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skeletal muscle mass

Zhong-Min Wang, Xiaoyan Leng, María Laura Messi, Seung J Choi, Anthony P Marsh, Barbara Nicklas, Osvaldo Delbono
Background: Previous studies support beneficial effects of both resistance exercise training (RT) and caloric restriction (CR) on skeletal muscle strength and physical performance. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of adding CR to RT on single-muscle fiber contractility responses to RT in older overweight and obese adults. Methods: We analyzed contractile properties in 1,253 single myofiber from muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis, as well as physical performance and thigh muscle volume, in 31 older (65-80 yrs), overweight or obese (body mass index= 27-35 kg/m2) men (n=19) and women (n=12) who were randomly assigned to a standardized, progressive RT intervention with CR (RT+CR; n=15) or without CR (RT; n=16) for 5 months...
March 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
H Rahmati-Holasoo, M Soltani, M Masoudifard, S Shokrpoor, A Taheri Mirghaed, M Ahmadpoor
Abdominal distention occurred at an incidence of 1% (15 from 1500 fish) in the population of 1-year-old bester (Huso huso × Acipenser ruthenus). Computed tomography (CT) images and radiographs showed a soft tissue mass compressed the posterior part of the swim bladder. Ultrasonography showed that the masses had different patterns. Internal examination revealed the abdominal cavities to be filled with large masses which appeared to encompass most of the visceral organs, including the swim bladder. The masses originated from the posterior kidney...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Carmelo Messina, Gabriele Maffi, Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Luca Maria Sconfienza
Osteoporosis and sarcopenia represent two major health problems with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. The correlation between these diseases has been widely reported, leading to the development of the term "osteosarcopenia" to diagnose those patients suffering from both diseases. Several imaging methods for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis exist, with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) being the most commonly used for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). Imaging technique other than DXA is represented by conventional radiography, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US)...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Takahiro Onuma, Tamotsu Kamishima, Tsuyoshi Shimamura, Norio Kawamura, Kenichiro Yamashita, Kenneth Sutherland, Hiroshi Takeda
Background: The quantity and quality of skeletal muscle have been observed to be closely related with post-transplantation mortality in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). However, the effect of LDLT on skeletal muscle has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of trunk muscle mass and adiposity in recipients of LDLT. Methods: The study population included LDLT recipients at Hokkaido University Hospital who underwent pre- and post-operative computed tomography (CT) scans (31 recipients; 14 males, and 17 females)...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Shuping Yang, Xin Li, Xinfeng Liu, Xiangbin Ding, Xiangbo Xin, Congfei Jin, Sheng Zhang, Guangpeng Li, Hong Guo
MSTN -encoded myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. Here, we utilized the gluteus tissues from MSTN gene editing and wild type Luxi beef cattle which are native breed of cattle in China, performed tandem mass tag (TMT) -based comparative proteomics and phosphoproteomics analyses to investigate the regulatory mechanism of MSTN related to cellular metabolism and signaling pathway in muscle development. Out of 1,315 proteins, 69 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found in global proteomics analysis...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Graham P Holloway, Andrew M Holwerda, Paula M Miotto, Marlou L Dirks, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
It remains unknown if mitochondrial bioenergetics are altered with aging in humans. We established an in vitro method to simultaneously determine mitochondrial respiration and H2 O2 emission in skeletal muscle tissue across a range of biologically relevant ADP concentrations. Using this approach, we provide evidence that, although the capacity for mitochondrial H2 O2 emission is not increased with aging, mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is impaired. This resulted in an increase in mitochondrial H2 O2 and the fraction of electron leak to H2 O2 , in the presence of virtually all ADP concentrations examined...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Boudewijn J J Smeets, David J Brinkman, Eelco C J Horsten, Jacqueline A E Langius, Harm J T Rutten, Wouter J de Jonge, Misha D P Luyer
BACKGROUND: Myopenia (low skeletal muscle mass) is associated with an increased risk of complications following colorectal surgery, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. This study investigates the effect of myopenia on the early postoperative systemic inflammatory response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 78 patients undergoing colorectal surgery, the presence of myopenia was preoperatively assessed using computed tomography images of the third lumbar vertebra...
March 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Q Y Lao, M Sun, L Yu, J Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and differential diagnosis of lipofibromatosis. Methods: The clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles in 8 cases of lipofibromatosis diagnosed at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from January 2008 to June 2017 were studied. Molecular analysis of β-catenin mutation by Sanger sequencing, NTKR1 and ETV6 rearrangements by FISH were performed. The follow up information was evaluated and the literature was reviewed. Results: There were 4 males and 4 females with a median age of 1...
March 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Alberto A Castro, Theodore Garland
We have used selective breeding with house mice to study coadaptation of morphology and physiology with the evolution of high daily levels of voluntary exercise. Here, we compared hindlimb bones and muscle masses from the 11th generation of four replicate High Runner (HR) lines of house mice bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running with four non-selected control (C) lines. Mass, length, diameter, and depth of the femur, tibia-fibula, and metatarsal bones, as well as masses of gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles, were compared by analysis of covariance with body mass or body length as the covariate...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Kahyun Kim, Hyun Sik Gong, Jae-Young Lim, Jong Hee Kim, Goo Hyun Baek
We evaluated the vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in the forearm flexor muscle of women with distal radius fracture. High VDR expression was associated with low appendicular lean mass index. INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the VDR expression in the muscle cell and the muscle mass in women with a distal radius fracture (DRF). METHODS: We prospectively recruited 45 women over 50 years of age (mean age, 66 years) with DRF and acquired biopsy of the forearm flexor muscle...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Angela-María Benjumea, Carmen-Lucía Curcio, Gustavo Duque, Fernando Gómez
BACKGROUND: The role of sarcopenia and dynapenia in disability in older persons from falls and bone health clinics remain unknown. AIM: This study aims to compare the association of sarcopenia and dynapenia with physical and instrumental disability in a population of older persons attending a falls and fractures clinic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in Manizales, Andes Mountains, Colombia. A cohort of 534 subjects (mean age = 74, 75% female) Sarcopenia was measured according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) including an index of skeletal mass, muscle strength, and gait speed...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
V Krishnan, N J Patel, J G Mackrell, S A Sweetana, H Bullock, Y L Ma, T H Waterhouse, B C Yaden, J Henck, Q Q Zeng, K Gavardinas, P Jadhav, A Saeed, P Garcia-Losada, D A Robins, C T Benson
We have identified a non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), termed LY305, that is bioavailable through a transdermal route of administration while highly cleared via hepatic metabolism to limit parent compound exposure in the liver. Selection of this compound and its transdermal formulation was based on the optimization of skin absorption properties using both in vitro and in vivo skin models that supported PBPK modeling for human PK predictions. This molecule is an agonist in perineal muscle while being a weak partial agonist in the androgenic tissues such as prostate...
