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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636748/e-cadherin-mediates-uvr-and-calcium-induced-melanin-transfer-in-human-skin-cells
#1
Suman K Singh, Richard Baker, Stephen K Sikkink, Carine Nizard, Sylvianne Schnebert, Robin Kurfurst, Desmond J Tobin
Skin pigmentation is directed by epidermal-melanin units, characterized by long-lived and dendritic epidermal melanocytes (MC) that interact with viable keratinocytes (KC) to contribute melanin to the epidermis. Previously we reported that MC:KC contact is required for melanosome transfer, that this can be enhanced by filopodial and by UVR/UVA irradiation, which can up-regulate melanosome transfer via Myosin X-mediated control of MC filopodia. Both MC and KC express Ca(2+) -dependent E-cadherins. These homophilic adhesion contacts induce transient increases in intra-KC Ca(2+) , while ultraviolet radiation (UVR) raises intra-MC Ca(2+) via calcium selective ORAI1 ion channels; both are associated with regulating melanogenesis...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635643/a-multi-wavelength-opto-electronic-patch-sensor-to-effectively-detect-physiological-changes-against-human-skin-types
#2
Liangwen Yan, Sijung Hu, Abdullah Alzahrani, Samah Alharbi, Panagiotis Blanos
Different skin pigments among various ethnic group people have an impact on spectrometric illumination on skin surface. To effectively capture photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals, a multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS) together with a schematic architecture of electronics were developed to overcome the drawback of present PPG sensor. To perform a better in vivo physiological measurement against skin pigments, optimal illuminations in OEPS, whose wavelength is compatible with a specific skin type, were optimized to capture a reliable physiological sign of heart rate (HR)...
June 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632887/pushing-the-edge-of-dermoscopy-in-new-directions-entomodermoscopy-of-trombicula-autumnalis
#3
Nicola di Meo, Anna Campanati, Mattia Fadel, Giusto Trevisano
Dermatologists are often faced with the challenge of patients presenting with non specific symptoms such as itching and or erythema. These symptoms may be attributed to a number of diseases, many of which are trivial, and others even life-threatening. In order to establish the correct diagnosis, dermatologists must rely on good diagnostic tools and knowledge. Dermoscopy was introduced mainly for inspection of pigmented lesions, but its use has now also spread to non-melanoma skin cancer, inflammatory diseases, and almost any skin disease...
June 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629449/delineating-the-genetic-heterogeneity-of-oca-in-hungarian-patients
#4
Beáta Fábos, Katalin Farkas, Lola Tóth, Adrienn Sulák, Kornélia Tripolszki, Mariann Tihanyi, Réka Németh, Krisztina Vas, Zsanett Csoma, Lajos Kemény, Márta Széll, Nikoletta Nagy
BACKGROUND: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a clinically and genetically heterogenic group of pigmentation abnormalities characterized by variable hair, skin, and ocular hypopigmentation. Six known genes and a locus on human chromosome 4q24 have been implicated in the etiology of isolated OCA forms (OCA 1-7). METHODS: The most frequent OCA types among Caucasians are OCA1, OCA2, and OCA4. We aimed to investigate genes responsible for the development of these OCA forms in Hungarian OCA patients (n = 13)...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627318/effects-of-gamma-rays-on-the-regeneration-of-murine-hair-follicles-in-the-natural-hair-cycle
#5
Kimihiko Sugaya
PURPOSE: This review evaluates the effects of γ-rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle. A series of studies were performed to investigate this issue, in which the whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1(st) telogen phase of the hair cycle were irradiated with γ-rays. RESULTS: The dermis of the irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) anagen phases...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627081/arginase-2-a-mir-1299-target-enhances-pigmentation-in-melasma-by-reducing-melanosome-degradation-via-senescence-induced-autophagy-inhibition
#6
Nan-Hyung Kim, Soo-Hyun Choi, Nayoung Yi, Tae Ryong Lee, Ai-Young Lee
Expression profiles revealed miR-1299 downregulation concomitant with arginase-2 (ARG2) upregulation in hyperpigmented skin of melasma patients. Opposite regulation of tyrosinase and PMEL17 by miR-1299 and inverse relationship between miR-1299 and ARG2 expression denoted a role of miR-1299 in pigmentation with ARG2 as a miR-1299 target. ARG2 overexpression or knockdown in keratinocytes, the main source of ARG2 in epidermis, positively regulated tyrosinase and PMEL17 protein levels, but not mRNA levels or melanosome transfer...
June 19, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626949/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-concurrent-dermal-malignant-melanoma-and-melanocytomas-in-a-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis
#7
Richard A Saunders, Rowena S Killick, Michelle G Barrows, Kelly A Bowlt, Daniella Denk
BACKGROUND: Dermal melanocytic neoplasms are common in some even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla), yet this entity has not been reported in the pygmy hippopotamus to date. Concurrent occurrence of multiple benign and malignant melanocytic neoplasms is unusual. Malignant transformation occurs in a small percentage of benign melanocytic tumours in people but this phenomenon has not been well documented in animals. OBJECTIVES: To report the diagnosis and treatment of concurrent dermal melanocytomas and malignant melanomas in a pygmy hippopotamus...
