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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533464/the-colours-of-humanity-the-evolution-of-pigmentation-in-the-human-lineage
#1
REVIEW
Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin
Humans are a colourful species of primate, with human skin, hair and eye coloration having been influenced by a great variety of evolutionary forces throughout prehistory. Functionally naked skin has been the physical interface between the physical environment and the human body for most of the history of the genus Homo, and hence skin coloration has been under intense natural selection. From an original condition of protective, dark, eumelanin-enriched coloration in early tropical-dwelling Homo and Homo sapiens, loss of melanin pigmentation occurred under natural selection as Homo sapiens dispersed into non-tropical latitudes of Africa and Eurasia...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533449/interactions-between-colour-producing-mechanisms-and-their-effects-on-the-integumentary-colour-palette
#2
REVIEW
Matthew D Shawkey, Liliana D'Alba
Animal integumentary coloration plays a crucial role in visual communication and camouflage, and varies extensively among and within species and populations. To understand the pressures underlying such diversity, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms by which animals have created novel integumentary coloration. Colours can be produced by selective absorption of light by skin pigments, through light scattering by structured or unstructured tissues, or by a combination of pigments and nanostructures. In this review, we highlight our current understanding of the interactions between pigments and structural integumentary tissues and molecules...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533189/potential-therapeutic-effects-of-odorants-through-their-ectopic-receptors-in-pigmented-cells
#3
REVIEW
Barbara Pavan, Antonio Capuzzo, Alessandro Dalpiaz
Several olfactory receptors (ORs) have been characterized outside the olfactory neuroepithelium in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, where they were implicated in the recognition of diverse chemical signals. ORs have been found to regulate melanogenesis in skin melanocytes, and OR expression has been found in the human brain nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, where production of melanin occurs as neuromelanin and can change with age; OR expression is downregulated in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we propose several odorants as new functional ligands to ORs expressed in non-olfactory pigmented cells as dopaminergic neurons and melanocytes, where, by acting on cAMP-induced melanin production, they could help to counteract melanogenic and neurodegenerative dysfunctions, including melanoma and Parkinson's disease...
May 19, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528606/vitiligo-not-simply-a-skin-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jusleen Ahluwalia, Lilia M Correa-Selm, Babar K Rao
Melanocytes, the cells responsible for skin pigmentation, are present in other parts of the body, such as the ocular, auditory, nervous, and cardiac systems. Within these systems, their roles serve a different purpose than their classical counterparts in skin as pigment cells. Such roles include cell turnover in retinal pigment epithelium, maintenance of balance and prevention of environmental damage in the auditory neuroepithelium, role-playing as dendritic cells within the leptomeninges, and prevention of oxidative damage in adipose tissue...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528167/cxcl1-inhibition-regulates-uvb-induced-skin-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis-in-xpa-deficient-mice
#5
Makoto Kunisada, Chieko Hosaka, Chihiro Takemori, Eiji Nakano, Chikako Nishigori
Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XP-A) is a hereditary disease characterized by early onset of skin cancers and freckles-like pigmented maculae in the sun-exposed sites. Although etiology of predisposition to UV-induced skin tumors in XP-A is well investigated as a repair deficiency in UV-induced DNA damage, the mechanism of exaggerated sunburn in patients with XP-A and whether UV-induced inflammation relates to skin tumor-prone phenotype remains to be elucidated. Using gene profiling of XP-A model mice, Xpa-deficient mice, we found that expression of CXCL1 in the skin and blood levels of in Xpa-deficient mice increased significantly after UVB exposure at an even a limited area in comparison to those of wild-type mice...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526905/effectiveness-of-acellular-dermal-matrix-on-autologous-split-thickness-skin-graft-in-treatment-of-deep-tissue-defect-esthetic-subjective-and-objective-evaluation
#6
Yoo Jung Lee, Myong Chul Park, Dong Ha Park, Hyung Min Hahn, Sue Min Kim, Il Jae Lee
BACKGROUND: A split-thickness skin graft (STSG) is performed to cover a large full-thickness skin defect. Esthetic and functional deficits can result, and many studies have sought to overcome them. This study compared the effectiveness of the acellular dermal matrix (ADM) graft and STSG concerning esthetic and functional effectiveness of ADM on scar quality. METHODS: Of the patients who underwent anterolateral thigh free flap from 2011 to 2015, patients who received skin graft only (n = 10) or skin graft with ADM (n = 20) for coverage of the donor site were enrolled...
