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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437922/from-toes-to-top-of-atmosphere-fowler-s-sneaker-depth-index-of-water-clarity-for-the-chesapeake-bay
#1
Benjamin Crooke, Lachlan I W McKinna, Ivona Cetinić
Fowler's Sneaker Depth (FSD), analogous to the well known Secchi disk depth (Zsd), is a visually discerned citizen scientist metric used to assess water clarity in the Patuxent River estuary. In this study, a simple remote sensing algorithm was developed to derive FSD from space-borne spectroradiometric imagery. An empirical model was formed that estimates FSD from red-end remote sensing reflectances at 645 nm, Rrs(645). The model is based on a hyperbolic function relating water clarity to Rrs(645) that was established using radiative transfer modeling and fine tuned using in-water FSD measurements and coincident Rrs(645) data observed by NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard the Aqua spacecraft (MODISA)...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437896/variability-of-apparent-and-inherent-optical-properties-of-sediment-laden-waters-in-large-river-basins-lessons-from-in-situ-measurements-and-bio-optical-modeling
#2
Sylvain Pinet, Jean-Michel Martinez, Sylvain Ouillon, Bruno Lartiges, Raul Espinoza Villar
We investigated the relationships between inherent and apparent optical properties (IOP and AOP, respectively) and suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in the main Amazonian river waters. In situ measurements of SSC, remote sensing reflectance (R<sub>rs</sub>), the diffuse light attenuation coefficient (K<sub>d</sub>) and the total and non-algal particle (NAP) absorption coefficients (a<sub>TOT</sub> and a<sub>NAP</sub>, respectively) were conducted during three sampling trips along different streams of the Amazon River catchment (104 stations)...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437654/enhancement-of-particle-aggregation-in-the-presence-of-organic-matter-during-neutralization-of-acid-drainage-in-a-stream-confluence-and-its-effect-on-arsenic-immobilization
#3
Guillermo Arce, Mauricio Montecinos, Paula Guerra, Cristian Escauriaza, Marina Coquery, Pablo Pastén
Acid drainage (AD) is an important environmental concern that impacts water quality. The formation of reactive Fe and Al oxyhydroxides during the neutralization of AD at river confluences is a natural attenuation process. Although it is known that organic matter (OM) can affect the aggregation of Fe and Al oxyhydroxides and the sorption of As onto their surfaces, the role of OM during the neutralization of AD at river confluences has not been studied. Field and experimental approaches were used to understand this role, using the Azufre River (pH 2) - Caracarani River (pH 8...
March 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437482/study-on-lockage-safety-of-lng-fueled-ships-based-on-fsa
#4
Pengfei Lv, Yuan Zhuang, Jian Deng, Wei Su
In the present study, formal safety assessment (FSA) is introduced to investigate lockage safety of LNG-fueled ships. Risk sources during lockage of LNG-fueled ships in four typical scenarios, namely, navigation between two dams, lockage, anchorage, and fueling, are identified, and studied in combination with fundamental leakage probabilities of various components of LNG storage tanks, and simulation results of accident consequences. Some suggestions for lockage safety management of LNG-fueled ships are then proposed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437173/the-karyotype-of-microsternarchus-aff-bilineatus-a-first-case-of-y-chromosome-degeneration-in-gymnotiformes
#5
Jéssica Almeida Batista, Adauto Lima Cardoso, Susana Suely Rodrigues Milhomem Paixão, Jonathan Stuart Ready, Julio Cesar Pieczarka, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi
Various species and lineages that until recently were identified as Microsternarchus bilineatus (Hypopomidae, Gymnotiformes) have a widespread distribution in the Amazon and Orinoco river basins and across the Guiana shield. Recent molecular studies show five distinct lineages for Microsternarchus from different localities. These results suggest that this previously monotypic genus actually consists of more than one species. Here, we describe the karyotype of M. aff. bilineatus from the Cururutuia River (Bragança, Pará, Brazil)...
