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skin pigmentation

Yinjuan Wang, Marion Tissot, Gwenaël Rolin, Patrice Muret, Sophie Robin, Jean-Yves Berthon, Li He, Philippe Humbert, Céline Viennet
Primary melanocytes in culture are useful models for studying epidermal pigmentation and efficacy of melanogenic compounds, or developing advanced therapy medicinal products. Cell extraction is an inevitable and critical step in the establishment of cell cultures. Many enzymatic methods for extracting and growing cells derived from human skin, such as melanocytes, are described in literature. They are usually based on two enzymatic steps, Trypsin in combination with Dispase, in order to separate dermis from epidermis and subsequently to provide a suspension of epidermal cells...
March 21, 2018: Cytotechnology
Matilda Karlsson, Moustafa Elmasry, Ingrid Steinvall, Folke Sjöberg, Pia Olofsson, Johan Thorfinn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate scarring at split-thickness skin graft donor sites 8 years after surgery. METHODS: At surgery, 67 patients were randomized to hydrofiber, polyurethane foam, or porcine xenograft treatment. Scars were evaluated with the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. RESULTS: Results showed significant differences in observed scar outcomes at donor sites, leaving the polyurethane foam-treated and the porcine xenograft-treated patients with the least satisfying scars...
April 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Larissa Bueno Tofani, Lívia Vieira Depieri, Patrícia Mazureki Campos, Thalita Bachelli Riul, Kamilla Swiech Antonietto, Márcia Carvalho de Abreu Fantini, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra Bentley
PURPOSE: Vitiligo is a skin disease characterized by depigmentation and the presence of white patches that are associated with the loss of melanocytes. The most common explanation for the cause of this condition is that it is an autoimmune condition. TyRP-1 is involved in melanin pigment synthesis but can also function as a melanocyte differentiation antigen. This protein plays a role in the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, which results in the depigmentation, characteristic of this disease...
March 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Cheong-Yong Yun, Seon Mi Ko, Yong Pyo Choi, Beom Joon Kim, Jungno Lee, Jae Mun Kim, Ju Yeon Kim, Jin Yong Song, Song-Hee Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang, Jin Tae Hong, Sang-Bae Han, Youngsoo Kim
Rationale: cAMP up-regulates microphthalmia-associated transcription factor subtype M (MITF-M) and tyrosinase (Tyro) in the generation of heavily pigmented melanosomes. Here, we communicate a therapeutic mechanism of hyperpigmented disorder by α-viniferin, an active constituent of Caragana sinica . Methods: We used cAMP-elevated melanocyte cultures or facial hyperpigmented patches for pigmentation assays, and applied immunoprecipitation, immunobloting, RT-PCR or reporter gene for elucidation of the antimelanogenic mechanism...
2018: Theranostics
Valérie Zimmerlé, Emeline Laurent, Valérie Tauveron, Annabel Maruani, Emmanuelle Le Bidre, Mahtab Samimi, Laurent Machet
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous cancers are very common, easily visible on skin. The general practitioner (GP) is in the front line to manage the lesions. He has to recognize malignancy and refer most often to the specialist for excision, or consider that the lesion is benign and in ambiguous cases, offer clinical monitoring. The current low medical density in the Centre Val de Loire area makes access to general practitioners (GP) and dermatologists harder. The aim of this study was to evaluate GPs' everyday practice in cutaneous cancers screening in general, and particularly in melanoma screening, in a rural region of France...
