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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776677/myotropic-activity-of-allatostatins-in-tenebrionid-beetles
#1
Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Mariola Kuczer, Grzegorz Rosiński
Neuropeptides control the functioning of the nervous system of insects, and they are the most diverse signalling molecules in terms of structure and function. Allatostatins are pleiotropic neuropeptides that are considered potent myoinhibitors of muscle contractions in insects. We investigated the effects caused by three distinct allatostatins, Dippu-AST1 (LYDFGL-NH2 from Diploptera punctata), Grybi-MIP1 (GWQDLNGGW-NH2 from Gryllus bimaculatus) and Trica-ASTC (pESRYRQCYFNPISCF-OH from Tribolium castaneum) on contractile activity of the myocardium, oviduct and hindgut of two tenebrionid beetles, Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas atratus...
May 9, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775595/the-neuropeptide-tac2-controls-a-distributed-brain-state-induced-by-chronic-social-isolation-stress
#2
Moriel Zelikowsky, May Hui, Tomomi Karigo, Andrea Choe, Bin Yang, Mario R Blanco, Keith Beadle, Viviana Gradinaru, Benjamin E Deverman, David J Anderson
Chronic social isolation causes severe psychological effects in humans, but their neural bases remain poorly understood. 2 weeks (but not 24 hr) of social isolation stress (SIS) caused multiple behavioral changes in mice and induced brain-wide upregulation of the neuropeptide tachykinin 2 (Tac2)/neurokinin B (NkB). Systemic administration of an Nk3R antagonist prevented virtually all of the behavioral effects of chronic SIS. Conversely, enhancing NkB expression and release phenocopied SIS in group-housed mice, promoting aggression and converting stimulus-locked defensive behaviors to persistent responses...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774079/long-non-coding-rnas-ac026904-1-and-uca1-a-one-two-punch-for-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-snai2-activation-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-breast-cancer
#3
Guo-Yin Li, Wei Wang, Jian-Yong Sun, Bo Xin, Xiang Zhang, Ting Wang, Qian-Feng Zhang, Li-Bo Yao, Hua Han, Dai-Ming Fan, An-Gang Yang, Lin-Tao Jia, Lei Wang
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has received much attention as a major inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during cancer progression, mainly by activating a set of pleiotropic transcription factors including SNAI2/Slug. However, the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in TGF-β-induced Slug activation and EMT remains largely unknown. Methods: In this study, we used microarray analysis to compare lncRNA expression profiles between TGF-β treated and untreated breast cancer cells...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771496/what-can-pleiotropic-proteins-in-innate-immunity-teach-us-about-bioconjugation-and-molecular-design
#4
Michelle W Lee, Ernest Y Lee, Gerard C L Wong
A common bioengineering strategy to add function to a given molecule is by conjugation of a new moiety onto that molecule. Adding multiple functions in this way becomes increasingly challenging and leads to composite molecules with larger molecular weights. In this review, we attempt to gain a new perspective by looking at this problem in reverse, by examining nature's strategies of multiplexing different functions into the same pleiotropic molecule using emerging analysis techniques such as machine learning...
May 17, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771313/evaluating-the-potential-role-of-pleiotropy-in-mendelian-randomization-studies
#5
Gibran Hemani, Jack Bowden, George Davey Smith
Pleiotropy, the phenomenon of a single genetic variant influencing multiple traits, is likely widespread in the human genome. If pleiotropy arises because the SNP influences one trait, which in turn influences another ("vertical pleiotropy"), then Mendelian randomisation (MR) can be used to estimate the causal influence between the traits. Of prime focus among the many limitations to MR is the unprovable assumption that apparent pleiotropic associations are mediated by the exposure (i.e. reflect vertical pleiotropy), and do not arise due to SNPs influencing the two traits through independent pathways ("horizontal pleiotropy")...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771294/the-maize-lilliputian1-lil1-gene-encoding-a-brassinosteroid-cytochrome-p450-c-6-oxidase-is-involved-in-plant-growth-and-drought-response
#6
Giulia Castorina, Martina Persico, Massimo Zilio, Stefano Sangiorgio, Laura Carabelli, Gabriella Consonni
Background and Aims: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones involved in many developmental processes as well as in plant-environment interactions. Their role was investigated in this study through the analysis of lilliputian1-1 (lil1-1), a dwarf mutant impaired in BR biosynthesis in maize (Zea mays). Methods: We isolated lil1-1 through transposon tagging in maize. The action of lil1 was investigated through morphological and genetic analysis. Moreover, by comparing lil1-1 mutant and wild-type individuals grown under drought stress, the effect of BR reduction on the response to drought stress was examined...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770231/cardiovascular-outcomes-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-with-special-emphasis-on-its-effect-beyond-ldl-cholesterol-lowering
#7
REVIEW
Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Kumar Ashish, Adrija Hajra, Arshna Qureshi, Raktim K Ghosh
PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are novel antihypercholesterolemic drugs. FDA first approved them in July 2015. PCSK9 protein (692-amino acids) was discovered in 2003. It plays a major role in LDL receptor degradation and is a prominent modulator in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism. PCSK9 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 protein in liver and inhibiting this protein leads to drastically lowering harmful LDL-C level in the bloodstream. Despite widespread use of the statin, not all the high-risk patients were able to achieve targeted level of LDL-C...
