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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918207/gemigliptin-ameliorates-western-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#1
Seung Hee Choi, Jaechan Leem, Sungmi Park, Chong-Kee Lee, Keun-Gyu Park, In-Kyu Lee
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks...
September 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917917/identification-of-heterotic-loci-associated-with-grain-yield-and-its-components-using-two-cssl-test-populations-in-maize
#2
Hongqiu Wang, Xiangge Zhang, Huili Yang, Xiaoyang Liu, Huimin Li, Liang Yuan, Weihua Li, Zhiyuan Fu, Jihua Tang, Dingming Kang
Heterosis has widely been used to increase grain yield and quality. In this study, the genetic basis of heterosis on grain yield and its main components in maize were examined over 2 years in two locations in two test populations constructed from a set of 184 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and two inbred lines (Zheng58 and Xun9058). Of the 169 heterotic loci (HL) associated with grain yield and its five components identified in CSSL × Zheng58 and CSSL × Xun9058 test populations, only 25 HL were detected in both populations...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917884/ossgl-a-novel-pleiotropic-stress-related-gene-enhances-grain-length-and-yield-in-rice
#3
Manling Wang, Xuedan Lu, Guoyun Xu, Xuming Yin, Yanchun Cui, Lifang Huang, Pedro S C F Rocha, Xinjie Xia
Abiotic stress seriously affects the yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Grain yield in rice is multiplicatively determined by the number of panicles, number of grains per panicle, and grain weight. Here, we describe the molecular and functional characterization of STRESS_tolerance and GRAIN_LENGTH (OsSGL), a rice gene strongly up-regulated by a wide spectrum of abiotic stresses. OsSGL encodes a putative member of the DUF1645 protein family of unknown function. Overexpression of OsSGL significantly altered certain development processes greatly and positively affecting an array of traits in transgenic rice plants, including increased grain length, grain weight and grain number per panicle, resulting in a significant increase in yield...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916946/natural-non-mulberry-silk-nanoparticles-for-potential-controlled-drug-release
#4
Juan Wang, Zhuping Yin, Xiang Xue, Subhas C Kundu, Xiumei Mo, Shenzhou Lu
Natural silk protein nanoparticles are a promising biomaterial for drug delivery due to their pleiotropic properties, including biocompatibility, high bioavailability, and biodegradability. Chinese oak tasar Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ApF) nanoparticles are easily obtained using cations as reagents under mild conditions. The mild conditions are potentially advantageous for the encapsulation of sensitive drugs and therapeutic molecules. In the present study, silk fibroin protein nanoparticles are loaded with differently-charged small-molecule drugs, such as doxorubicin hydrochloride, ibuprofen, and ibuprofen-Na, by simple absorption based on electrostatic interactions...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916643/homeostatic-effects-of-exercise-and-sleep-on-metabolic-processes-in-mice-with-an-overexpressed-skeletal-muscle-clock
#5
Allison J Brager, Lydia Heemstra, Raman Bhambra, J Christopher Ehlen, Karyn A Esser, Ketema N Paul, Colleen M Novak
Brain and muscle-ARNT-like factor (Bmal1/BMAL1) is an essential transcriptional/translational factor of circadian clocks. Loss of function of Bmal1/BMAL1 is highly disruptive to physiological and behavioral processes. In light of these previous findings, we examined if transgenic overexpression of Bmal1/BMAL1 in skeletal muscle could alter metabolic processes. First, we characterized in vivo and ex vivo metabolic phenotypes of muscle overexpressed mice (male and female) compared to wild-type littermates (WT)...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#6
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914456/microbiota-induces-expression-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-in-postnatal-mouse-skin
#7
D V Yuzhakova, M V Shirmanova, A A Bocharov, I V Astrakhantseva, E A Vasilenko, E N Gorshkova, M S Drutskaya, E V Zagaynova, S A Nedospasov, A A Kruglov
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates many important processes in the body. TNF production in a physiological state supports the structure of lymphoid organs and determines the development of lymphoid cells in hematopoiesis. However, chronic TNF overexpression leads to the development of various autoimmune disorders. Sites of TNF production in the naïve state remain unclear due to the lack of in vivo models. In the present study, we used TNF-2A-Kat reporter mice to monitor the expression of TNF in different tissues...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913733/identification-of-2-methylthio-cyclic-n6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine-ms2ct6a-as-a-novel-rna-modification-at-position-37-of-trnas
#8
