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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653345/treatment-of-sarcopenia-with-bimagrumab-results-from-a-phase-ii-randomized-controlled-proof-of-concept-study
#1
Daniel Rooks, Jens Praestgaard, Sam Hariry, Didier Laurent, Olivier Petricoul, Robert G Perry, Estelle Lach-Trifilieff, Ronenn Roubenoff
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of bimagrumab on skeletal muscle mass and function in older adults with sarcopenia and mobility limitations. DESIGN: A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, proof-of-concept study. SETTING: Five centers in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults (N = 40) aged 65 and older with gait speed between 0.4 and 1.0 m/s over 4 m and an appendicular skeletal muscle index of 7...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652544/ghrelin-treatment-improves-physical-decline-in-sarcopenia-model-mice-through-muscular-enhancement-and-mitochondrial-activation
#2
Masanori Tamaki, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Aika Hagiwara, Shu Wakino, Hiroyuki Inoue, Kentaro Fujii, Chikako Fujii, Sho Endo, Asuka Uto, Masanori Mitsuishi, Masaaki Sato, Toshio Doi, Hiroshi Itoh
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) impairs physical performance in humans, which leads to a risk of all-cause mortality. In our previous study, we demonstrated that a reduction in muscle mitochondria rather than muscle mass was a major cause of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized CKD model mice. Because ghrelin administration has been reported to enhance oxygen utilization in skeletal muscle, we examined the usefulness of ghrelin for a recovery of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized C57Bl/6 mice, focusing on the epigenetic modification of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652350/chimpanzee-super-strength-and-human-skeletal-muscle-evolution
#3
Matthew C O'Neill, Brian R Umberger, Nicholas B Holowka, Susan G Larson, Peter J Reiser
Since at least the 1920s, it has been reported that common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) differ from humans in being capable of exceptional feats of "super strength," both in the wild and in captive environments. A mix of anecdotal and more controlled studies provides some support for this view; however, a critical review of available data suggests that chimpanzee mass-specific muscular performance is a more modest 1.5 times greater than humans on average. Hypotheses for the muscular basis of this performance differential have included greater isometric force-generating capabilities, faster maximum shortening velocities, and/or a difference in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content in chimpanzee relative to human skeletal muscle...
June 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650457/fibroblast-growth-factor-19-regulates-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-ameliorates-muscle-wasting-in-mice
#4
Bérengère Benoit, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Martina Castelli, Stéphanie Chanon, Aurélie Vieille-Marchiset, Christine Durand, Nadia Bendridi, Sandra Pesenti, Pierre-Axel Monternier, Anne-Cécile Durieux, Damien Freyssenet, Jennifer Rieusset, Etienne Lefai, Hubert Vidal, Jérôme Ruzzin
The endocrine-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 has recently emerged as a potential target for treating metabolic disease. Given that skeletal muscle is a key metabolic organ, we explored the role of FGF19 in that tissue. Here we report a novel function of FGF19 in regulating skeletal muscle mass through enlargement of muscle fiber size, and in protecting muscle from atrophy. Treatment with FGF19 causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice, while physiological and pharmacological doses of FGF19 substantially increase the size of human myotubes in vitro...
June 26, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647906/exogenous-gdf11-induces-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-and-wasting
#5
Teresa A Zimmers, Yanling Jiang, Meijing Wang, Tiffany W Liang, Joseph E Rupert, Ernie D Au, Francesco E Marino, Marion E Couch, Leonidas G Koniaris
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a TGF-beta superfamily member, is highly homologous to myostatin and essential for embryonic patterning and organogenesis. Reports of GDF11 effects on adult tissues are conflicting, with some describing anti-aging and pro-regenerative activities on the heart and skeletal muscle while others opposite or no effects. Herein, we sought to determine the in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle effects of excess GDF11. Mice were injected with GDF11 secreting cells, an identical model to that used to initially identify the in vivo effects of myostatin...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647743/predictive-accuracy-of-calf-circumference-measurements-to-detect-decreased-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-european-society-for-clinical-nutrition-and-metabolism-defined-malnutrition-in-hospitalized-older-patients
#6
Keisuke Maeda, Takayuki Koga, Tomomi Nasu, Miki Takaki, Junji Akagi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The ability to readily diagnose sarcopenia and malnutrition in a clinical setting is essential. This study is aimed at clarifying the calf circumference (CC) cut-off values for decreased skeletal muscle mass (SMM), according to the Asian Work Group for Sarcopenia's criteria definition of sarcopenia, and those for European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition, in hospitalized Japanese patients. METHODS: The study involved 1,164 patients aged ≥65 years...