2018: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770164/aquaporin-membrane-channels-in-oxidative-stress-cell-signaling-and-aging-recent-advances-and-research-trends
#8
REVIEW
Grazia Tamma, Giovanna Valenti, Elena Grossini, Sandra Donnini, Angela Marino, Raul A Marinelli, Giuseppe Calamita
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a result of aerobic metabolism and as by-products through numerous physiological and biochemical processes. While ROS-dependent modifications are fundamental in transducing intracellular signals controlling pleiotropic functions, imbalanced ROS can cause oxidative damage, eventually leading to many chronic diseases. Moreover, increased ROS and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability are main key factors in dysfunctions underlying aging, frailty, hypertension, and atherosclerosis...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770125/fgf23-actions-on-target-tissues-with-and-without-klotho
#9
REVIEW
Beatrice Richter, Christian Faul
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 is a phosphaturic hormone whose physiologic actions on target tissues are mediated by FGF receptors (FGFR) and klotho, which functions as a co-receptor that increases the binding affinity of FGF23 for FGFRs. By stimulating FGFR/klotho complexes in the kidney and parathyroid gland, FGF23 reduces renal phosphate uptake and secretion of parathyroid hormone, respectively, thereby acting as a key regulator of phosphate metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that FGF23 can also target cell types that lack klotho...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767378/dying-to-communicate-apoptotic-functions-of-eph-ephrin-proteins
#10
REVIEW
Mustapha Kandouz
The Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases and interact with a group of ligands called Ephrins. An essential feature of the Eph receptors and Ephrin ligands is that both are membrane-bound and, upon cell-cell interaction, initiate a bidirectional signaling involving both the receptor (forward signaling) and the ligand (reverse signaling). They regulate a large set of pleiotropic functions in virtually every tissue and physiological system...
May 16, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764944/recon-dependent-inflammation-in-hepatocytes-enhances-listeria-monocytogenes-cell-to-cell-spread
#11
Adelle P McFarland, Thomas P Burke, Alexie A Carletti, Rochelle C Glover, Hannah Tabakh, Matthew D Welch, Joshua J Woodward
The oxidoreductase RECON is a high-affinity cytosolic sensor of bacterium-derived cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs). CDN binding inhibits RECON's enzymatic activity and subsequently promotes inflammation. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of RECON on the infection cycle of the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes , which secretes cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) into the cytosol of infected host cells. Here, we report that during infection of RECON-deficient hepatocytes, which exhibit hyperinflammatory responses, L...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763721/new-insights-into-hypoxia-related-mechanisms-involved-in-different-microvascular-patterns-of-bronchopulmonary-carcinoids-and-poorly-differentiated-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-role-of-ribonuclease-t2-rnaset2-and-hif-1-alpha
#12
Silvia Uccella, Stefano La Rosa, Debora Scaldaferri, Laura Monti, Roberta Maragliano, Elisa Sorrenti, Marzia Gariboldi, Roberto Taramelli, Fausto Sessa, Francesco Acquati
Ribonuclease T2 (RNASET2) is a pleiotropic and polyfunctional protein, which exerts several different activities in neoplastic cells since the early steps of tumor development. Besides having an antitumorigenic activity, RNASET2 inhibits both bFGF-induced and VEGF-induced angiogenesis and has a role as a stress-response, alarmin-like, protein. In this study, we investigated RNASET2 expression in well-differentiated and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung (Lu-NENs), which are known to show clear-cut differences in morphology, biology and clinical behavior...
May 12, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761602/vmp1-marks-er-subdomains-enriched-in-phospholipid-synthesizing-enzymes-and-is-required-for-phosphoinositide-distribution
#13
Luis-Carlos Tábara, Juan-Jesús Vicente, Joanna Biazik, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Olivier Vincent, Ricardo Escalante
The multispanning membrane protein VMP1 (Vacuole membrane protein 1) marks and regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-domains associated with diverse ER-organelle membrane contact sites (MCSs). A proportion of these domains associate with endosomes during their maturation and remodeling. We found that these VMP1-domains are enriched in CEPT1 and PIS1, two ER enzymes required for the synthesis of various phospholipids. Interestingly, the lack of VMP1 impairs the formation of PIS1-enriched ER domains, suggesting a role in the distribution of phosphoinositides...
May 14, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761247/beneficial-effects-of-fenofibrate-in-pulmonary-hypertension-in-rats
#14
Palak Galhotra, Pankaj Prabhakar, Himanshu Meghwani, Soheb A Mohammed, Sanjay Kumar Banerjee, Sandeep Seth, Milind P Hote, K H Reeta, Ruma Ray, Subir Kumar Maulik
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a morbid complication of cardiopulmonary as well as several systemic diseases in humans. It is rapidly progressive and fatal if left untreated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PPARα agonist fenofibrate (FF) on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH in rats. FF, because of its pleiotropic property, could be helpful in reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, and reactive oxygen species. On day 1, MCT (50 mg/kg, s.c.) was given to all the rats in MCT, sildenafil, and FF group except normal control rats...
