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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914496/computed-tomography-derived-skeletal-muscle-index-a-novel-predictor-of-frailty-and-hospital-length-of-stay-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#1
Vishal Dahya, Jingjie Xiao, Carla M Prado, Penny Burroughs, Dan McGee, Aline C Silva, Julian E Hurt, Shafi G Mohamed, Thomas Noel, Wayne Batchelor
: To determine the prevalence of low skeletal muscle mass in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and whether skeletal muscle mass measured from preoperative computed tomography (CT) images provides value in predicting postoperative length of stay (LOS). BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the use of body composition as a frailty measure in TAVR patients and no studies have determined if this measure predicts LOS. METHODS: We studied 104 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR at Tallahassee Memorial Hospital from 2012 to 2016...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908613/sparc-interacts-with-actin-in-skeletal-muscle-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#2
Louise H Jørgensen, Pia Lørup Jepsen, Anders Boysen, Line B Dalgaard, Lars G Hvid, Niels Ørtenblad, Dea Ravn, Jeeva Sellathurai, Jakob Møller-Jensen, Hanns Lochmüller, Henrik D Schrøder
The cytoskeleton is an integral part of skeletal muscle structure, and reorganization of the cytoskeleton occurs during various modes of remodeling. We previously found that the extracellular matrix protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is up-regulated and expressed intracellularly in developing muscle, during regeneration and in myopathies, which together suggests that SPARC might serve a specific role within muscle cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry and verified by staining for direct protein-protein interaction, we find that SPARC binds to actin...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908421/low-magnesium-diet-alters-distribution-of-macroelements-and-trace-elements-in-tissues-and-organs-of-female-rats
#3
Anastasia A Zheltova, Maria V Kharitonova, Igor N Iezhitsa, Eugeny P Serebryansky, Oleg Y Evsyukov, Alexander A Spasov, Anatoly V Skalny
The aim of the present study was to assess whether dietary magnesium deficiency can alter distribution of macroelements and trace elements in different organs and tissues. Experiments were carried out on 12 adult female Wistar rats, which were fed either a diet with low Mg content (≤20mgkg(-1) of diet) (LMgD) or a diet with daily recommended Mg content (≈500mgkg(-1)) as control group (CG) for 70 days. On the 70th day of the experiment heart, aorta, femoral skeletal muscle, forebrain, cerebellum, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, ovaries, uterus, liver, kidneys, and spleen were taken for analysis of mineral content...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907044/coenzyme-q10-status-as-a-determinant-of-muscular-strength-in-two-independent-cohorts
#4
Alexandra Fischer, Simone Onur, Petra Niklowitz, Thomas Menke, Matthias Laudes, Gerald Rimbach, Frank Döring
Aging is associated with sarcopenia, which is a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is involved in several important functions that are related to bioenergetics and protection against oxidative damage; however, the role of CoQ10 as a determinant of muscular strength is not well documented. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the determinants of muscular strength by examining hand grip force in relation to CoQ10 status, gender, age and body mass index (BMI) in two independent cohorts (n = 334, n = 967)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907012/the-signature-of-microrna-dysregulation-in-muscle-paralyzed-by-spinal-cord-injury-includes-downregulation-of-micrornas-that-target-myostatin-signaling
#5
Rita De Gasperi, Zachary A Graham, Lauren M Harlow, William A Bauman, Weiping Qin, Christopher P Cardozo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in muscle atrophy, reduced force generation and an oxidative-to-glycolytic fiber type shift. The mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain incompletely understood. To gain new insights regarding mechanisms involved in deterioration of muscle after SCI, global expression profiles of miRs in paralyzed gastrocnemius muscle were compared between sham-operated (Sham) and spinal cord-transected (SCI) rats. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis of the altered miRs identified signaling via insulin, IGF-1, integrins and TGF-β as being significantly enriched for target genes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906130/braf-activates-pax3-to-control-muscle-precursor-cell-migration-during-forelimb-muscle-development
#6
Jaeyoung Shin, Shuichi Watanabe, Soraya Hoelper, Marcus Krüger, Sawa Kostin, Jochen Pöling, Thomas Kubin, Thomas Braun
Migration of skeletal muscle precursor cells is a key step during limb muscle development and depends on the activity of PAX3 and MET. Here, we demonstrate that BRAF serves a crucial function in formation of limb skeletal muscles during mouse embryogenesis downstream of MET and acts as a potent inducer of myoblast cell migration. We found that a fraction of BRAF accumulates in the nucleus after activation and endosomal transport to a perinuclear position. Mass spectrometry based screening for potential interaction partners revealed that BRAF interacts and phosphorylates PAX3...
