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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777633/hypertrophic-effect-of-inhaled-beta-2-agonist-with-and-without-concurrent-exercise-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Søren Jessen, Johan Onslev, Anders Lemminger, Vibeke Backer, Jens Bangsbo, Morten Hostrup
INTRODUCTION: Due to a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes, there is a high use of beta2 -adrenoceptor agonists (beta2 -agonists) in the athletic population. While anabolic in rodents, no study has been able to detect hypertrophy in humans after chronic beta2 -agonist inhalation. METHODS: We investigated if inhaled beta2 -agonist, terbutaline, alters body composition and metabolic rate with and without concurrent exercise training in healthy young men...
May 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776315/aerobic-training-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-skeletal-muscle-of-rats-exposed-to-air-pollution-and-supplemented-with-chromium-picolinate
#2
Bruna Marmett, Ramiro Barcos Nunes, Kellen Sábio de Souza, Pedro Dal Lago, Cláudia Ramos Rhoden
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise using measures of oxidative stress in rats exposed to air pollution. METHODS: Sixty-one male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: residual oil fly ash (ROFA) exposure and sedentary (ROFA-SED); ROFA exposure, sedentary and supplemented (ROFA-SED-CrPic); ROFA exposure and trained (ROFA-AT); ROFA exposure, supplemented and trained (ROFA-AT-CrPic); sedentary (Sal-SED); sedentary and supplemented (Sal-SED-CrPic); trained (Sal-AT); and supplemented and trained (Sal-AT-CrPic)...
December 2018: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775761/the-bone-anabolic-effects-of-irisin-are-through-preferential-stimulation-of-aerobic-glycolysis
#3
Dingdong Zhang, ChuHyun Bae, Junghak Lee, Jiho Lee, Zeyu Jin, Myeongmo Kang, Young Suk Cho, Jeong-Han Kim, Weontae Lee, Sung-Kil Lim
Irisin, a recently identified hormone secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, exhibits anabolic effects on the skeleton primarily through the stimulation of bone formation. However, the mechanism underlying the irisin-stimulated anabolic response remains largely unknown. To uncover the underlying mechanism, we biosynthesized recombinant irisin (r-irisin) using an Escherichia coli expression system and used it to treat several osteoblast cell types. Our synthesized r-irisin could promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts as evidenced by enhanced expression of osteoblast-specific transcriptional factors, including Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), Oster (Osx), as well as early osteoblastic differentiation markers such as alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1)...
May 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775754/effects-of-micrornas-on-skeletal-muscle-development
#4
REVIEW
J Wang, L Z Yang, J S Zhang, J X Gong, Y H Wang, C L Zhang, H Chen, X T Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (about 22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs, which were highly conserved among mammals. They have ushered in a new era in molecular biology over twenty years. They can negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through the principle of complementary base pairing with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNAs and induce their degradation. They involve in tissue morphogenesis, cellular processes like apoptosis, and major signaling pathways. Previous studies have promoted our understanding that miRNAs play an important role in myogenesis and have a big impact on muscle mass, muscle fiber type and muscle diseases...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774118/proteomic-profiling-of-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-in-cancer-cachexia-alterations-in-sarcomeric-and-mitochondrial-protein-expression
#5
Angie M Y Shum, Anne Poljak, Nicholas L Bentley, Nigel Turner, Timothy C Tan, Patsie Polly
Background: Cancer cachexia is observed in more than 50% of advanced cancer patients, and impairs quality of life and prognosis. A variety of pathways are likely to be dysregulated. Hence, a broad-spectrum understanding of the disease process is best achieved by a discovery based approach such as proteomics. Results: More than 300 proteins were identified with > 95% confidence in correct sequence identification, of which 5-10% were significantly differentially expressed in cachectic tissues ( p -value of 0...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773865/perlecan-a-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-regulates-systemic-metabolism-with-dynamic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#6
Yuri Yamashita, Satoshi Nakada, Toshinori Yoshihara, Takeshi Nara, Norihiko Furuya, Takashi Miida, Nobutaka Hattori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2-/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2-/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772844/leucine-supplementation-does-not-attenuate-skeletal-muscle-loss-during-leg-immobilization-in-healthy-young-men
#7
Evelien M P Backx, Astrid M H Horstman, Gabriel N Marzuca-Nassr, Janneau van Kranenburg, Joey S Smeets, Cas J Fuchs, Anniek A W Janssen, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Tim Snijders, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND: Short successive periods of physical inactivity occur throughout life and contribute considerably to the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. The maintenance of muscle mass during brief periods of disuse is required to prevent functional decline and maintain metabolic health. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether daily leucine supplementation during a short period of disuse can attenuate subsequent muscle loss in vivo in humans. METHODS: Thirty healthy (22 ± 1 y) young males were exposed to a 7-day unilateral knee immobilization intervention by means of a full leg cast with (LEU, n = 15) or without (CON, n = 15) daily leucine supplementation (2...