March 16, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Kalyani Raju, Srinivas Murthy Venkataramappa
Hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder resulting in increased intestinal absorption of iron and eventually to iron overload. The onset of symptoms is usually seen around 40 years of age. Iron overload causes tissue damage in liver, pancreas, skin, joints, heart, and gonads. Approximately 50% of patients diagnosed with hemochromatosis will have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) because of selective beta-cell damage due to iron overload and leads to impaired insulin synthesis, release, and insulin resistance...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Taisuke Matsuo, Aki Fujiwara, Kazuhiro Nakamura, Yasuyuki Sadzuka
B16F10 murine melanoma cells are frequently used for the study of cancer and melanogenesis. The cells are usually cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, with the addition of 20 µM pyridoxal (PL) or pyridoxine (PN) for vitamin B6 . The difference between these vitamin B6 compounds is thought not to affect cell proliferation, whereas their influence on other physiological effects is poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of PL and PN on cell proliferation and melanogenesis in B16F10 cells were compared...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Ibrahim Sayed-Ahmed, Juan Carlos Murillo, Pedro Monsalve, Jan Paul Ulloa, Maria P Fernandez, James Wong, George Elgart, Anat Galor, Sander R Dubovy, Carol L Karp
PURPOSE: Blue nevus is a melanocytic tumor that is commonly found in the skin. Extracutaneous presentations, including the ocular surface, are rare. As such, the purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features and clinical course of congenital melanocytic tumor (blue nevus) of the conjunctiva. DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one patients with 23 blue nevi of the ocular surface that were excised surgically between 2000 and 2016...
March 15, 2018: Ophthalmology
Warren R Heymann
A 75-year-old man had been monitoring his glucose using a blood glucose monitoring system at the same body site for at least 20 years (>7300 needlesticks). The asymptomatic skin lesion had been present for many years. He used the same site because it hurt less than the fingers and bled well. His medical history was remarkable for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and a pacemaker. His medications included glipizide, metformin, carvedilol, furosemide, lisinopril, amlodipine, clopidogrel, and aspirin...
2018: Skinmed
Arthur Bob Karnuah, Gregory Dunga, Arthur Wennah, Walter T Wiles, Edmond Greaves, Roland Varkpeh, Richard Osei-Amponsah, Paul Boettcher
Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources (AnGR) involves identification of distinct breed populations, describing their external and production characteristics in a given environment and management, and taking into account the social and economic factors that affect them. A survey involving 346 livestock farmers was conducted in the 15 counties of Liberia to collect data on production practices and phenotypic characteristics of beef cattle. A pre-tested structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were utilized in data collection...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Firas Al Qarqaz, Ali Al-Yousef
BACKGROUND: Acne is very common skin condition. Most patients with acne will have a degree of scarring as a result of their acne. In patients with darker skin color the scarring can be further complicated by hyperpigmentation. Several treatment options can be used to improve acne scarring, however the problem of post acne hyperpigmentation is not often addressed. This study especially focus on the treatment of pigmented post acne scarring using skin microneedling. AIMS: The primary objective is to assess the improvement of pigmentation of acne scarring in patients with dark skin using microneedling...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Rania Nabil, Elsemieke Plasmeijer, Remco van Doorn, Wilma Bergman, Nicole A Kukutsch
Approximately 10% of all melanomas occur in subjects with a family history of melanoma. This retrospective follow-up study investigated the characteristics of patients with familial melanoma who made unscheduled visits to our pigmented lesions clinic, and the diagnosis of excised lesions. A total of 110 out of 1,267 (9%) patients made at least one unscheduled visit between May 2011 and February 2016. Histopathology was taken from 59 patients. Thirty-four naevi, 7 melanomas and 3 basal cell carcinomas were detected...
March 15, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Kamal U Zaidi, Sharique A Ali, Ayesha S Ali
Background: Human skin exists in a wide range of different colors and gradations, ranging from white to brown to black. This is due to the presence of a chemically inert and stable pigment known as melanin, which is produced deep inside the skin but is displayed as a mosaic at the surface of the body. Methods & Materials: In mammalian melanocytes, melanosome is a highly specialized organelle where melanin is synthesized. Melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the vital enzyme in melanogenic pathway...