December 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906103/progressive-impairment-of-cav1-1-function-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-mice-expressing-a-mutant-type-1-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase-g93a-linked-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Donald Beqollari, Christin F Romberg, Gabriella Dobrowolny, Martina Martini, Andrew A Voss, Antonio Musarò, Roger A Bannister
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is typically fatal within 3-5 years of diagnosis. While motoneuron death is the defining characteristic of ALS, the events that underlie its pathology are not restricted to the nervous system. In this regard, ALS muscle atrophies and weakens significantly before presentation of neurological symptoms. Since the skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV1.1) is a key regulator of both mass and force, we investigated whether CaV1...
June 23, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906092/alterations-to-mtorc1-signaling-in-the-skeletal-muscle-differentially-affect-whole-body-metabolism
#8
Maitea Guridi, Barbara Kupr, Klaas Romanino, Shuo Lin, Denis Falcetta, Lionel Tintignac, Markus A Rüegg
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central node in a network of signaling pathways controlling cell growth and survival. This multiprotein complex integrates external signals and affects different nutrient pathways in various organs. However, it is not clear how alterations of mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle affect whole-body metabolism. RESULTS: We characterized the metabolic phenotype of young and old raptor muscle knock-out (RAmKO) and TSC1 muscle knock-out (TSCmKO) mice, where mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle is inhibited or constitutively activated, respectively...
March 21, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906050/the-sh3-and-cysteine-rich-domain-3-stac3-gene-is-important-to-growth-fiber-composition-and-calcium-release-from-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-in-postnatal-skeletal-muscle
#9
Xiaofei Cong, Jonathan Doering, Davi A G Mazala, Eva R Chin, Robert W Grange, Honglin Jiang
BACKGROUND: The SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3 (Stac3) gene is specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle. Stac3 knockout mice die perinatally. In this study, we determined the potential role of Stac3 in postnatal skeletal muscle growth, fiber composition, and contraction by generating conditional Stac3 knockout mice. METHODS: We disrupted the Stac3 gene in 4-week-old male mice using the Flp-FRT and tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP systems. RESULTS: RT-qPCR and western blotting analyses of the limb muscles of target mice indicated that nearly all Stac3 mRNA and more than 70 % of STAC3 protein were deleted 4 weeks after tamoxifen injection...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904018/impact-of-plasma-kynurenine-level-on-functional-capacity-and-outcome-in-heart-failure%C3%A3-results-from-studies-investigating-co-morbidities-aggravating-heart-failure-sica-hf
#10
Masaaki Konishi, Nicole Ebner, Jochen Springer, Joerg C Schefold, Wolfram Doehner, Thomas Bernd Dschietzig, Stefan D Anker, Stephan von Haehling
BACKGROUND: Kynurenine is a circulating metabolite from the essential amino acid tryptophan. Accelerated degradation of kynurenine in skeletal muscle has been reported to provide an anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between blood kynurenine and muscle mass/function in patients with heart failure (HF), in whom diseased muscle mass/function plays a pathophysiological role.Methods and Results:Plasma kynurenine was assessed in 249 patients with HF (67±11 years, 21% women) and in 45 controls from the SICA-HF study...