March 6, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436478/tissue-accumulation-of-microplastics-in-mice-and-biomarker-responses-suggest-widespread-health-risks-of-exposure
#6
Yongfeng Deng, Yan Zhang, Bernardo Lemos, Hongqiang Ren
Microplastics (MPs) are a significant environmental health issue and increasingly greater source of concern. MPs have been detected in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil and even table salts. MPs exposure on marine organisms and humans has been documented, but information about the toxicity of MPs in mammal is limited. Here we used fluorescent and pristine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) particles with two diameters (5 μm and 20 μm) to investigate the tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue-specific health risk of MPs in mice...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435997/assessment-of-organic-pollution-of-an-industrial-river-by-synchronous-fluorescence-and-uv-vis-spectroscopy-the-fensch-river-ne-france
#7
Aziz Assaad, Steve Pontvianne, Marie-Noëlle Pons
To rapidly monitor the surface water quality in terms of organic pollution of an industrial river undergoing restoration, optical methods (UV-visible spectrometry and fluorescence) were applied in parallel to classical physical-chemical analyses. UV-visible spectra were analyzed using the maximum of the second derivative at 225 nm (related to nitrates), specific absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), and the spectral slope between 275 and 295 nm (S 275-295) (related to the aromaticity and molecular weight of dissolved organic carbon)...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435430/influence-of-daily-oral-prophylactic-selenium-treatment-on-the-dibutyltin-dichloride-dbtc-induced-pancreatitis-in-rats
#8
J Merkord, N Görl, M Lemke, A Berg, H Weber, R Ramer, G Hennighausen
Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) is an organotin compound used as model for acute and chronic pancreatitis. Oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms of propagation of acinar cell injury in acute pancreatitis. Selenium is an essential cofactor in the antioxidant glutathione peroxidase pathway. Selenium levels are described to be subnormal in patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis. The aim of our studies was to determine the prophylactic effect of Na-selenite [5 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.) per os (p.o.) 7 days] on the pathogenesis and course of DBTC- induced pancreatitis...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434669/diurnal-variation-of-co2-ch4-and-n2o-emission-fluxes-continuously-monitored-in-situ-in-three-environmental-habitats-in-a-subtropical-estuarine-wetland
#9
Wen-Bin Yang, Chung-Shin Yuan, Chuan Tong, Pin Yang, Lei Yang, Bang-Qin Huang
Wetlands play a crucial role in modulating atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). The key factors controlling GHG emission from subtropical estuarine wetlands were investigated in this study, which continuously monitored the uptake/emission of GHGs (CO2, CH4, and N2O) by/from a subtropical estuarine wetland located in the Minjiang estuary in the coastal region of southeastern China. A self-designed floating chamber was used to collect air samples on-site at three environmental habitats (Phragmites australis marsh, mudflats, and river water)...
April 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434667/sedimentary-heavy-metal-loid-contamination-in-the-veracruz-shelf-gulf-of-mexico-a-baseline-survey-from-a-rapidly-developing-tropical-coast
#10
Celis-Hernandez Omar, Rosales-Hoz Leticia, Cundy Andrew B, Carranza-Edwards Arturo
This study examines sediment texture, geochemistry and sediment accumulation in cores from four sites in the Veracruz shelf area of the Gulf of Mexico, to assess the inputs of heavy metal(loid)s (and their potential biological impacts) in this carbonate-dominated shelf system, and to examine the rate of sedimentation near to the mouths of the La Antigua and Jamapa Rivers. The use of different pollution indices showed enrichment with Pb in all cores studied, although based on sediment quality guidelines As was the only element that has potential to occasionally cause damage to the benthic organisms present in the area...
April 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434612/tracking-nitrate-sources-in-groundwater-and-associated-health-risk-for-rural-communities-in-the-white-volta-river-basin-of-ghana-using-isotopic-approach-%C3%AE-15-n-%C3%AE-18-ono3-and-3-h
#11
Geophrey Anornu, Abass Gibrilla, Dickson Adomako
In this study, we present a first attempt on the use of integrated hydro-chemical and isotopic technique to trace the sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the Upper East Region of Ghana to aid the sustainable management of this vital resource. The objectives of the study are (1) assess the present status and spatial distribution of the nitrate contamination (2) identify and distinguish the most likely sources of nitrate , (3) identify the relationship between (3)H and NO3(-) and F(-), and (4) ascertain the potential human risk from exposure to nitrate contamination...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434541/phytoliths-indicate-significant-arboreal-cover-at-sahelanthropus-type-locality-tm266-in-northern-chad-and-a-decrease-in-later-sites
#12
Alice Novello, Doris Barboni, Florence Sylvestre, Anne-Elisabeth Lebatard, Christine Paillès, Didier L Bourlès, Andossa Likius, Hassane Taisso Mackaye, Patrick Vignaud, Michel Brunet
We analyzed phytolith and diatom remains preserved at 45 Miocene and Pliocene localities dated between 8 and 1 Ma in northern Chad (16-17°N). Some of these localities yielded cranial remains, lower jaws, and teeth of the hominin species Australopithecus bahrelghazali (∼3.6 Ma) and Sahelanthropus tchadensis (∼7 Ma). Of the 111 sediment samples analyzed, 41 yielded phytoliths, 20 yielded diatoms, and seven yielded both phytoliths and diatoms. Freshwater planktonic and tychoplanktonic diatom species, indicative of lacustrine conditions, are dominant (>91%) in the samples...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434214/chitinimonas-naiadis-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-freshwater-river
#13
Shalem Raj Padakandla, Jong-Chan Chae
A rod shaped, aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, and motile bacterium, strain AR2(T), was isolated from a water sample of Yeongsan river, Republic of Korea. Strain AR2(T) clustered closely with the members of the genus Chitinimonas and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Chitinimonas prasina LY03(T) (96.4%), Chitinimonas viridis HMD2169(T) (96.4%), Chitinimonas taiwanensis cf(T) (96.2%), and Chitinimonas koreensis R2A43-10(T) (94.2%). The predominant fatty acids of strain AR2(T) were identified to be summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c), C16:0, and C10:03-OH...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434202/distribution-of-norovirus-genotypes-and-subtypes-in-river-water-by-ultra-deep-sequencing-based-analysis
#14
M Boonchan, K Motomura, K Inoue, H Ode, P Y Chu, M Lin, Y Iwatani, K Ruchusatsawat, R Guntapong, R Tacharoenmuang, S Chantaroj, M Tatsumi, N Takeda, S Sangkitporn
To determine the distribution of NoV genotypes in natural river water in Thailand, we conducted a genome analysis using a next-generation sequencer. Twenty-five river water samples were collected at five different sites of the Khlong Klon River in the suburbs of Bangkok between August 2013 and December 2014. The partial genome of NoV was detected in 15 of the 25 samples (60.0%). Seven of these 15 samples (46.7%) contained multiple NoV GII genotypes: GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17. Our data showed that GII.17 had already emerged in August 2013 as a minor population, and it became a major genotype in December 2014...
