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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821098/physical-chemical-characteristics-and-potential-use-of-a-novel-alginate-zein-hydrogel-as-the-sorption-phase-for-polar-organic-compounds
#1
Natara D B Castilhos, Naiara M F M Sampaio, Bruno C da Silva, Izabel C Riegel-Vidotti, Marco T Grassi, Bruno J G Silva
A novel alginate based hydrogel was successfully prepared and tested for the solid phase microextraction of medium-to-high polarity compounds, when supported in a polypropylene (PP) fiber. Pure alginate when added onto the surface of the PP fiber, resulted in a significant improvement in the extraction efficiency of the analytes (except for β-estradiol). The alginate hydrogel was modified upon the incorporation of a small amount of zein, a corn protein. Interestingly, the alginate/zein-supported hydrogel was capable of successfully extracting compounds with low partition constant (Kow), such as 17-α-ethinyl estradiol, progesterone and estriol, since the initial water uptake decreased dramatically in this gel, therefore, leaving the alginate hydroxyl groups more available to interact with the polar compounds...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821044/removal-of-heavy-metal-ions-by-magnetic-chitosan-nanoparticles-prepared-continuously-via-high-gravity-reactive-precipitation-method
#2
Hong-Lei Fan, Shao-Feng Zhou, Wei-Zhou Jiao, Gui-Sheng Qi, You-Zhi Liu
This study aimed to provide a continuous method for the preparation of magnetic Fe3O4/Chitosan nanoparticles (Fe3O4/CS NPs) that can be applied to efficient removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. Using a novel impinging stream-rotating packed bed, the continuous preparation of Fe3O4/CS NPs reached a theoretical production rate of 3.43kg/h. The as-prepared Fe3O4/CS NPs were quasi-spherical with average diameter of about 18nm and saturation magnetization of 33.5emu/g. Owing to the strong metal chelating ability of chitosan, the Fe3O4/CS NPs exhibited better adsorption capacity and faster adsorption rates for Pb(II) and Cd(II) than those of pure Fe3O4...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821002/modeling-the-fate-and-transport-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-in-the-south-river-watershed-in-virginia
#3
Xiaomin Zhao, Wu-Seng Lung
Hormones excreted by livestock metabolisms often enter surface water through feces and urine and can potentially cause adverse impacts to aquatic biota. This study involved a modeling analysis of 17β-estradiol (E2), a prevalent estrogen, in the South River watershed located in Augusta County, Virginia from 2013 to 2015. Cattle manure, poultry litter, biosolids, septic systems, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered as sources of E2 in this study. The EPA's BASINS modeling framework was configured to track the fate and transport of E2...
August 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820993/changing-profiles-of-bound-water-content-and-distribution-in-the-activated-sludge-treatment-by-nacl-addition-and-ph-modification
#4
Dong-Qin He, Ying-Jie Zhang, Chuan-Shu He, Han-Qing Yu
Currently the dewatering of activated sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a problem not well solved. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS), are highly hydrated biopolymers and play important roles in sludge dewatering. In the present work, two types of treatments, i.e., salt addition and pH modification, were proposed to evaluate the effects of bound water content and its distribution on the dewatering performance of activated sludge...
August 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820023/use-of-oxalic-acid-as-inducer-in-photocatalytic-oxidation-of-cresol-red-in-aqueous-solution-under-natural-and-artificial-light
#5
N Seraghni, I Ghoul, I Lemmize, A Reguig, N Debbache, T Sehili
This work was carried out in the field of water treatment using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), especially photolysis of carboxylic acid leads to the formation in situ of hydroxyl radical ((.)OH). Cresol red (CR) degradation induced by organic acids/UV system was investigated in aqueous solution. The preliminary study of CR-organic acid mixture in the dark and at room temperature allowed confirming the absence of interaction under our experimental conditions. However, up on irradiation at 365 nm the percentage of elimination of CR was 89% after 5 hours of irradiation...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819697/mechanistic-understanding-of-crystal-violet-dye-sorption-by-woody-biochar-implications-for-wastewater-treatment
#6
Awanthi Wathukarage, Indika Herath, M C M Iqbal, Meththika Vithanage
Dye-based industries, particularly small and medium scale, discharge their effluents into waterways without treatment due to cost considerations. We investigated the use of biochars produced from the woody tree Gliricidia sepium at 300 °C (GBC300) and 500 °C (GBC500) in the laboratory and at 700 °C from a dendro bioenergy industry (GBC700), to evaluate their potential for sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of pH reaction time and CV loading on the adsorption process...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819273/enhanced-anaerobically-digested-swine-wastewater-treatment-by-the-composite-of-polyaluminum-chloride-pac-and-bacillus-megatherium-g106-derived-eps
#7
Junyuan Guo, Yang Huang, Cheng Chen, Yu Xiao, Jing Chen, Biyu Jian
A strain was isolated from biological sludge to produce EPS by using anaerobically digested swine wastewater (ADSW). Potential of the EPS in ADSW treatment were discussed. Results showed that the optimal fermentation medium for EPS production was determined as 4 g K2HPO4, 2 g KH2PO4, and 2 g sucrose dissolved in 1 L ADSW. After fermentation for 60 h, 2.98 g EPS with main backbone of polysaccharides can be extracted from 1 L of fermentation broth. The EPS showed good performances in ADSW treatment, after conditioned by this EPS, removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia, and TP reached 70...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818594/ultraviolet-and-solar-photocatalytic-ozonation-of-municipal-wastewater-catalyst-reuse-energy-requirements-and-toxicity-assessment
#8
Achisa C Mecha, Maurice S Onyango, Aoyi Ochieng, Maggy N B Momba
The present study evaluated the treatment of municipal wastewater containing phenol using solar and ultraviolet (UV) light photocatalytic ozonation processes to explore comparative performance. Important aspects such as catalyst reuse, mineralization of pollutants, energy requirements, and toxicity of treated wastewater which are crucial for practical implementation of the processes were explored. The activity of the photocatalysts did not change significantly even after three consecutive uses despite approximately 2% of the initial quantity of catalyst being lost in each run...