November 30, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903267/skeletal-muscle-quality-as-assessed-by-ct-derived-skeletal-muscle-density-is-associated-with-6-month-mortality-in-mechanically-ventilated-critically-ill-patients
#11
Wilhelmus G P M Looijaard, Ingeborg M Dekker, Sandra N Stapel, Armand R J Girbes, Jos W R Twisk, Heleen M Oudemans-van Straaten, Peter J M Weijs
BACKGROUND: Muscle quantity at intensive care unit (ICU) admission has been independently associated with mortality. In addition to quantity, muscle quality may be important for survival. Muscle quality is influenced by fatty infiltration or myosteatosis, which can be assessed on computed tomography (CT) scans by analysing skeletal muscle density (SMD) and the amount of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). We investigated whether CT-derived low skeletal muscle quality at ICU admission is independently associated with 6-month mortality and other clinical outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900103/muscle-wasting-associated-with-the-long-term-use-of-mtor-inhibitors
#12
Bishal Gyawali, Tomoya Shimokata, Kazunori Honda, Chihiro Kondoh, Naomi Hayashi, Yasushi Yoshino, Naoto Sassa, Yasuyuki Nakano, Momokazu Gotoh, Yuichi Ando
Some targeted therapies alter muscle mass due to interference with pathways of muscle metabolism. The effects of mammalian target of ra pamycin (mTOR) inhibitors on muscle mass have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the computerized tomography (CT) scans of patients receiving mTOR inhibitors for at least 6 months taken at baseline and post-therapy were retrospectively retrieved, and body composition analyses were performed using the software, sliceOmatic version 5.0 (TomoVision, Inc., Magog, QC, Canada)...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897417/sarcopenia-and-physical-independence-in-older-adults-the-independent-and-synergic-role-of-muscle-mass-and-muscle-function
#13
Leandro Dos Santos, Edilson S Cyrino, Melissa Antunes, Diana A Santos, Luís B Sardinha
BACKGROUND: The loss of skeletal muscle mass (MM) or muscle function (MF) alone increases the risk for losing physical independence in older adults. We aimed to examine the independent and synergic associations of low MM and low MF, both criteria of sarcopenia, with the risk for losing projected physical independence in later life (+90 years old). METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in 3493 non-institutionalized older adults (1166 males). Physical independence was assessed with a 12-item composite physical function scale...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897415/sarcopenia-among-patients-receiving-hemodialysis-weighing-the-evidence
#14
Piyawan Kittiskulnam, Juan J Carrero, Glenn M Chertow, George A Kaysen, Cynthia Delgado, Kirsten L Johansen
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on how best to define low muscle mass in patients with end-stage renal disease. Use of muscle mass normalized to height-squared has been suggested by geriatric societies but may underestimate sarcopenia, particularly in the setting of excess adiposity. We compared four definitions of low muscle mass in a prevalent hemodialysis cohort. METHODS: ACTIVE/ADIPOSE enrolled prevalent patients receiving hemodialysis from the San Francisco and Atlanta areas from June 2009 to August 2011...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897411/skeletal-muscle-density-is-an-independent-predictor-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-outcomes-treated-with-rituximab-based-chemoimmunotherapy
#15
Michael P Chu, Jessica Lieffers, Sunita Ghosh, Andrew Belch, Neil S Chua, Amelie Fontaine, Randeep Sangha, Robert A Turner, Vickie E Baracos, Michael B Sawyer
BACKGROUND: While much cancer research focuses on tumours and their microenvironment, malignancies cause widespread physiologic changes. Cancer and treatment-related sarcopenia, measured with quantitative imaging or as a decrease in overall body mass, are indicative of poor prognosis in elderly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) may be a better prognostic marker. SMD, a measure of muscle radiation attenuation on CT imaging, is more prognostic than sarcopenia or International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores in follicular lymphoma and multiple solid organ malignancies...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897404/doxorubicin-inhibits-muscle-inflammation-after-eccentric-exercise
#16
Sheng-Chih Huang, Jin-Fu Wu, Suchada Saovieng, Wei-Horng Chien, Ming-Fen Hsu, Xiao-Fei Li, Shin-Da Lee, Chih-Yang Huang, Chih-Yang Huang, Chia-Hua Kuo