June 18, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626639/a-non-mosaic-porcn-mutation-in-a-male-with-severe-congenital-anomalies-overlapping-focal-dermal-hypoplasia
#8
Simran Madan, Wei Liu, James T Lu, V Reid Sutton, Bryant Toth, Priscilla Joe, John R Waterson, Richard A Gibbs, Ignatia B Van den Veyver, Edward J Lammer, Philippe M Campeau, Brendan H Lee
Mutations in the PORCN gene cause the X-linked dominant condition focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH). Features of FDH include striated pigmentation of the skin, ocular and skeletal malformations. FDH is generally associated with in utero lethality in non-mosaic males and most of the currently reported male patients show mosaicism due to de novo post-zygotic mutations in the PORCN gene. There is only one previous report of a surviving male with an inherited mutation in the PORCN gene. Here, we report two male siblings with multiple malformations including skeletal, ocular and renal defects overlapping with FDH...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626485/isolation-and-characterization-of-isofraxidin-7-o-6-o-p-coumaroyl-%C3%AE-glucopyranoside-from-artemisia-capillaris-thunberg-a-novel-nontoxic-hyperpigmentation-agent-that-is-effective-in-vivo
#9
Soon-Ho Yim, Nadia Tabassum, Woong-Hee Kim, Haaglim Cho, Ji-Hyung Lee, Galzad J Batkhuu, Hyun Jung Kim, Won Keun Oh, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R Williams
Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can produce disorders such as albinism or melasma. There is a research need to discover novel compounds that safely and effectively regulate pigmentation. To identify novel modulators of pigmentation, we attempted to purify compounds from a bioactive fraction of the Korean medicinal plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg. The novel compound isofraxidin 7-O-(6'-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-glucopyranoside (compound 1) was isolated and its pigmentation activity was characterized in mammalian melanocytes...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624591/safe-limit-of-arsenic-in-soil-in-relation-to-dietary-exposure-of-arsenicosis-patients-from-malda-district-west-bengal-a-case-study
#10
Debasis Golui, D N Guha Mazumder, S K Sanyal, S P Datta, P Ray, P K Patra, S Sarkar, K Bhattacharya
Safe limit of arsenic in soil in relation to dietary exposure of arsenicosis patients was established in Malda district of West Bengal. Out of 182 participants examined, 80 (43.9%) participants showed clinical features of arsenicosis, characterized by arsenical skin lesion (pigmentation and keratosis), while 102 participants did not have any such lesion (control). Experimental results of the twenty eight soils (own field) of the participants showed the mean Olsen extractable and total arsenic concentration of 0...
June 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624120/histologic-features-of-chronic-cutaneous-lupus-erythematosus-of-the-scalp-using-horizontal-sectioning-emphasis-on-follicular-findings
#11
Hye Jin Chung, Lynne J Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE) often affects the scalp resulting in scarring alopecia. While histopathologic findings of CCLE have been well described, there is little written on the morphologic changes to the hair follicles in this condition. OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine the histopathologic findings of hair follicles in CCLE of the scalp. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 33 transversely sectioned skin biopsy specimens of CCLE of the scalp at the Skin Pathology Laboratory at Boston University between April 2005 and March 2015...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620422/special-considerations-for-vitamin-d-in-the-south-asian-population-in-the-uk
#12
REVIEW
Nicola M Lowe, Issak Bhojani
The human requirement for vitamin D is achieved primarily through the synthesis of this prehormone in the skin during exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, with only a minor contribution from the diet, year round. Achieving optimal vitamin D status is therefore largely dependent upon adequate exposure of the skin to sunlight, however, the length of exposure required varies with latitude and season, and is also dependent upon skin pigmentation, with darker skin requiring greater exposure than fair skin due to the protective effects of melanin against UVB radiation...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619537/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-caffeic-acid-derivatives-as-potent-inhibitors-of-%C3%AE-msh-stimulated-melanogenesis
#13
Hyeju Jo, Minho Choi, Jaeuk Sim, Mayavan Viji, Siyuan Li, Young Hee Lee, Youngsoo Kim, Seung-Yong Seo, Yuanyuan Zhou, Kiho Lee, Wun-Jae Kim, Jin Tae Hong, Heesoon Lee, Jae-Kyung Jung
We have disclosed our effort to develop caffeic acid derivatives as potent and non-toxic inhibitors of α-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis to treat pigmentation disorders and skin medication including a cosmetic skin-whitening agent. The SAR studies revealed that cyclohexyl ester and secondary amide derivatives of caffeic acid showed significant inhibitory activities.