March 12, 2018: Andrology
M Piasecki, A Ireland, J Piasecki, D W Stashuk, A Swiecicka, M K Rutter, D A Jones, J S McPhee
Sarcopenia results from the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and reduced function in older age. It is likely to be associated with the well-documented reduction of motor unit numbers innervating limb muscles and the increase in size of surviving motor units via reinnervation of denervated fibres. However no evidence currently exists to confirm the extent of motor unit remodelling in sarcopenic individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare motor unit size and number between young (n = 48), non-sarcopenic old (n = 13), pre-sarcopenic (n = 53) and sarcopenic (n = 29) men...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Satomi Minato, Kaori Kitaoka, Mika Takeuchi, Ayaka Tsuboi, Miki Kurata, Shigehiro Tanaka, Tsutomu Kazumi, Keisuke Fukuo
Objective: We test the hypothesis that aspartate aminotransferase (AST) may be associated inversely with serum triglycerides (TG) and positively with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in young athletes because athletes have larger amounts of muscle mass. Research design and methods: Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between serum AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and body composition identified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, markers of insulin resistance, serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, adiponectin and leptin in 174 female collegiate athletes (18-22 years)...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
M Bogdanska, A Morris, J M Hutson, Y Heloury, S R Grover
BACKGROUND: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive condition resulting in excess androgen production. Females are typically born with ambiguous genitalia and often undergo feminising genitoplasty in infancy or childhood. Recently, there has been considerable international debate as to whether distressing urinary symptoms in CAH patients are truly present and, if so, whether these urinary problems are a consequence of the feminising genitoplasty. OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess any urinary symptoms in an Australian cohort of adolescent and adult women with CAH who have undergone feminising genitoplasty in infancy, childhood or adolescence as a part of their management...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Masaki Mogi, Katsuhiko Kohara, Yasuharu Tabara, Kana Tsukuda, Michiya Igase, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Our previous report indicated that sarcopenia is associated with arterial stiffness and cardiovascular death. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease and its activation may be correlated with sarcopenia according to basic research. However, few clinical studies have assessed the correlation between skeletal muscle loss and RAS component concentrations in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the excretion of angiotensinogen (AGT) and aldosterone (Ald) in 24-h urine samples and clinical and sarcopenic indices...
March 9, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Wolfgang Kemmler, Matthias Kohl, Ellen Freiberger, Cornel Sieber, Simon von Stengel
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic Obesity (SO) is characterized by low lean and high fat mass; i.e. from a functional aspect a disproportion between engine (muscle) and mass to be moved (fat). At present, most research focuses on the engine, but the close "cross talk" between age-associated adipose and skeletal muscle tissue inflammation calls for comprehensive interventions that affect both components alike. Protein and exercise are likely candidates, however with respect to the latter, the enthusiasm for intense and frequent exercise is rather low, especially in functionally limited older people...
March 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Kohei Yamaguchi, Haruka Tohara, Koji Hara, Ayako Nakane, Eriko Kajisa, Kanako Yoshimi, Shunsuke Minakuchi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a relationship between masseter muscle thickness and tooth loss or limb muscle thickness. However, it is not yet known whether masseter muscle thickness is related to appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and grip strength. The purpose of this study was to determine which of the two variables-tooth loss or appendicular skeletal muscle mass index-is more strongly related to masseter muscle thickness, and to identify a suitable indicator of decreasing masseter muscle thickness in healthy elderly individuals...
March 8, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Eva-Maria Strasser, Marlene Hofmann, Bernhard Franzke, Barbara Schober-Halper, Stefan Oesen, Waltraud Jandrasits, Alexandra Graf, Markus Praschak, Barbara Horvath-Mechtler, Christine Krammer, Martin Ploder, Norbert Bachl, Michael Quittan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Barbara Wessner
BACKGROUND: Age related loss of skeletal muscle mass is accompanied by changes in muscle quality leading to impairment of functional status. AIM: This study investigated the effect of resistance training and nutritional supply on muscle mass and muscle quality in very old institutionalized adults. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, multi-arm parallel and controlled intervention study. SETTING: This study was conducted in five retirement care facilities...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Sabine Daemen, Nynke van Polanen, Matthijs K C Hesselink
The majority of fat in the human body is stored as triacylglycerols in white adipose tissue. In the obese state, adipose tissue mass expands and excess lipids are stored in non-adipose tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Lipids are stored in skeletal muscle in the form of small lipid droplets. Although originally viewed as dull organelles that simply store lipids as a consequence of lipid overflow from adipose tissue, lipid droplets are now recognized as key components in the cell that exert a variety of relevant functions in multiple tissues (including muscle)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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