May 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771332/mechanisms-of-skeletal-muscle-wasting-in-a-mouse-model-for-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#8
Ginny R Morriss, Kimal Rajapakshe, Shixia Huang, Cristian Coarfa, Thomas A Cooper
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disease resulting in severe muscle weakening and wasting. DM1 is caused by expansion of CTG repeats in the 3'-UTR of the DMPK gene. We have developed an inducible, skeletal muscle-specific mouse model of DM1 (CUG960) that expresses 960 CUG repeats in the context of human DMPK exons 11-15. CUG960 RNA-expressing mice induced at PN1, as well as adult-onset animals, show clear, measurable muscle wasting accompanied by severe histological defects including central myonuclei, reduced fiber cross sectional area, increased percentage of oxidative myofibers, and the presence of nuclear RNA foci that colocalize with Mbnl1 protein...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764991/a-dgk%C3%AE-foxo-ubiquitin-proteolytic-axis-controls-fiber-size-during-skeletal-muscle-remodeling
#9
Jae-Sung You, Matthew S Dooley, Chan-Ran Kim, Eui-Jun Kim, Wei Xu, Craig A Goodman, Troy A Hornberger
Skeletal muscle rapidly remodels in response to various stresses, and the resulting changes in muscle mass profoundly influence our health and quality of life. We identified a diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ)-mediated pathway that regulated muscle mass during remodeling. During mechanical overload, DGKζ abundance was increased and required for effective hypertrophy. DGKζ not only augmented anabolic responses but also suppressed ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-dependent proteolysis. We found that DGKζ inhibited the transcription factor FoxO that promotes the induction of the UPS...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762697/sarcopenia-is-a-novel-predictor-of-the-need-for-rescue-therapy-in-hospitalized-ulcerative-colitis-patients
#10
Kelly C Cushing, Hamed Kordbacheh, Michael S Gee, Avinash Kambadakone, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
Background: Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) affects one in four patients with UC. Clinical parameters perform modestly in predicting need for rescue therapy. Sarcopenia and visceral adiposity predict natural history in Crohn's disease, but the role of such metabolic factors on ASUC outcomes is unknown. Aim: To define the effect of sarcopenia and visceral adiposity on outcomes in ASUC. Methods: We studied patients hospitalized for ASUC who underwent an abdominal CT scan during the hospitalization...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761898/clinical-impact-of-muscle-quantity-and-quality-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#11
Yoshinaga Okugawa, Yuji Toiyama, Akira Yamamoto, Tsunehiko Shigemori, Chengzeng Yin, Aya Narumi, Yusuke Omura, Shozo Ide, Takahito Kitajima, Hiroyuki Fujikawa, Hiromi Yasuda, Junichiro Hiro, Shigeyuki Yoshiyama, Minako Kobayashi, Toshimitsu Araki, Donald C McMillan, Chikao Miki, Masato Kusunoki
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of skeletal muscle mass, accompanied by decreased muscle strength, and consists of myopenia and myosteatosis. Recent evidence has suggested the predictive value of sarcopenia for the risk of perioperative and oncological outcomes in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical impact of myopenia and myosteatosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: We analyzed the preoperative psoas muscle mass index and intramuscular adipose tissue content using preoperative computed tomography images from 308 CRC patients using statistical methods...
May 15, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760608/calf-circumference-as-a-simple-screening-marker-for-diagnosing-sarcopenia-in-older-korean-adults-the-korean-frailty-and-aging-cohort-study-kfacs
#12
Sunyoung Kim, Miji Kim, Yunhwan Lee, ByungSung Kim, Tai Young Yoon, Chang Won Won
Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the optimal cut-off point of calf circumference (CC) as a simple proxy marker of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and sarcopenia in the Korean elderly and to test the criterion-related validity of CC by analyzing its relationships with the physical function. Methods: The participants were 657 adults aged 70 to 84 years who had completed both dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and physical function test in the first baseline year of the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759662/nandrolone-decanoate-and-physical-activity-affect-quadriceps-in-peripubertal-rats
#13
Jasmina Sretenovic, Vladimir Ajdzanovic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Ivan Srejovic, Milena Corbic, Verica Milosevic, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Zoran Milosavljevic
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are synthetic analogs of testosterone often used by athletes to increase the skeletal muscle mass. Our goal was to examine the effects of physical activity and physical activity combined with supraphysiological doses of nandrolone on functional morphology of the quadriceps muscle. The study included 32 peripubertal Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups: control (T-N-), nandrolone (T-N+), physical activity (T+N-) and physical activity plus nandrolone (T+N+) groups. The T+N- and T+N+ group swam for 4 weeks, 1 h/day, 5 days/week...