June 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616680/melanization-of-fusarium-keratoplasticum-f-solani-species-complex-during-disseminated-fusariosis-in-a-patient-with-acute-leukemia
#14
Siri Chiewchanvit, Siriporn Chongkae, Pongsak Mahanupab, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Soraya Pornsuwan, Nongnuch Vanittanakom, Sirida Youngchim
Fusarium spp. are recognized as the second most frequently filamentous fungi causing opportunistic infections and particularly important due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. F. keratoplasticum (a member of F. solani species complex) is one of the Fusarium species commonly associated with human infection, and therefore, studies on the virulence of this fungus are needed. This study aimed to confirm the presence of melanin in F. keratoplasticum from a patient with systemic fusariosis. Immunofluorescence labeling with anti-melanin monoclonal antibody (MAb) was used to examine an expression of melanin in F...
June 14, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614705/a-uv-independent-topical-small-molecule-approach-for-melanin-production-in-human-skin
#15
Nisma Mujahid, Yanke Liang, Ryo Murakami, Hwan Geun Choi, Allison S Dobry, Jinhua Wang, Yusuke Suita, Qing Yu Weng, Jennifer Allouche, Lajos V Kemeny, Andrea L Hermann, Elisabeth M Roider, Nathanael S Gray, David E Fisher
The presence of dark melanin (eumelanin) within human epidermis represents one of the strongest predictors of low skin cancer risk. Topical rescue of eumelanin synthesis, previously achieved in "redhaired" Mc1r-deficient mice, demonstrated significant protection against UV damage. However, application of a topical strategy for human skin pigmentation has not been achieved, largely due to the greater barrier function of human epidermis. Salt-inducible kinase (SIK) has been demonstrated to regulate MITF, the master regulator of pigment gene expression, through its effects on CRTC and CREB activity...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614306/photoacoustic-confocal-dermoscope-with-a-waterless-coupling-and-impedance-matching-opto-sono-probe
#16
Haigang Ma, Sihua Yang, Zhongwen Cheng, Da Xing
Recently, intensive research on photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been conducted to accelerate the development of dermoscopy of the human skin. In this Letter, we first developed a PA dermoscope equipped with a waterless coupling and impedance matching opto-sono probe to achieve quantitative, high-resolution, and high-contrast imaging of the human skin. Compared with the commonly used liquid-coupled PA probes, the human-skin-adapted probe can facilitate implementation in the clinical setting. The noninvasive imaging experiments of epidermal and dermal structures in volunteers have been carried out to demonstrate the high imaging quality that can be obtained by using such an opto-sono probe for a PA dermoscope...
June 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611599/the-melanin-concentrating-hormone-as-an-integrative-peptide-driving-motivated-behaviors
#17
REVIEW
Giovanne B Diniz, Jackson C Bittencourt
The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an important peptide implicated in the control of motivated behaviors. History, however, made this peptide first known for its participation in the control of skin pigmentation, from which its name derives. In addition to this peripheral role, MCH is strongly implicated in motivated behaviors, such as feeding, drinking, mating and, more recently, maternal behavior. It is suggested that MCH acts as an integrative peptide, converging sensory information and contributing to a general arousal of the organism...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609345/histopathologic-findings-of-cutaneous-hyperpigmentation-in-addison-disease-and-immunostain-of-the-melanocytic-population
#18
Angel Fernandez-Flores, David S Cassarino
The histopathological features of cutaneous hyperpigmentation in Addison disease have very occasionally been reported, and they include acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, focal parakeratosis, spongiosis, superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate, basal melanin hyperpigmentation, and superficial dermal melanophages. We present a study on 2 biopsies from the arm and the thigh in a 77-year-old woman with a long clinical history of Addison disease as well as senile purpura and alopecia of female pattern. The patient presented diffuse hyperpigmentation of the skin, more pronounced on her face, and left upper forehead...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607861/a-deceptively-simple-solution-for-refractory-melasma-glycolic-acid-peels-and-hydroquinone-at-home
#19
Takanobu Mashiko, Aiko Oka, Ema Osawa, Isao Koshima
Although various treatment methods for melasma have developed, substantial improvement of the condition is sometimes difficult. We have experientially found that some of refractory melasma caused by daily friction can easily be treated by using a combination of a peeling agent (20% glycolic acid) and a depigmenting agent (5% hydroquinone) twice daily at home. And here, by performing skin biopsies, we revealed the pathological mechanism: hyperkeratosis caused by repeated physical stimulus, which prevents infiltration of topical therapeutic agents, was dramatically reduced by chemical peeling, resulting that the melanin pigments were effectively cleared by topical hydroquinone...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606930/foxn1-transcription-factor-in-epithelial-growth-and-wound-healing
#20
Anna I Grabowska, Tomasz Wilanowski
FOXN1 is a pro-differentiation transcription factor in the skin epithelium. Recently it has also emerged as an important player in controlling skin wound healing process as it actively participates in reepithelialization and is thought to be responsible for the scar formation. FOXN1-positivity is also a feature of pigmented keratinocytes, including nevi, and FOXN1 is an attribute of benign epithelial tumors. Lack of FOXN1 favors skin regeneration process which is displayed by nude mice pointing to FOXN1 as a "switch" between regeneration vs...
June 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
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