August 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818589/elimination-of-fungicides-in-biopurification-systems-effect-of-fungal-bioaugmentation-on-removal-performance-and-microbial-community-structure
#9
Sergio Murillo-Zamora, Víctor Castro-Gutiérrez, Mario Masís-Mora, Verónica Lizano-Fallas, Carlos E Rodríguez-Rodríguez
Bioaugmentation with ligninolytic fungi represents a potential way to improve the performance of biomixtures used in biopurification systems for the treatment of pesticide-containing agricultural wastewater. The fungus Trametes versicolor was employed in the bioaugmentation of a biomixture to be used in the simultaneous removal of seven fungicides. Liquid cultures of the fungus were able to remove tebuconazole, while no evidence of carbendazim, metalaxyl and triadimenol depletion was found. When applied in the biomixture, the bioaugmented matrix failed to remove all the triazole fungicides (including tebuconazole) under the assayed conditions, but was efficient to eliminate carbendazim, edifenphos and metalaxyl (the latter only after a second pesticide application)...
August 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815790/evaluation-of-wastewater-treatment-by-ozonation-for-reducing-the-toxicity-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-to-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#10
Nicholas Maya, Jaden Evans, Deniz Nasuhoglu, Siavash Isazadeh, Viviane Yargeau, Chris D Metcalfe
While conventional wastewater treatment technologies are effective at removing many contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from municipal wastewater, some contaminants are not removed efficiently. Ozonation may be a treatment option for reducing the concentrations of recalcitrant CECs in wastewater, but this process may generate toxic transformation-products. In the present study, we conducted semi-batch experiments to ozonate municipal wastewater effluent (WWE) spiked with 5 commonly detected CECs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether ozonation increased or decreased biological responses indicative of sublethal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally (i...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813145/selective-uptake-and-bioaccumulation-of-antidepressants-in-fish-from-effluent-impacted-niagara-river
#11
Prapha Arnnok, Randolph Reyes Singh, Rodjana Burakham, Alicia Pérez-Fuentetaja, Diana S Aga
The continuous release of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) into freshwater systems impacts the health of aquatic organisms. This study evaluates the concentrations and bioaccumulation of PPCPs and the selective uptake of antidepressants in fish from the Niagara River, which connects two of the North American Great lakes (Erie and Ontario). The Niagara River receives PPCPs from different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) situated along the river and Lake Erie. Of the 22 targeted PPCPs, 11 were found at part-per-billion levels in WWTP effluents and at part-per-trillion levels in river water samples...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812956/toxicity-identification-and-evaluation-for-the-effluent-from-a-nonmetallic-mineral-mining-facility-in-korea-using-d-magna
#12
Sungjong Lee, Hongjoo Ha, JinKyung Hong, Guyoung Kang, Chunsang Hong
Industrial wastewater has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its impact on ecosystems and human health. Whole-effluent tests are generally used to monitor toxicities of unknown chemicals and conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study described identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to determine the acute toxicity of a nonmetallic mineral mining facility effluent that was toxic to Daphnia magna. In the characterization step (TIE phase I), toxic effects of heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids, and ammonia were screened...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812195/design-and-evaluation-of-a-compact-photocatalytic-reactor-for-water-treatment
#13
Marko Kete, Olena Pliekhova, Lev Matoh, Urška Lavrenčič Štangar
A compact reactor for photocatalytic oxidation and photocatalytic ozonation water treatment was developed and evaluated by using four model pollutants. Additionally, combinations of pollutants were evaluated. Specially produced Al2O3 porous reticulated monolith foams served as TiO2 carriers, offering a high surface area support. UV lamps were placed in the interior to achieve reduced dimensions of the reactor (12 cm in diameter × 20 cm in height). Despite its small size, the overall photocatalytic cleaning capacity was substantial...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811598/effects-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-on-megaselia-scalaris-lowe-diptera-phoridae-and-its-microbial-community
#14
Marcus J Pennington, Jason A Rothman, Michael B Jones, Quinn S McFrederick, Jay Gan, John T Trumble
Drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations are increasing water demands. Many countries are extending potable water supplies by irrigating crops with wastewater. Unfortunately, wastewater contains biologically active, long-lived pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Run-off from farms and wastewater treatment plant overflows contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on a cosmopolitan saprophagous insect, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811160/high-efficiency-removal-of-lead-from-wastewater-by-biochar-derived-from-anaerobic-digestion-sludge
#15
Shih-Hsin Ho, Yi-di Chen, Zhong-Kai Yang, Dillirani Nagarajan, Jo-Shu Chang, Nan-Qi Ren
The properties of biochar derived from waste activated sludge and anaerobic digestion sludge under pyrolysis temperature varying from 400°C to 800°C were investigated. The heavy metals adsorption efficiency of the sludge-derived biochar was also examined. Among the biochar samples tested, ADSBC600 possessing highly porous structure, special surface chemical behaviors and high thermal stability was found to remove Pb(2+) from aqueous solutions efficiently with an adsorption capacity of 51.20mg/g. The Pb(2+) adsorption kinetics and isotherm for ADSBC600 can be described using the pseudo second-order model and Langmuir isotherm, respectively...