April 23, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434067/sediment-metal-contamination-in-the-kafue-river-of-zambia-and-ecological-risk-assessment
#15
Ethel M'kandawire, Kennedy Choongo, John Yabe, Maxwell Mwase, Ngonda Saasa, Shouta M M Nakayama, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Claudia A Blindauer
Zambia's Kafue River receives wastes from various sources, resulting in metal pollution. This study determined the degree of contamination of 13 metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Hg and Pb) in Kafue River sediment and the associated ecological risks at six sites in three different seasons. The level of contamination for most metals showed significant site and seasonal differences. The contamination factor and pollution load index indicated that concentrations of most metals particularly copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) were very high at sites within the Copperbelt mining area...
April 22, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434030/spatial-and-temporal-distributions-of-air-pollutants-and-size-distribution-of-aerosols-over-central-and-eastern-china
#16
Honglei Wang, Lijuan Shen, Bin Zhu, Hanqing Kang, Xuewei Hou, Qing Miao, Yang Yang, Shuangshuang Shi
The origins and spatial and temporal distributions of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2 and O3) during May to June of 2015 were investigated using data from 1490 monitoring sites in China. Aerosol number concentrations and meteorological data from Shijiazhuang, Nanjing, and Suzhou were combined with the MIX Asian emission data and the HYSPLIT model. Furthermore, the diurnal variation, size distribution, and main sources of air pollutants and aerosols were selectively characterized in the North China Plain (NCP) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD)...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433818/spatial-temporal-variability-and-transportation-mechanism-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-the-yangtze-river-estuary
#17
Lei Chen, Ye Yang, Jing Chen, Shuohan Gao, Shasha Qi, Cheng Sun, Zhenyao Shen
Although the variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is strongly dependent on the hydro-sediment pattern, the quantification of this interaction is still not well described, especially for estuary areas. In this study, both chemical analyses and numerical simulation were conducted to explain the temporal-spatial variability and transportation mechanism of PCBs in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE). The impacts of the upstream Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on estuarine PCBs were also addressed with a simulated scenario...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433395/distribution-enrichment-and-source-of-heavy-metals-in-rizhao-offshore-area-southeast-shandong-province
#18
Hongying Song, Jinqing Liu, Ping Yin, Yong Zhang
50 surface sediments were collected from Rizhao offshore area to determine heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As, Hg) pollution. High heavy metal values were located near the two ports in the north and south study areas, which was consistent with the distribution of fine-grained sediments. According to threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL), Cu and As had occasionally adverse biological effects on the aquatic ecosystems. The enrichment factor (EF) values showed that most of the study area was moderate or moderately severe enrichment for As, and minor enrichment for Pb, but Hg was only moderately enriched in the river estuaries...
April 19, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432909/source-receptor-relationships-for-pm2-5-during-typical-pollution-episodes-in-the-pearl-river-delta-city-cluster-china
#19
Yiming Liu, Yingying Hong, Qi Fan, Xuemei Wang, Pakwai Chan, Xiaoyang Chen, Anqi Lai, Mingjie Wang, Xunlai Chen
Located in the Southern China monsoon region, pollution days in Pearl River Delta (PRD) were classified into "Western type", "Central type" or "Eastern type", with a relative percentage of 67%, 24% and 9%, respectively. Using this classification system, three typical pollution events were selected for numerical simulations using the WRF-Chem model. The source sensitivity method for anthropogenic emissions of PM2.5 and its precursors was applied to identify the source-receptor relationships for PM2.5 among 9 cities in PRD...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432892/arsenic-chromium-molybdenum-and-selenium-geochemical-fractions-and-potential-mobilization-in-riverine-soil-profiles-originating-from-germany-and-egypt
#20
Sabry M Shaheen, Eilhann E Kwon, Jayanta K Biswas, Filip M G Tack, Yong Sik Ok, Jörg Rinklebe
The fractionation and potential mobilization of As, Cr, Mo, and Se in four floodplain soil profiles collected along the Nile (Egypt) and Wupper (Germany) Rivers were assessed using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. The concentrations of total and the geochemical fractions (acid soluble (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3), and residual (F4) fraction) of the elements were determined. The Wupper soils had the highest total concentrations (mg kg(-1)) of As (378) and Cr (2,797) while the Nile soils contained the highest total Mo (12) and Se (42)...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
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