May 19, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525626/skin-pigmentation-and-risk-of-hearing-loss-in-women
#7
Brian M Lin, Wen-Qing Li, Sharon G Curhan, Konstantina M Stankovic, Abrar A Qureshi, Gary C Curhan
Black individuals have a lower risk of hearing loss than do whites, possibly because of differences in cochlear melanocytes. Previous studies have suggested that darker-skinned individuals tend to have more inner ear melanin, and cochlear melanocytes are important in generating the endocochlear potential. We investigated the relationship between self-reported hearing loss and skin pigmentation by using hair color, skin tanning ability, and skin reaction to prolonged sun exposure as surrogate measures of pigmentation among 49,323 white women in the Nurses' Health Study...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523880/halolike-phenomenon-around-a-caf%C3%A3-au-lait-spot-superimposed-on-a-mongolian-spot
#8
Iria Neri, Martina Lambertini, Vera Tengattini, Beatrice Rivalta, Annalisa Patrizi
An 8-month-old Caucasian infant with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with a congenital plexiform neurofibroma and multiple café au lait spots. A pale area surrounded one of the café au lait spots located on the left gluteus in the area of dermal melanocytosis. This halolike phenomenon results from the disappearance of the Mongolian spot around the café au lait spots, revealing normal pigmented skin. This sign has been described rarely in the literature and the pathogenic mechanism is unclear.
May 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522647/prkar1a-mutation-causing-pituitary-dependent-cushing-disease-in-a-patient-with-carney-complex
#9
Florian W Kiefer, Yvonne Winhofer, Donato Iacovazzo, Marta Korbonits, Stefan Wolfsberger, Engelbert Knosp, Franz Trautinger, Romana Höftberger, Michael Krebs, Anton Luger, Alois Gessl
CONTEXT: Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominant condition caused, in most cases, by an inactivating mutation of the PRKAR1A gene, which encodes for the type 1 alpha regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. CNC is characterized by the occurrence of endocrine overactivity, myxomas and typical skin manifestations. Cushing syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is the most frequent endocrine disease observed in CNC. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here we describe the first case of a patient with CNC and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing disease due to a pituitary corticotroph adenoma...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521279/chronic-stress-impairs-the-local-immune-response-during-cutaneous-repair-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-l
#10
Ana Patrícia Mateus, Liliana Anjos, João R Cardoso, Deborah M Power
Scale removal in fish triggers a damage-repair program to re-establish the lost epidermis and scale and an associated local immune response. In mammals, chronic stress is known to delay wound healing and to modulate the cutaneous stress axis, but this is unstudied in teleost fish the most successful extant vertebrates. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that chronic stress impairs cutaneous repair in teleost fish as a consequence of suppression of the immune response. The hypothesis was tested by removing the scales and damaging the skin on one side of the body of fish previously exposed for 4 weeks to a chronic crowding stress and then evaluating cutaneous repair for 1 week...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520453/-indeterminate-cell-histiocytosis-disappearance-of-skin-infiltration-following-electron-beam-therapy-and-an-application-of-2-chlorodeoxyadenosine-case-report
#11
Zdeněk Adam, Marta Ježová, Pavel Šlampa, Leoš Křen, Vladimír Vašků, Renata Koukalová, Zdeněk Řehák, Luděk Pour, Marta Krejčí, Zdeněk Král, Jiří Mayer
Indeterminate cell histiocytosis is a rare disease belonging to the group of malignant histiocytic diseases. The disease predominantly affects the skin. The disease appeared in the described patient at the age of 80 years. Morphs began to develop on the skin and rapidly spread over the whole body including the face. Only the hands and feet were left uncovered. The patients skin samples were taken from 2 sites for histological examination. The resulting conclusion was indeterminate cell histiocytosis. The treatment we chose was analogous to the procedures for Langerhans cell histiocytosis...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515993/triage-amalgamated-dermoscopic-algorithm-tada-for-skin-cancer-screening
#12
Tova Rogers, Maria Marino, Stephen W Dusza, Shirin Bajaj, Michael A Marchetti, Ashfaq Marghoob
IMPORTANCE: Dermoscopic triage algorithms have been shown to improve beginners' abilities for identifying pigmented skin lesions requiring biopsy. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the Triage Amalgamated Dermoscopic Algorithm (TADA) for pigmented and nonpigmented skin cancers. Secondarily, to compare TADAs performance to those of existing triage algorithms for the identification of pigmented skin cancers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational, reader study that took place at a beginner and intermediate level dermoscopy course...