May 11, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758061/predictive-score-of-sarcopenia-occurrence-one-year-after-bariatric-surgery-in-severely-obese-patients
#14
Cosmin Sebastian Voican, Amandine Lebrun, Sophie Maitre, Panagiotis Lainas, Karima Lamouri, Micheline Njike-Nakseu, Martin Gaillard, Hadrien Tranchart, Axel Balian, Ibrahim Dagher, Gabriel Perlemuter, Sylvie Naveau
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sarcopenic obesity is a risk factor of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to generate a predictive score of sarcopenia occurrence one year after bariatric surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational prospective cohort study on a total of 184 severely obese patients admitted to our institution to undergo sleeve gastrectomy. Skeletal muscle cross-sectional area at the third lumbar vertebrae (SMA, cm2) was measured from the routinely performed computed tomography...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757230/exercise-and-nutrition-strategies-to-counteract-sarcopenic-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Inez Trouwborst, Amely Verreijen, Robert Memelink, Pablo Massanet, Yves Boirie, Peter Weijs, Michael Tieland
As the population is aging rapidly, there is a strong increase in the number of individuals with chronic disease and physical limitations. The decrease in skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) and the increase in fat mass (obesity) are important contributors to the development of physical limitations, which aggravates the chronic diseases prognosis. The combination of the two conditions, which is referred to as sarcopenic obesity, amplifies the risk for these negative health outcomes, which demonstrates the importance of preventing or counteracting sarcopenic obesity...
May 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756416/testosterone-and-sarcopenia
#16
REVIEW
Myung Jun Shin, Yun Kyung Jeon, In Joo Kim
Aging affects metabolism, leading to physiological and functional impairments, and is also related to changes in body composition, including reduced skeletal muscle mass and increased body fat. These changes are correlated with the pathophysiology of sarcopenia, which is defined as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Low testosterone levels are associated with unfavorable body composition changes, and sex hormones decrease with aging. Androgen deficiency, along with lack of exercise and poor nutrition, may be among the modifiable contributors to sarcopenia...
May 11, 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753766/licorice-flavonoid-oil-enhances-muscle-mass-in-kk-a-y-mice
#17
Yasukiyo Yoshioka, Yoko Yamashita, Hideyuki Kishida, Kaku Nakagawa, Hitoshi Ashida
AIMS: Muscle mass is regulated by the balance between the synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. Loss of skeletal muscle mass is associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of licorice flavonoid oil on muscle mass in KK-Ay /Ta mice. MAIN METHODS: Male genetically type II diabetic KK-Ay /Ta mice received 0, 1, or 1.5 g/kg BW of licorice flavonoid oil by mouth once daily for 4 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752955/skeletal-muscle-specific-sidt2-knockout-in-mice-induced-muscular-dystrophy-like-phenotype
#18
Huan Liu, Wenjun Jiang, Xueru Chen, Guoying Chang, Lei Zhao, Xihua Li, Huiwen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sidt2 is an integral lysosomal membrane protein. Previously, we generated a Sidt2 global knockout mouse and found impaired insulin secretion, along with skeletal muscle pathology. METHODS: A mouse model with a muscle-specific knockout of the Sidt2 gene (Sidt2f/f Cre) had been generated, to which extensive morphologic study as well as functional study was applied to investigate the direct role of Sidt2 on skeletal muscle tissue in vivo. Secondly, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway was examined by Western blot and immunostaining...
May 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752635/incidence-of-sarcopenia-and-dynapenia-according-to-stage-in-patients-with-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Tamer Yazar, Hülya Olgun Yazar, Emel Zayimoğlu, Soner Çankaya
AIM: In this study, the aim was to identify the incidence of sarcopenia and dynapenia according to disease stage among idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients and collect data to illuminate precautions related to reducing the disease load. METHOD: The study was completed with 166 patients divided by stage according to modified Hoehn and Yahr (HYR) criteria and 249 healthy volunteers aged from 18 to 39 and 68 to 75 years met the inclusion criteria. In our prospective and cross-sectional study, patients with IPD according to "UK Brain Bank" diagnostic criteria had the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and HYR scales applied...
May 12, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751507/effects-of-whey-protein-supplementation-pre-or-post-resistance-training-on-muscle-mass-muscular-strength-and-functional-capacity-in-pre-conditioned-older-women-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Hellen C G Nabuco, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Rodrigo R Fernandes, Edilaine F Cavalcante, Melissa Antunes, Alex S Ribeiro, Denilson C Teixeira, Analiza M Silva, Luís B Sardinha, Edilson S Cyrino
Aging is associated with sarcopenia and dynapenia, with both processes contributing to functional dependence and mortality in older adults. Resistance training (RT) and increased protein intake are strategies that may contribute to health improvements in older adults. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation consumed either immediately pre- or post-RT on skeletal muscle mass (SMM), muscular strength, and functional capacity in pre-conditioned older women. Seventy older women participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: whey protein pre-RT and placebo post-RT (WP-PLA, n = 24), placebo pre-RT and whey protein post-RT (PLA-WP, n = 23), and placebo pre- and post-RT (PLA-PLA, n = 23)...
May 3, 2018: Nutrients
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