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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432763/multiple-strong-postmating-and-intrinsic-postzygotic-reproductive-barriers-isolate-florally-diverse-species-of-jaltomata-solanaceae
#1
Jamie L Kostyun, Leonie C Moyle
Divergence in phenotypic traits often contributes to premating isolation between lineages, but could also promote isolation at postmating stages. Phenotypic differences could directly result in mechanical isolation or hybrids with maladapted traits; alternatively, when alleles controlling these trait differences pleiotropically affect other components of development, differentiation could indirectly produce genetic incompatibilities in hybrids. Here, we determined the strength of 9 postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers among 10 species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae), including species with highly divergent floral traits...
April 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432223/fli1-level-during-megakaryopoiesis-affects-thrombopoiesis-and-platelet-biology
#2
Karen K Vo, Danuta J Jarocha, Randolph B Lyde, Vincent Hayes, Christopher S Thom, Spencer K Sullivan, Deborah L French, Mortimer Poncz
Friend Leukemia Virus Integration 1 (FLI1), a critical transcription factor (TF) during megakaryocyte differentiation, is amongst genes hemizygously deleted in Jacobsen syndrome, resulting in a macrothrombocytopenia termed Paris-Trousseau syndrome (PTSx). Recently, heterozygote human FLI1 mutations have been ascribed to cause thrombocytopenia. We studied induced-pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived megakaryocytes (iMegs) to better understand these clinical disorders, beginning with iPSCs generated from a PTSx patient and iPSCs from a control line with a targeted heterozygous FLI1 knockout (FLI1(+/-))...
April 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431741/chloride-dysregulation-seizures-and-cerebral-edema-a-relationship-with-therapeutic-potential
#3
REVIEW
Joseph Glykys, Volodymyr Dzhala, Kiyoshi Egawa, Kristopher T Kahle, Eric Delpire, Kevin Staley
Pharmacoresistant seizures and cytotoxic cerebral edema are serious complications of ischemic and traumatic brain injury. Intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]i) regulation impacts on both cell volume homeostasis and Cl(-)-permeable GABAA receptor-dependent membrane excitability. Understanding the pleiotropic molecular determinants of neuronal [Cl(-)]i - cytoplasmic impermeant anions, polyanionic extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins, and plasmalemmal Cl(-) transporters - could help the identification of novel anticonvulsive and neuroprotective targets...
April 18, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431525/membrane-enriched-proteome-changes-and-prion-protein-expression-during-neural-differentiation-and-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#4
J A Macedo, D Schrama, I Duarte, E Tavares, J Renaut, M E Futschik, P M Rodrigues, E P Melo
BACKGROUND: The function of the prion protein, involved in the so-called prion diseases, remains a subject of intense debate and the possibility that it works as a pleiotropic protein through the interaction with multiple membrane proteins is somehow supported by recent reports. Therefore, the use of proteomic and bioinformatics combined to uncover cellular processes occurring together with changes in the expression of the prion protein may provide further insight into the putative pleiotropic role of the prion protein...
April 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430987/rab32-subfamily-small-gtpases-pleiotropic-rabs-in-endosomal-trafficking
#5
Norihiko Ohbayashi, Mitsunori Fukuda, Yasunori Kanaho
Rab small GTPases, well-known regulators of membrane trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, comprise approximately 60 different members in mammals. During the past decade, our understanding of the functions of mammalian Rab32 subfamily members (Rab32 and Rab38) have deepened, especially on the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles, such as melanosomes, and the protection mechanisms against several pathogenic microbial infections. Endosome-mediated membrane trafficking by Rab32 subfamily members plays pivotal roles in these events...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429797/sirtuins-in-the-phylum-basidiomycota-a-role-in-virulence-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#6
Samantha D M Arras, Jessica L Chitty, Maha S I Wizrah, Paige E Erpf, Benjamin L Schulz, Milos Tanurdzic, James A Fraser
Virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans is regulated by a range of transcription factors, and is also influenced by the acquisition of adaptive mutations during infection. Beyond the temporal regulation of virulence factor production by transcription factors and these permanent microevolutionary changes, heritable epigenetic modifications such as histone deacetylation may also play a role during infection. Here we describe the first comprehensive analysis of the sirtuin class of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases in the phylum Basidiomycota, identifying five sirtuins encoded in the C...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429502/involvement-of-erk1-2-in-cx43-depression-induced-by-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-in-atrial-myocytes
#7
Xin Li, Fang Rao, Chun-Yu Deng, Wei Wei, Fang-Zhou Liu, Hui Yang, Zhao-Yu Wang, Su-Juan Kuang, Xiao-Yan Chen, Yu-Mei Xue, Shu-Lin Wu
Connexin 43 (Cx43) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). The present study sought to investigate the effect of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pleiotropic cytokine, on Cx43 expression and activity and determine the intracellular signaling pathways. Cx43 protein and mRNA levels were assayed using immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, and western blot. We found that increased MIF and extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in Cx43 protein expression in atrial tissues from patients with AF compared with those with sinus rhythm...