August 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811146/n2o-emissions-from-an-intermittently-aerated-semi-aerobic-aged-refuse-bioreactor-combined-effect-of-cod-and-nh4-n-in-influent-leachate
#16
Weihua Li, Yingjie Sun, Rongxing Bian, Huawei Wang, Dalei Zhang
The carbon-nitrogen ratio (COD/NH4(+)-N) is an important factor affecting nitrification and denitrification in wastewater treatment; this factor also influences nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. This study investigated two simulated intermittently aerated semi-aerobic aged refuse bioreactors (SAARB) filled with 8-year old aged refuse (AR). The research analyzed how differences in and the combination of influent COD and NH4(+)-N impact N2O emissions in leachate treatment. Experimental results showed that N2O emissions increased as the influent COD/NH4(+)-N decreased...
August 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810522/unrepresented-community-odour-impact-improving-engagement-strategies
#17
J E Hayes, R M Fisher, R J Stevenson, C Mannebeck, R M Stuetz
Complaints for odour causing industry continue to increase in numeracy and severity. One assessment approach using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O), has been used primarily to identify priority odourants within a standardised panel. We investigated the variation of response between participants of average and high olfactory sensitivity, and discovered that current GC-MS/O methodologies do not represent the entirety of community odour impact. Based on these results we constructed a Biosolids Processing Odour Wheel followed by a Community Odour Wheel for use by untrained community members and site operators...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810505/denitrification-of-the-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-anmbr-effluent-with-alternative-electron-donors-in-domestic-wastewater-treatment
#18
L Pelaz, A Gómez, G Garralón, A Letona, M Fdz-Polanco
A fixed film bioreactor for the denitrification of the effluent from an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating domestic wastewater was designed, built and investigated. After anaerobic treatment, the wastewater usually has a low C/N ratio (∼1.3), and a remaining chemical oxygen demand of around 117mg O2/L, which is not enough to make conventional heterotrophic denitrification possible. That effluent also holds methane and sulfide dissolved and oversaturated after leaving the AnMBR. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using these reduced compounds as electron donors in order to remove 80mg NOx(-)-N/L at 18°C and 2h of hydraulic retention time...
July 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810214/evaluation-of-chemical-thermobaric-and-thermochemical-pre-treatment-on-anaerobic-digestion-of-high-fat-cattle-slaughterhouse-waste
#19
Peter W Harris, Thomas Schmidt, Bernadette K McCabe
This work aimed to enhance the anaerobic digestion of fat-rich dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge through chemical, thermobaric, and thermochemical pre-treatment methods. Soluble chemical oxygen demand was enhanced from 16.3% in the control to 20.84% (thermobaric), 40.82% (chemical), and 50.7% (thermochemical). Pre-treatment altered volatile fatty acid concentration by -64% (thermobaric), 127% (chemical) and 228% (thermochemical). Early inhibition was reduced by 20% in the thermochemical group, and 100% in the thermobaric group...
August 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810152/driving-forces-and-impacts-of-food-system-nitrogen-flows-in-china-1990-to-2012
#20
Bing Gao, Yunfeng Huang, Wei Huang, Yalan Shi, Xuemei Bai, Shenghui Cui
Food nitrogen (N), which includes animal-food (AN) and plant-food N (PN), has been driven by population growth (PG), dietary changes associated with income growth (DC) and rural-urban migration (M) over the past three decades, and these changes combined with their N cost, have caused some effect on N use in China's food system. Although there is an increasing literature on food N and its environmental impacts in China, the relative magnitude of these driving forces are not well understood. Here we first quantify the differences in per capita AN and PN consumption in urban and rural areas and their impacts on N input to the food system during 1990-2012, and then quantify the relative contributions of DC, PG and M in the overall N change during this period...
August 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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