Byeong-Il Kang, Kenjyo Miyauchi, Michal Matuszewski, Gabriel Silveira D'Almeida, Mary Anne T Rubio, Juan D Alfonzo, Kazuki Inoue, Yuriko Sakaguchi, Takeo Suzuki, Elzbieta Sochacka, Tsutomu Suzuki
Transfer RNA modifications play pivotal roles in protein synthesis. N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) and its derivatives are modifications found at position 37, 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, in tRNAs responsible for ANN codons. These modifications are universally conserved in all domains of life. t(6)A and its derivatives have pleiotropic functions in protein synthesis including aminoacylation, decoding and translocation. We previously discovered a cyclic form of t(6)A (ct(6)A) as a chemically labile derivative of t(6)A in tRNAs from bacteria, fungi, plants and protists...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913732/a-hydantoin-isoform-of-cyclic-n6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine-ct6a-is-present-in-trnas
#9
Michal Matuszewski, Jakub Wojciechowski, Kenjyo Miyauchi, Zofia Gdaniec, Wojciech M Wolf, Tsutomu Suzuki, Elzbieta Sochacka
N(6)-Threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) and its derivatives are universally conserved modified nucleosides found at position 37, 3' adjacent to the anticodon in tRNAs responsible for ANN codons. These modifications have pleiotropic functions of tRNAs in decoding and protein synthesis. In certain species of bacteria, fungi, plants and protists, t(6)A is further modified to the cyclic t(6)A (ct(6)A) via dehydration catalyzed by TcdA. This additional modification is involved in efficient decoding of tRNA(Lys) Previous work indicated that the chemical structure of ct(6)A is a cyclic active ester with an oxazolone ring...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913150/juvenile-hormone-titers-ovarian-status-and-epicuticular-hydrocarbons-in-gynes-and-workers-of-the-paper-wasp-belonogaster-longitarsus
#10
Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Nanike Esterhuizen, Theresa C Wossler
The prevailing paradigm for social wasp endocrinology is that of juvenile hormone (JH) functioning pleiotropically in potential and actual queens, where it fuels dominance behaviors, stimulates ovarian growth and/or affects the production of status-linked cuticular compounds. In colonies with annual cycles (e.g., temperate-zone species), female adults produced at the end of the summer (called gynes) are physiologically primed to hibernate. Despite the absence of egg-laying in the pre-overwintering phase, gynes engage in dominance interactions that may affect reproductive potential following hibernation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911878/y-box-binding-protein-1-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinomainitiating-cell-progression-and-tumorigenesis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#11
Hsiao-Mei Chao, Hong-Xuan Huang, Po-Hsiang Chang, Kuo-Chang Tseng, Atsushi Miyajima, Edward Chern
Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a pleiotropic molecule that binds DNA to regulate genes on a transcriptional level in the nucleus and binds RNA to modulate gene translation in the cytoplasm. In our previous studies, YB-1 was also characterized as a fetal hepatic protein that regulates the maturation of hepatocytes and is upregulated during liver regeneration. Moreover, YB-1 has been shown to be expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of YB-1 in HCC remains unclear. Here, we aimed to characterize the role of YB-1 in HCC...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908682/tribbles-in-the-21st-century-the-evolving-roles-of-tribbles-pseudokinases-in-biology-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Patrick A Eyers, Karen Keeshan, Natarajan Kannan
The Tribbles (TRIB) pseudokinases control multiple aspects of eukaryotic cell biology and evolved unique features distinguishing them from all other protein kinases. The atypical pseudokinase domain retains a regulated binding platform for substrates, which are ubiquitinated by context-specific E3 ligases. This plastic configuration has also been exploited as a scaffold to support the modulation of canonical MAPK and AKT modules. In this review, we discuss the evolution of TRIBs and their roles in vertebrate cell biology...
November 28, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905881/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-mediated-pain-and-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-posterolateral-arthrodesis
#13
Kendall Mitchell, Jill P Shah, Clifton L Dalgard, Lyubov V Tsytsikova, Ashley C Tipton, Anton E Dmitriev, Aviva J Symes
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a pleiotropic, secreted molecule with diverse effects. The potent ability of BMP-2 to stimulate bone growth prompted its widespread clinical use for arthrodesis (spine fusion). However, elevated post-operative pain in patients treated with BMP-2 has been increasingly reported. Determining whether BMP-2 induces pain directly or whether it induces neuroinflammation, which could lower the threshold for pain, is important for developing therapeutic interventions...