April 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429275/tgf-%C3%AE-1-neuroprotection-via-inhibition-of-microglial-activation-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Xiao Chen, Zhan Liu, Bei-Bei Cao, Yi-Hua Qiu, Yu-Ping Peng
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently we have shown that TGF-β1 pretreatment in vitro protects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss that characterizes in Parkinson's disease (PD). Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that TGF-β1 administration in vivo after MPP(+) toxicity has neuroprotection that is achieved by a mediation of microglia. A rat model of PD was prepared by injecting MPP(+) unilaterally in the striatum...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428788/the-protective-role-of-type-i-interferons-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#9
REVIEW
Kevin P Kotredes, Brianna Thomas, Ana M Gamero
The immune system of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract manages the significant task of recognizing and eliminating pathogens while maintaining tolerance of commensal bacteria. Dysregulation of this delicate balance can be detrimental, resulting in severe inflammation, intestinal injury, and cancer. Therefore, mechanisms to relay important signals regulating cell growth and immune reactivity must be in place to support GI homeostasis. Type I interferons (IFN-I) are a family of pleiotropic cytokines, which exert a wide range of biological effects including promotion of both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427524/kallistatin-suppresses-cancer-development-by-multi-factorial-actions
#10
REVIEW
Julie Chao, Pengfei Li, Lee Chao
Kallistatin was first identified in human plasma as a tissue kallikrein-binding protein and a serine proteinase inhibitor. Kallistatin via its two structural elements regulates differential signaling cascades, and thus a wide spectrum of biological functions. Kallistatin's active site is essential for: inhibiting tissue kallikrein's activity; stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase and sirtuin 1 expression and activation; and modulating the synthesis of the microRNAs, miR-34a, miR-21 and miR-203. Kallistatin's heparin-binding site is crucial for antagonizing the signaling pathways of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, Wnt, transforming growth factor-β and epidermal growth factor...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427291/antioxidant-therapy-for-management-of-oxidative-stress-induced-hypertension
#11
Khalil Ali Ahmad, Dai Yuan Yuan, Waqas Nawaz, Hong Ze, Chen Xue Zhuo, Bashar Talal, Abdoh Taleb, Enos Mais, Ding Qilong
Hypertension is considered as the most common risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, also is regarded as a leading cause of the mortality and morbidity worldwide. The mechanisms underlying the pathological process of hypertension are not completely explained. However, there is growing evidence that increased oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Several preclinical studies and clinical trials have indicated that antioxidant therapy is important for management of hypertension, using antioxidants compounds such as alpha tocopherol (Vit E) and ascorbic acid (Vit C), polyphenols with others and some antihypertensive drugs that are now in clinical use (e...
April 20, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426765/allatotropin-a-pleiotropic-neuropeptide-that-elicits-mosquito-immune-responses
#12
Salvador Hernández-Martínez, Minerva Sánchez-Zavaleta, Kevin Brito, Antonia Herrera-Ortiz, Sheila Ons, Fernando G Noriega
Allatotropins (AT) are neuropeptides with pleotropic functions on a variety of insect tissues. They affect processes such as juvenile hormone biosynthesis, cardiac rhythm, oviduct and hindgut contractions, nutrient absorption and circadian cycle. The present work provides experimental evidence that AT elicits immune responses in two important mosquito disease vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti. Hemocytes and an immune-competent mosquito cell line responded to AT by showing strong morphological changes and increasing bacterial phagocytic activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425631/restraint-stress-increases-prolactin-mediated-phosphorylation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-in-the-hypothalamus-and-adrenal-cortex-in-the-male-mouse
#13
S E Kirk, T Y Xie, F J Steyn, D R Grattan, S J Bunn
Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone produced by the lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Its rate of secretion is primarily regulated by a negative feedback mechanism whereby prolactin stimulates the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, increasing their release of dopamine which accesses the pituitary via the median eminence to suppress further prolactin secretion. In addition to its well established role in lactation, circulating prolactin is secreted in response to stress, although the mechanism by which this is achieved or its cellular targets are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425077/unexpected-and-striking-effect-of-heparin-free-dialysis-on-cytokine-release
#14
Alicja Rydzewska-Rosolowska, Joanna Gozdzikiewicz-Lapinska, Jacek Borawski, Ewa Koc-Zorawska, Michal Mysliwiec, Beata Naumnik
Heparin (both unfractionated and low molecular weight) is not only a potent anticoagulant but also has many pleiotropic effects, some of which are mediated by cytokine release. We compared the effect of hemodialysis (HD) with enoxaparin as an anticoagulant and without systemic anticoagulation (heparin-grafted membrane-Evodial) on the release of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), endostatin (ES) and activin A (Act-A). Nineteen stable HD patients were dialyzed with or without heparin, and plasma levels of MCP-1, ES and Act-A were measured after such a dialysis...