2018: Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal
Sabrina Gmuca, JiaDe Yu, Pamela F Weiss, James R Treat, David D Sherry
Erythema ab igne (EAI) is a cutaneous finding caused by prolonged heat exposure and is characterized by a reticular, brownish-pigmented, often telangiectatic dermatosis. The eruption is reminiscent of livedo reticularis, which is typically seen in the setting of a number of rheumatologic conditions, most prominently vasculitis. Identification of key features distinguishing EAI from livedo reticularis can aid in the diagnosis of EAI and correct elucidation of the underlying etiology. Our patient presented with heating pad-induced EAI in the setting of chronic pain...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Mandy Schott, Miriam M de Jel, Julia C Engelmann, Philipp Renner, Edward K Geissler, Anja K Bosserhoff, Silke Kuphal
Selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1) expression is reduced in various epithelial cancer entities compared to corresponding normal tissue and has already been described as a tumor suppressor involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, senescence, migration and apoptosis. We identified SELENBP1 to be down-regulated in cutaneous melanoma, a malignant cancer of pigment-producing melanocytes in the skin, which leads to the assumption that SELENBP1 also functions as tumor suppressor in the skin, as shown by others e...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Mariko Yokota, Shoichi Yahagi, Yoshihiro Tokudome, Hitoshi Masaki
Alkyl glyceryl ethers (AKGs) are widely used as emulsion stabilizers, and their anti-inflammatory effects are well known. Daily exposure to environmental stresses, such as chemicals, low humidity and ultraviolet light (UV), can initiate and promote the development of various skin problems. Among those stresses, it has been established that UV induces skin pigmentation and accelerates premature skin aging due to the inflammation that results. Here, we investigated whether chimyl alcohol (CA), which is an AKG, suppresses the inflammatory process...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Suh-Yeon Choi, Bum-Ho Bin, Wanil Kim, Eunkyung Lee, Tae Ryong Lee, Eun-Gyung Cho
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a well-known factor in skin aging and pigmentation, and daily exposure to subcytotoxic doses of UVR might accelerate senescence and senescence-associated phenomena in human melanocytes. OBJECTIVE: To establish an in vitro melanocyte model to mimic the conditions of repeated exposure to subcytotoxic doses of UVB irradiation and to investigate key factor(s) for melanocyte senescence and senescence-associated phenomena. METHODS: Human epidermal melanocytes were exposed twice with 20 mJ/cm2 UVB over a 24-h interval and subsequently cultivated for 2 weeks...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Hassan Ibrahim, Moustafa El Taieb, Zeinab El Gamel, Abdel Rahman El Saied
BACKGROUND: Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) is the gold standard in the treatment of vitiligo. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH- vitamin D) might play a physiological role in photo-induced melanogenesis in human skin so the association between vitamin D levels and vitiligo still needs to be investigated more thoroughly. OBJECTIVE: we aim to investigate the influence of cumulative doses of NB-UVB phototherapy on vitamin D in patients with vitiligo and their correlation with NB-UVB-induced pigmentation...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Misun Kim, Takako Shibata, Soohyun Kwon, Tae Jun Park, Hee Young Kang
Ultraviolet (UV)-associated hyperpigmented skins are characterized with increased vasculature underlying pigmentation, suggestive of the possible biological role of endothelial cells in the regulation of skin pigmentation during UV irradiation. In this study, we showed that UV-irradiated endothelial cells significantly increased the pigmentation of melanocytes through epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk. The stimulatory effect of endothelial cells was further demonstrated using ex vivo human skin. RNA sequence analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that endothelial cells secrete more stem cell factor (SCF) upon UV irradiation than non-irradiated cells...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiao Xu, Linying Lai, Xuyi Zhang, Jinhong Chen, Junnan Chen, Fei Wang, Jingchen Zheng, Minliang Chen
BACKGROUND: Scarring is the product of natural restoration, yet its treatment remains challenging. Both collagen and fibroblasts are abnormally abundant in scars, leading to scar hyperplasia or contracture. Several clinical studies have reported that wrinkles at the recipient site are reduced, pores are narrowed, pigmentation is decreased, and skin is softened after autologous fat transplantation. In this study, we investigated the ability of autologous chyle fat injection to normalize the fibroblasts and collagen of scar tissue in 80 adult patients with hypertrophic scars resulting from severe burns received more than 1 year previously...
March 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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