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin, a widely used anti-tumour drug, is known to cause muscle loss in cancer patients. METHODS: Following an acute dose of doxorubicin injection (2.5 mg/kg per body weight), we examined macrophage distribution in rat soleus muscle challenged by eccentric exercise (downhill running). Long-term doxorubicin treatment (one injection every 3 days) on muscle mass and survival were also determined. RESULTS: Under non-exercised condition, increased tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA and decreased IL-10 mRNA were observed in soleus muscle of doxorubicin-treated rats, compared with saline-treated control rats...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897400/lipid-modulation-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-function
#17
REVIEW
Christopher Lipina, Harinder S Hundal
Loss of skeletal muscle mass is a characteristic feature of various pathologies including cancer, diabetes, and obesity, as well as being a general feature of ageing. However, the processes underlying its pathogenesis are not fully understood and may involve multiple factors. Importantly, there is growing evidence which supports a role for fatty acids and their derived lipid intermediates in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and function. In this review, we discuss evidence pertaining to those pathways which are involved in the reduction, increase and/or preservation of skeletal muscle mass by such lipids under various pathological conditions, and highlight studies investigating how these processes may be influenced by dietary supplementation as well as genetic and/or pharmacological intervention...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897395/the-human-skeletal-muscle-proteome-project-a-reappraisal-of-the-current-literature
#18
REVIEW
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Richard D Semba, Ceereena Ubaida-Mohien, Elisa Fabbri, Paul Scalzo, Kurt Højlund, Craig Dufresne, Alexey Lyashkov, Luigi Ferrucci
Skeletal muscle is a large organ that accounts for up to half the total mass of the human body. A progressive decline in muscle mass and strength occurs with ageing and in some individuals configures the syndrome of 'sarcopenia', a condition that impairs mobility, challenges autonomy, and is a risk factor for mortality. The mechanisms leading to sarcopenia as well as myopathies are still little understood. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project was initiated with the aim to characterize muscle proteins and how they change with ageing and disease...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896546/jmv2894-a-novel-growth-hormone-secretagogue-accelerates-body-mass-recovery-in-an-experimental-model-of-cachexia
#19
Elena Bresciani, Laura Rizzi, Laura Molteni, Monica Ravelli, Antonella Liantonio, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Robert J Omeljaniuk, Giuseppe Biagini, Vittorio Locatelli, Antonio Torsello
Oncologic patients subjected to chemotherapy frequently present aphagia, malnutrition, and cachexia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selected growth hormone secretagogues including hexarelin, JMV2894 and JMV2951 could antagonize body weight loss and wasting induced by cisplatin administration in rats. The three growth hormone secretagogues behaved as full agonists of the growth hormone secretagogues receptor both in terms of ability to stimulate calcium mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary cells and stimulation of growth hormone release in neonatal rats...
November 28, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895764/mitofusin-2-prevents-skeletal-muscle-wasting-in-cancer-cachexia
#20
Qiu-Lei Xi, Bo Zhang, Yi Jiang, Hai-Sheng Zhang, Qing-Yang Meng, Ying Chen, Yu-Song Han, Qiu-Lin Zhuang, Jun Han, Hai-Yu Wang, Jing Fang, Guo-Hao Wu
Cancer cachexia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite extensive research and clinical trials. The prominent clinical feature of cancer cachexia is the continuous loss of skeletal muscle that cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support, and that leads to progressive functional impairment. The mechanism underlying muscle loss in patients with cachexia is poorly understood. The present study analyzed 21 cancer patients with or without cachexia, and demonstrated that mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) was downregulated in the rectus abdominis of patients with cachexia, which was associated with body weight loss...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
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