May 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760586/atorvastatin-and-diacerein-reduce-insulin-resistance-and-increase-disease-tolerance-in-rats-with-sepsis
#15
K L C da Silva, A P Camacho, F C Mittestainer, B M Carvalho, A Santos, D Guadagnini, A G Oliveira, M J A Saad
Background: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death among hospitalized patients. At the onset of this condition, there is an over-production of pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to organ failure and death. The excess production of pro-inflammatory mediators also impairs insulin signaling, which may be a pathophysiological tissue marker of proinflammatory cytokine action before organ failure. Statins and diacerein have pleiotropic effects, such as the blockage of inflammatory signaling pathways, suggesting that these drugs may be an attractive therapeutic or prophylactic strategy against sepsis...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759816/actin-remodeling-in-regulated-exocytosis-toward-a-mesoscopic-view
#16
REVIEW
Pin Li, Adekunle T Bademosi, Jincai Luo, Frederic A Meunier
Cellular communication relies on fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, following dynamic events that change the micro- and nanoscale environment of the approaching vesicles in the vicinity of docking sites. Visualization of fine cortical actin network structures and their interactions with vesicle and plasma membrane has recently been facilitated by the development of new imaging technologies. Consequently, a greater understanding is emerging of the role of the cortical actin network on controlling secretory vesicles as they undergo docking, priming, and fusion in exocytic hot spots...
May 11, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758195/a-mir-124-itga3-axis-contributes-to-colorectal-cancer-metastasis-by-regulating-anoikis-susceptibility
#17
Ke-di Sa, Xiang Zhang, Xiao-Fei Li, Zhong-Ping Gu, An-Gang Yang, Rui Zhang, Ji-Peng Li, Jian-Yong Sun
Metastasis is the major cause for the death of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Anoikis resistance enhances the survival of cancer cells during systemic circulation, thereby facilitating secondary tumor formation in distant organs. miR-124 is a pleiotropically tumor suppressive small non-coding molecule. However, its role and mechanism in the regulation of cancer cell anoikis are still unknown. Here, we found that overexpression of miR-124 promotes anoikis of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. In silico analysis and the experimental evidence supported that ITGA3 is a bona fide target of miR-124...
May 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757987/genomic-regions-analysis-of-seedling-root-traits-and-their-regulation-in-responses-to-phosphorus-deficiency-tolerance-in-cssl-population-of-elite-super-hybrid-rice
#18
Galal Bakr Anis, Yingxin Zhang, Huimin Wang, Zihe Li, Weixun Wu, Lianping Sun, Aamir Riaz, Liyong Cao, Shihua Cheng
Phosphorus (P) is the essential macro-element supporting rice productivity. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying related traits at the seedling stage under two different phosphorus levels was investigated in rice using a population of 76 Chromosomal Sequence Substitution Lines (CSSLs) derived from a cross between the maintainer variety XieqingzaoB (P stress tolerant) and the restorer variety Zhonghui9308 (P stress sensitive); the parents of super hybrid rice Xieyou9308. A genetic linkage map with 120 DNA marker loci was constructed...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755503/genome-wide-association-analysis-of-age-dependent-egg-weights-in-chickens
#19
Zhuang Liu, Congjiao Sun, Yiyuan Yan, Guangqi Li, Guiqin Wu, Aiqiao Liu, Ning Yang
Egg weight (EW) is an economically-important trait and displays a consecutive increase with the hen's age. Because extremely large eggs cause a range of problems in the poultry industry, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in order to identify genomic variations that are associated with EW. We utilized the Affymetrix 600 K high density SNP array in a population of 1,078 hens at seven time points from day at first egg to 80 weeks age (EW80). Results reveal that a 90 Kb genomic region (169.42 Mb ~ 169...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753927/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-spexin-in-spotted-scat-scatophagus-argus
#20
Si-Ping Deng, Hua-Pu Chen, Yi Zhai, Li-Ying Jia, Jian-Ye Liu, Mei Wang, Dong-Neng Jiang, Tian-Li Wu, Chun-Hua Zhu, Guang-Li Li
Spexin (Spx), a novel neuropeptide, composed of 14 amino acid residues, is evolutionally conserved from fish to mammals. It has been suggested that Spx has pleiotropic functions in mammals. However, reports about Spx are very limited. To clarify the roles of Spx in the regulation of reproduction and food-intake in the spotted scat, the spx (ssspx) gene was cloned and analyzed. Analysis of the tissue distribution by RT-PCR showed that ssspx expression was widespread. During ovary development, expression of ssspx was found to be highest in phase II, moderate in phase III, and at its lowest level in phase IV...
May 10, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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