkness; photoexcited cryptochromes undergo homodimerization to increase their affinity to the CRY-signaling proteins, such as CIBs (CRY2-interacting bHLH), PIFs (Phytochrome-Interacting Factors), AUX/IAA (Auxin/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID), and the COP1-SPAs (Constitutive Photomorphogenesis 1-Suppressors of Phytochrome A) complexes...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Ioannis G Papanikolaou, Ekaterini Domali, George Daskalakis, Marianna Theodora, Eirini Telaki, Petros Drakakis, Dimitrios Loutradis
Abnormal placentation often requires the involvement of a multidisciplinary team of medical caregivers. Practicing Obstetrics is a challenging and skillful duty. This is more obvious in cases of abnormal placentation, which represents one of the most dangerous and complex clinical conditions in materno-fetal medicine. Pathological placentation involves position and invasion abnormalities and represents a serious and potentially life-threatening condition for both the pregnant woman and the fetus. The dramatic increase in cesarean section rates is an important factor which could explain the rapid raise in abnormal placentation cases, which were considered rare a few years ago...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Pronab Kundu, Nitin Chattopadhyay
Molecular interactions and binding of probes/drugs with biomacromolecular systems are of fundamental importance in understanding the mechanism of action and hence designing of proactive drugs. In the present study, binding interactions of a biologically potent fluorophore, (E)-1,5-diphenyl-3-styryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (DSDP) with two serum transport proteins, human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin, have been investigated exploiting multi-spectroscopic techniques. The spectrophotometric and fluorometric studies together with fluorescence quenching, fluorescence anisotropy, urea induced denaturation studies and fluorescence lifetime measurements reveal strong binding of DSDP with both the plasma proteins...
June 15, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
Leigh-Ann Onnis, Helen Klieve, Komla Tsey
Policy decisions are based on evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of interventions; however, the quantity and type of evidence that is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention is not universally agreed upon. The aim of this study was to collaborate with researchers who have not been involved directly in Family Wellbeing interventions to lead a review of characteristics of the Family Wellbeing intervention evaluation output to date, and to assess for evidence of the FWB intervention's impact on participants and their communities...
May 31, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Susana Schönhuth, Jasna Vukic, Radek Sanda, Lei Yang, Richard L Mayden
The phylogenetic relationships and classification of the freshwater fish order Cypriniformes, like many other species-rich groups of vertebrates, has evolved over time with some consistency and inconsistencies of relationships across various studies. Within Cypriniformes, the Holarctic family Leuciscidae is one of the most widely distributed and highly diverse monophyletic groups of cyprinoids. Despite several studies conducted on this group, alternative hypotheses exist as to the composition and relationships within Leuciscidae...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Yonggang Li, Xiguang Sang, Zhiyong Wang, Lin Cheng, Hao Liu, Tao Qin, Kai Di
BACKGROUND: It is often difficult to achieve stable fixation in Tile type C1 pelvic fractures and there is no standard fixation technique for these types of injuries. HYPOTHESIS: Iliac screw fixation can be used for treating Type C1 pelvic fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 47 patients who underwent iliac screw fixation in posterior column of ilium (PCI) for Tile type C1 pelvic fractures from July 2007 to December 2014...
June 15, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Carlos Alfredo Silva-Islas, Perla D Maldonado
Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in the metabolism, immune response, cellular proliferation, and other processes; however, the attention has been focused on the study of its ability to induce the expression of proteins involved in the antioxidant defense. Nrf2 is mainly regulated by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), an adapter substrate of Cullin 3 (Cul3) ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. Keap1 represses Nrf2 activity in the cytoplasm by its sequestering, ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation...
June 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Courtney M Clark-Hachtel, Madison R Moe, Yoshinori Tomoyasu
Despite the immense importance of the wing in the evolution and successful radiation of the insect lineages, the origin of this critical structure remains a hotly-debated mystery. Two possible tissues have been identified as an evolutionary origin of wings; the lateral expansion of the dorsal body wall (tergal edge) and structures related to an ancestral proximal leg segment (pleural tissues). Through studying wing-related tissues in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we have previously presented evidence in support of a dual origin of insect wings, a third hypothesis proposing that wings evolved from a combination of both tergal and pleural tissues...
June 15, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Jian Zhang, Yanyan Li
The interaction between surfactin and alkaline protease in aqueous solution has been studied. Ultraviolet visible absorption spectra (UV-vis) show that surfactin causes the extension of peptide chain of the alkaline protease resulting in the weakening of hydrophobic interaction between the hydrophobic groups. Fluorescence spectra indicate that the interaction of surfactin with the tryptophan and tyrosine residues led to a change of conformation of the alkaline protease. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) proves complex weak interactions between surfactin and alkaline protease, especially hydrogen bonds...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Bernice J Klotoe, Barbara Molina-Moya, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Michel K Gomgnimbou, Lorenna Oliveira Suzarte, Maria H Féres Saad, Sajid Ali, José Dominguez, Edita Pimkina, Elena Zholdybayeva, Christophe Sola, Guislaine Refrégier
Several diagnostic tests are being developed to detect drug resistance in tuberculosis. In line with previous developments detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance using microbead-based systems (spoligoriftyping and TB-SPRINT), we present here an assay called TB-EFI detecting mutations involved in resistance to ethambutol, fluoroquinolones and the three classical injectable drugs (kanamycin, amikacin and capreomycin) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The proposed test includes both wild-type and mutant probes for each targeted locus...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Qi Tang, Peng Wu, Huiqing Chen, Guohui Li
Protein ubiquitination is a highly conserved post-translational modification affecting various biological processes including viral propagation. Ubiquitination has multiple effects on viral propagation, including viral genome uncoating, viral replication, and immune evasion. Ubiquitination of viral proteins is triggered by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). This involves the covalent attachment of the highly conserved 76 amino acid residue ubiquitin protein to target proteins by the consecutive actions of E1, E2 and E3 enzymes, and the 26S proteasome that together form a multiprotein complex that degrades target proteins...
June 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Denis M Nyaga, Mark H Vickers, Craig Jefferies, Jo K Perry, Justin M O'Sullivan
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a complex autoimmune disorder characterised by loss of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals, ultimately resulting in insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia. T1D is most common among children and young adults, and the incidence is on the rise across the world. The aetiology of T1D is hypothesized to involve genetic and environmental factors that result in the T-cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. There is a strong genetic risk to T1D; with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identifying over 60 susceptibility regions within the human genome which are marked by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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