June 24, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647199/influence-of-frailty-on-treatment-outcomes-after-revascularization-in-patients-with-critical-limb-ischemia
#7
Koichi Morisaki, Terutoshi Yamaoka, Kazuomi Iwasa, Takahiro Ohmine
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether frailty adversely affects treatment outcomes in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of frailty on CLI patients after revascularization. METHODS: Patients undergoing infrapopliteal revascularization between 2007 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The patient was defined as CLI frail when two or more of the following were present: low Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index, low skeletal muscle mass index, or nonambulatory status...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647176/mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-efficiency-is-upregulated-during-fasting-in-two-major-oxidative-tissues-of-ducklings
#8
Pierre-Axel Monternier, Loïc Teulier, Jocelyne Drai, Aurore Bourguignon, Delphine Collin-Chavagnac, Frédéric Hervant, Jean-Louis Rouanet, Damien Roussel
Fasted endothermic vertebrates must develop physiological responses to maximize energy conservation and survival. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 1-wk. fasting in 5-wk. old ducklings (Cairina moschata) from whole-body resting metabolic rate and body temperature to metabolic phenotype of tissues and mitochondrial coupling efficiency. At the level of whole organism, the mass-specific metabolic rate of ducklings was decreased by 40% after 1-wk. of fasting, which was associated with nocturnal Tb declines and shallow diurnal hypothermia during fasting...
June 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643356/bimagrumab-improves-body-composition-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-insulin-resistant-subjects
#9
Tania Garito, Ronenn Roubenoff, Marcus Hompesch, Linda Morrow, Katherine Gomez, Daniel Rooks, Charles Meyers, Monte Buchsbaum, Srikanth Neelakantham, Therese Swan, Lee Anne Filosa, Didier Laurent, Olivier Petricoul, Marjorie Zakaria
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a key mediator of insulin resistance. Bimagrumab, an antibody against activin receptor type II (ActRII), prevents binding of negative muscle regulators, like myostatin, and increases lean mass and decreases fat mass in animal models. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that an improving body composition in insulin resistant individuals could enhance insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Sixteen individuals with mean body mass index (BMI) = 29...
June 23, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640092/glucose-metabolism-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-measured-by-18f-fdg-pet-ct-is-related-to-the-presence-of-colonic-adenoma
#10
Hai-Jeon Yoon, Bom Sahn Kim, Ko Eun Lee, Chang Mo Moon, Jang Yoo, Jung-Sook Kim, Yemi Kim
This study investigated the relationships between the area and metabolic activity of adipose tissue and the presence of colorectal adenoma (CRA). Our institutional review board approved the study and waived informed consent. A total of 212 subjects who underwent fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and colonoscopy for routine health check-ups were enrolled. The volumetric parameters of areas of visceral (VATav), subcutaneous (SATav), and total adipose tissue (TATav) and calculated visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR) and visceral-to-total adipose tissue ratio (VAR) were considered...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639432/muscle-mass-as-a-target-to-reduce-fatigue-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#11
Elisabeth C W Neefjes, Renske M van den Hurk, Susanne Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Maurice J D L van der Vorst, Annemarie Becker-Commissaris, Marian A E de van der Schueren, Laurien M Buffart, Henk M W Verheul
BACKGROUND: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) reduces quality of life and the activity level of patients with cancer. Cancer related fatigue can be reduced by exercise interventions that may concurrently increase muscle mass. We hypothesized that low muscle mass is directly related to higher CRF. METHODS: A total of 233 patients with advanced cancer starting palliative chemotherapy for lung, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer were studied. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as the patient's muscle mass on level L3 or T4 of a computed tomography scan, adjusted for height...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638924/-measurement-of-kinetic-parameters-of-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-rats-by-deuterated-water
#12
Ying Tian, Qian-Qian Dai, Chan-Fang Meng, Yi Sun, Jing Peng, Yu Chen
The aim of the present study was to measure the kinetic parameters of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in rats by deuterated water ((2)H2O). Twenty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were labeled by (2)H2O through intraperitoneal injection and drinking. At the each end of the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 6th and 10th week after the first (2)H2O labeling, four rats were sacrificed by cardiac puncture for blood plasma and quadriceps femoris sampling. Skeletal muscle protein and free amino acids in plasma were purified, hydrolyzed by hydrochloric acid and derived...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638045/treatment-of-sarcopenia-and-glucose-intolerance-through-mitochondrial-activation-by-5-aminolevulinic-acid
#13
Chikako Fujii, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Masanori Mitsuishi, Masaaki Sato, Kentaro Fujii, Hiroyuki Inoue, Aika Hagiwara, Sho Endo, Asuka Uto, Masaki Ryuzaki, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Masanori Tamaki, Ayako Muraki, Toshihide Kawai, Hiroshi Itoh