December 1, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904677/an-engineered-fgf21-variant-ly2405319-can-prevent-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-enhancing-hepatic-mitochondrial-function
#14
Ju Hee Lee, Yea Eun Kang, Joon Young Chang, Ki Cheol Park, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Jung Tae Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi, Minho Shong, Hyo Kyun Chung, Koon Soon Kim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent obesity-related disease that affects large populations throughout the world due to excessive calorie intake and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. FGF21 is a starvation-induced pleiotropic hormone with various beneficial metabolic effects, and pharmacological treatment in rodents has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and decrease simple fatty liver disease...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903985/the-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinases-1-timp-1-promotes-survival-and-migration-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-through-cd63-pi3k-akt-p21-signaling
#15
Dorian Forte, Valentina Salvestrini, Giulia Corradi, Lara Rossi, Lucia Catani, Roberto M Lemoli, Michele Cavo, Antonio Curti
We and others have shown that the Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), a member of the inflammatory network exerting pleiotropic effects in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, regulates the survival and proliferation of different cell types, including normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. Moreover, TIMP-1 has been shown to be involved in cancer progression. However, its role in leukemic microenvironment has not been addressed. Here, we investigated the activity of TIMP-1 on Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) cell functions...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903631/genomics-of-compensatory-adaptation-in-experimental-populations-of-aspergillus-nidulans
#16
Jeremy R Dettman, Nicolas Rodrigue, Sijmen E Schoustra, Rees Kassen
Knowledge of the number and nature of genetic changes responsible for adaptation is essential for understanding and predicting evolutionary trajectories. Here, we study the genomic basis of compensatory adaptation to the fitness cost of fungicide resistance in experimentally evolved strains of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans The original selection experiment tracked the fitness recovery of lines founded by an ancestral strain that was resistant to fludioxonil, but paid a fitness cost in the absence of the fungicide...
November 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902989/plasma-levels-of-leptin-and-adiponectin-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#17
Małgorzata Zofia Lisik, Ewa Gutmajster, Aleksander L Sieroń
: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of familial mental retardation and one of the leading known causes of autism. The mutation responsible for FXS is a large expansion of the CGG repeats in the promoter region of the FMR1 gene, resulting in the transcriptional silencing of the gene. Leptin may be considered a cytokine-like hormone with pleiotropic actions since it may be involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and the immune system response, in addition to playing a role in development...
December 1, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902442/the-whcd-gene-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-plays-roles-in-cell-division-and-envelope-formation
#18
Dong-Seok Lee, Younhee Kim, Heung-Shick Lee
In this study, we analyzed the whcD gene from Corynebacterium glutamicum, which encodes a homolog of whiB, a Streptomyces coelicolor gene required for the sporulation of aerial hyphae. Deletion of the gene (ΔwhcD) severely affected cell growth in C. glutamicum. The ΔwhcD strain exhibited a large, filamentous, branched, and bud-shaped morphology with multiple septa. The transcription levels of the cell division genes involved in Z-ring assembly and septal peptidoglycan synthesis, including ftsZ, sepF, ftsQ, and ftsI, were markedly decreased in the ΔwhcD strain...
November 24, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902431/effects-of-chromosomal-deletion-of-the-operon-encoding-the-multiple-resistance-and-ph-mrp-antiporter-in-vibrio-cholerae
#19
Alisha Marie Aagesen, Carla B Schubiger, Eric C Hobson, Pavel Dibrov, Claudia Häse
To examine the possible physiological significance of Mrp, a multi-subunit cation-proton antiporter from Vibrio cholerae, a chromosomal deletion Δmrp of V. cholerae was constructed and characterized. The resulting mutant showed a consistent early growth defect in LB broth that became more evident at elevated pH of the growth medium and increasing Na+ or K+ loads. After 24 hours of incubation, these differences disappear likely due to the concerted effort of other cation pumps in the mrp mutant. Phenotype Microarray analyses revealed an unexpected systematic defect in nitrogen utilization in the Δmrp mutant that was complemented by using the mrpA'-F operon on an arabinose-inducible expression vector...
October 24, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901187/interactions-between-prolactin-and-kisspeptin-to-control-reproduction
#20
Jose Donato, Renata Frazão
Prolactin is best known for its effects of stimulating mammary gland development and lactogenesis. However, prolactin is a pleiotropic hormone that is able to affect several physiological functions, including fertility. Prolactin receptors (PRLRs) are widely expressed in several tissues, including several brain regions and reproductive tract organs. Upon activation, PRLRs may exert prolactin's functions through several signaling pathways, although the recruitment of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 causes most of the known effects of prolactin...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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