April 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515769/inhibitory-effects-of-different-fractions-of-nepeta-satureioides-on-melanin-synthesis-through-reducing-oxidative-stress
#13
Seyed Ahmad Emami, Rezvan Yazdian-Robati, Mohammad Sadeghi, Javad Baharara, Elaheh Amini, Farzaneh Salek, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
Nepeta satureioides Boiss. has been used in traditional medicine of eastern countries and is famous for its medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methanol (MeOH), n-hexane and dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) fractions of the extract on melanin synthesis and oxidative stress in B16F10 melanoma cell line. The B16F10 cell line viability after treatment with increasing concentrations of different fractions of the plant (5-60 μg/mL) was measured using MTT assay. The inhibitory effect on synthesis of melanin, mushroom tyrosinase activity, cellular tyrosinase and oxidative stress were determined by the colorimetric and fluorometric methods...
April 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513496/intra-arterial-chemotherapy-for-retinoblastoma-two-year-results-from-tertiary-eye-care-center-in-india
#14
Pukhraj Rishi, Tarun Sharma, Minal Sharma, Aditya Maitray, Abhinav Dhami, Vishvesh Aggarwal, Saravanan Munusamy, R Ravikumar, Satheesh Ramamurthy
AIM: The aim of this study is to describe treatment outcomes and complications of selective intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for intraocular retinoblastoma (RB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, interventional series of 10 eyes with RB which underwent IAC using melphalan (5 mg/7.5 mg) and topotecan (1 mg), or melphalan (5 mg/7.5 mg) alone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated in terms of tumor control, vitreous seeds (VS) and subretinal seeds (SRS) control, and globe salvage rates...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508243/low-level-laser-treatment-stimulates-hair-growth-via-upregulating-wnt10b-and-%C3%AE-catenin-expression-in-c3h-hej-mice
#15
Tiran Zhang, Liqiang Liu, Jincai Fan, Jia Tian, Cheng Gan, Zengjie Yang, Hu Jiao, Bing Han, Zheng Liu
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the role of low-level laser treatment (LLLT) in hair growth in C3H/HeJ mice. Healthy C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: with and without low-level laser treatment. The skin color of each mouse was observed each day. Skin samples were collected for H&E, immunofluorescence, PCR, and western blot analysis, to observe the morphology of hair follicles and detect the expression levels of Wnt10b and β-catenin. Observation of skin color demonstrated that black pigmentation started significantly earlier in the laser group than in the control group...
May 16, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507486/melanin-and-lipofuscin-as-hallmarks-of-skin-aging
#16
REVIEW
Anna Skoczyńska, Elżbieta Budzisz, Ewa Trznadel-Grodzka, Helena Rotsztejn
Discoloration are symptoms of skin aging. They are connected with presence of melanin and lipofuscin, whose excess and abnormal distribution in the skin cause dark spots to appear. Melanin is formed under the influence of tyrosinase during melanogenesis. Its content changes with age, which may be a result of menopause. Lipofuscin is another example of the age pigment. It is composed of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. It is described as an age pigment because its content increases with age. The formation and accumulation of lipofuscin is inevitable and leads to cell and homeostasis dysfunction because it reduces the proteasome activity...