Recently, sarcopenia has attracted attention as therapeutic target because it constitutes a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We focused 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) which act as electron carriers in the mitochondrial electron transport system. The mice that received ALA for 8 weeks gained muscle strength and endurance, and exhibited increased muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. Administration of ALA to sarcopenia mice aged 100 weeks and chronic kidney disease (CKD) model mice also increased muscle mass and improved physical performance...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627027/elevated-serum-myostatin-level-is-associated-with-worse-survival-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#14
Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Akio Ishii, Yoshinori Iwata, Yuho Miyamoto, Noriko Ishii, Yukihisa Yuri, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Takashi Nishimura, Kazunori Yoh, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Ryo Takata, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: We aimed to elucidate the relationship between serum myostatin levels and other markers including skeletal muscle mass and to investigate the influence of serum myostatin levels on survival for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). METHODS: A total of 198 LC subjects were analysed in this study. Myostatin levels were measured using stored sera. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between myostatin level and other markers, and the influence of myostatin level on overall survival (OS)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626757/actn3-gene-and-susceptibility-to-sarcopenia-and-osteoporotic-status-in-older-korean-adults
#15
Jinkyung Cho, Inhwan Lee, Hyunsik Kang
BACKGROUND: Little information is available about molecular markers for sarcopenia and osteoporosis in Asian populations. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association of the ACTN3 polymorphism with sarcopenia and osteoporotic status in older Korean adults. METHODS: Older Korean 62 men and 270 women (mean age 73.7 ± 6.6 years) participated in this study. Body mass index, percent body fatness, appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, femur, and total body were analyzed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622896/biomechanical-modeling-of-spine-flexibility-and-its-relationship-to-spinal-range-of-motion-and-idiopathic-scoliosis
#16
Tishya A L Wren, Skorn Ponrartana, Ervin Poorghasamians, Sarah Moreau, Patricia C Aggabao, Tracy L Zaslow, Bianca R Edison, Vicente Gilsanz
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between spine morphology, spine flexibility, and idiopathic scoliosis. BACKGROUND: Girls have a higher incidence of clinically significant scoliosis than boys, along with smaller vertebrae and greater flexibility. Based on biomechanical modeling, we hypothesized that smaller vertebral width relative to intervertebral disc (IVD) height would be associated with both greater lateral flexibility of the spine and with idiopathic scoliosis...
July 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622884/the-effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-the-forelimb-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-hypertrophic-myostatin-null-mice
#17
Mohamed I Elashry, Antonios Matsakas, Sabine Wenisch, Stefan Arnhold, Ketan Patel
Skeletal muscle mass loss has a broad impact on body performance and physical activity. Muscle wasting occurs due to genetic mutation as in muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) as well as in chronic wasting disorders as in cancer cachexia. Food restriction reduces muscle mass underpinned by increased muscle protein break down. However the influence of dietary restriction on the morphometry and phenotype of forelimb muscles in a genetically modified myostatin null mice are not fully characterized...
June 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621757/impact-of-virtual-touch-quantification-in-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-for-skeletal-muscle-mass-loss-in-chronic-liver-diseases
#18
Hiroki Nishikawa, Takashi Nishimura, Hirayuki Enomoto, Yoshinori Iwata, Akio Ishii, Yuho Miyamoto, Noriko Ishii, Yukihisa Yuri, Ryo Takata, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Kazunori Yoh, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Shuhei Nishiguchi, Hiroko Iijima
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We sought to clarify the relationship between virtual touch quantification (VTQ) in acoustic radiation force impulse and skeletal muscle mass as assessed by bio-electronic impedance analysis in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs, n = 468, 222 males and 246 females, median age = 62 years). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Decreased skeletal muscle index (D-SMI) was defined as skeletal muscle index (SMI) <7.0 kg/m² for males and as SMI <5...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621674/skeletal-muscle-depletion-predicts-survival-of-patients-with-advanced-biliary-tract-cancer-undergoing-palliative-chemotherapy
#19
Kyoung-Min Cho, Hyunkyung Park, Do-Youn Oh, Tae-Yong Kim, Kyung Hun Lee, Sae-Won Han, Seock-Ah Im, Tae-You Kim, Yung-Jue Bang
BACKGROUND: No prior study has investigated the dynamics of body weight with body muscle mass as a prognostic factor in advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy. We investigated whether low skeletal muscle mass affects survival in patients with BTC, with a co-analysis of body weight loss and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: By multivariate analysis, low skeletal muscle mass at diagnosis and decreased SMI during chemotherapy (p = 0...
June 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617708/the-impact-of-nutrition-on-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-hepatitis-c
#20
Luciana D Silva, Tatiana Bering, Gifone A Rocha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review the most recent aspects of nutrition and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). RECENT FINDINGS: Low HRQOL scores have been found in all stages of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Of the factors linked to HRQOL, three aspects should be emphasized, nutritional status, physical activity and mental health status. Regarding the nutrition and metabolic conditions, a broad spectrum of nutritional disorders may impact on HRQOL of patients with CHC...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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