April 19, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424047/deciphering-mechanisms-underlying-the-genetic-variation-of-general-production-and-liver-quality-traits-in-the-overfed-mule-duck-by-pqtl-analyses
#15
Yoannah François, Alain Vignal, Caroline Molette, Nathalie Marty-Gasset, Stéphane Davail, Laurence Liaubet, Christel Marie-Etancelin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the mechanisms that underlie phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTL) in overfed mule ducks by identifying co-localized proteomic QTL (pQTL). The QTL design consisted of three families of common ducks that were progeny-tested by using 294 male mule ducks. This population of common ducks was genotyped using a genetic map that included 334 genetic markers located across 28 APL chromosomes (APL for Anas platyrhynchos). Mule ducks were phenotyped for 49 traits related to growth, metabolism, overfeeding ability and meat and fatty liver quality, and 326 soluble fatty liver proteins were quantified...
April 19, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422055/c-myc-making-liver-sick-role-of-c-myc-in-hepatic-cell-function-homeostasis-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Kang Zheng, Francisco Javier Cubero, Yulia A Nevzorova
Over 35 years ago, c-MYC, a highly pleiotropic transcription factor that regulates hepatic cell function, was identified. In recent years, a considerable increment in the number of publications has significantly shifted the way that the c-MYC function is perceived. Overexpression of c-MYC alters a wide range of roles including cell proliferation, growth, metabolism, DNA replication, cell cycle progression, cell adhesion and differentiation. The purpose of this review is to broaden the understanding of the general functions of c-MYC, to focus on c-MYC-driven pathogenesis in the liver, explain its mode of action under basal conditions and during disease, and discuss efforts to target c-MYC as a plausible therapy for liver disease...
April 19, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414811/tissue-expression-profiles-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-elongase-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acid-6-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#17
Si Chen, Hua He, Xiaolin Liu
In mammals, very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) perform pleiotropic roles in a wide range of biological processes, such as cell membrane formation, cell signal transduction, and endocrine regulation. Beef and milk are abundant of palmitic acid which can be further elongated into stearic acid for synthesizing VLCFAs. Elongase of very long chain fatty acid 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme for converting palmitic acid to stearic acid. Consequently, investigating the tissue expression patterns and transcriptional regulation of bovine ELOVL6 can provide new insights into improving the composition of beneficial fats in cattle and expanding the knowledge of transcriptional regulation mechanism among domestic animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414139/ligand-dependent-and-independent-regulation-of-human-hepatic-sphingomyelin-phosphodiesterase-acid-like-3a-expression-by-pregnane-x-receptor-and-crosstalk-with-liver-x-receptor
#18
Judith Jeske, Andreas Bitter, Wolfgang E Thasler, Thomas S Weiss, Matthias Schwab, Oliver Burk
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) mainly regulates xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. Additionally, it exerts pleiotropic effects on liver physiology, which in large parts depend on transrepression of other liver-enriched transcription factors. Based on the hypothesis that lower expression levels of PXR may reduce the extent of this inhibition, an exploratory genome-wide transcriptomic profiling was performed using HepG2 cell clones with different expression levels of PXR. This screen and confirmatory real-time RT-PCR identified sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like (SMPDL) 3A, a novel nucleotide phosphodiesterase and phosphoramidase, as being up-regulated by PXR-deficiency...
April 13, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414049/spotlight-on-vitamin-d-receptor-lipid-metabolism-and-mitochondria-some-preliminary-emerging-issues
#19
REVIEW
Francesca Silvagno, Gianpiero Pescarmona
Transcriptional control and modulation of calcium fluxes underpin the differentiating properties of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3). In the latest years however few studies have pointed out the relevance of the mitochondrial effects of the hormone. It is now time to focus on the metabolic results of vitamin D receptor (VDR) action in mitochondria, which can explain the pleiotropic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and may elucidate few contrasting aspects of its activity. The perturbation of lipid metabolism described in VDR knockout mice and vitamin D deficient animals can be revisited based on the newly identified mechanism of action of 1,25(OH)2D3 in mitochondria...
April 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409403/effectiveness-of-beraprost-sodium-in-maintaining-vascular-access-patency-in-patients-on-hemodialysis
#20
Miyeon Kim, Ji Ung Kim, So Mi Kim, HyunWoo Kim
PURPOSE: Hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction, mostly attributed to neointimal hyperplasia, is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization in patients on hemodialysis. It has been reported that prostaglandin I2 has pleiotropic effects including anti-platelet, vasodilating, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic properties. In addition, several studies have shown that prostaglandin I2 can inhibit neointimal formation after vascular injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of beraprost sodium, an oral synthetic analog of prostaglandin I2, on vascular access patency in patients on hemodialysis who experienced primary hemodialysis vascular access failure...
April 13, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
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