April 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507374/ophthalmo-genetic-analysis-of-pakistani-patients-with-nonsyndromic-oculocutaneous-albinism-through-whole-exome-sequencing
#17
Hadia Gul, Muhammad Zeeshan Ali, Ejazullah Khan, Muhammad Zubair, Muhammad Badar, Saadullah Khan, Abdul Haleem Shah, Muzammil Ahmad Khan
Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a disorder of defective melanin biosynthesis that is characterized by hypo-pigmentation of skin, hair and retinal pigment epithelium. Phenotypically, OCA patients exhibit white milky skin, whitish to golden hair and deterioration of retinal cells. Until recently, genetic studies have reported seven causative genes (TYR, TYRP1, OCA2, SLC45A2, SLC24A2, C10ORF11 and MCIR) and an uncharacterized OCA5 locus. Herein we present the medico-genetic study of three Pakistani patients inheriting autosomal recessive OCA...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505073/anti-pigmentary-effect-of-4-hydroxysattabacin-from-the-marine-derived-bacterium-bacillus-sp
#18
Kyuri Kim, Alain S Leutou, Haein Jeong, Dayoung Kim, Chi Nam Seong, Sang-Jip Nam, Kyung-Min Lim
Bioactivity-guided isolation of a crude extract from a culture broth of Bacillus sp. has led to the isolation of (-)-4-hydroxysattabacin (1). The inhibitory effect of (-)-4-hydroxysattabacin (1) was investigated on melanogenesis in the murine melanoma cell line, B16F10, and human melanoma cell line, MNT-1, as well as a pigmented 3D-human skin model. (-)-4-Hydroxysattabacin treatment decreased melanin contents in a dose-dependent manner in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16F10 cells. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that treatment with (-)-4-hydroxysattabacin down-regulated several melanogenic genes, including tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2) while their enzymatic activities were unaffected...
May 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504868/recognizing-latinos-range-of-skin-pigment-and-phototypes-to-enhance-skin-cancer-prevention
#19
June K Robinson, Frank J Penedo, Jennifer L Hay, Nina G Jablonski
Latinos in the United States may have the mistaken assumption that their natural pigmentation protects them from developing skin cancer that, effectively, serves as a barrier to Latinos receiving education in primary and secondary prevention of skin cancer. Latino adults of Mexican or Puerto Rican heritage attending community health fairs in the greater Chicago area responded to a culturally informed and sensitive measure for sunburn and tan, which was previously adapted to capture skin irritation with tenderness from the sun occurring in darker skin types (n=350)...
May 15, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502801/genome-wide-association-reveals-pigmentation-genes-play-a-role-in-skin-aging
#20
Matthew H Law, Sarah E Medland, Gu Zhu, Seyhan Yazar, Ana Viñuela, Leanne Wallace, Sri Niranjan Shekar, David L Duffy, Veronique Bataille, Dan Glass, Tim D Spector, Diane Wood, Scott D Gordon, Julie M Barbour, Anjali K Henders, Alex W Hewitt, Grant W Montgomery, Richard A Sturm, David A Mackey, Adèle C Green, Nicholas G Martin, Stuart MacGregor
Loss of fine skin patterning is a sign of both aging and photoaging. Studies investigating the genetic contribution to skin patterning offer an opportunity to better understand a trait that influences both physical appearance and risk of keratinocyte skin cancer. We undertook a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of a measure of skin pattern (microtopography score) damage in 1,671 twin pairs and 1,745 singletons (N = 5,087) drawn from three independent cohorts. We identified that rs185146 near SLC45A2 is associated with a skin aging trait (p = 4...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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