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Lei Yin, Chong Su, Tianming Ren, Xiangjun Meng, Meiyun Shi, J Paul Fawcett, Mengliang Zhang, Wei Hu, Jingkai Gu
The covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to therapeutic compounds (known as PEGylation) is one of the most promising techniques to improve the biological efficacy of small molecular weight drugs. After administration, PEGylated prodrugs can be metabolized into pharmacologically active compounds so that PEGylated drug, free drug and released PEG are present simultaneously in the body. Understanding the pharmacokinetic behavior of these three compounds is needed to guide the development of pegylated theranostic agents...
October 12, 2017: Analyst
Volkan Özenci, Robin Patel, Måns Ullberg, Kristoffer Strålin
Although there are several United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved/cleared molecular microbiology diagnostics for direct analysis of patient samples, all are single target or panel-based tests. There is no FDA-approved/cleared diagnostic for broad microbial detection. PCR/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS), commercialized as the IRIDICA system (Abbott) and formerly PLEX-ID, had been under development for over a decade, and had become CE-marked and commercially available in Europe in 2014...
August 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Masahiko Takagi, Yukio Sekiguchi, Yasuhiro Yokoyama, Naohiko Aihara, Masayasu Hiraoka, Kazutaka Aonuma
Aims: The prognostic value of programmed electrical stimulation (PES) in Brugada syndrome (BrS) remains controversial. One of the reasons for discrepant results may be due to the selection of stimulation protocol. We evaluated the prognostic value of a positive PES result (PES+) according to the inducible pacing sites and the number of extra-stimuli in BrS patients without previous cardiac arrest (CA). Methods and results: We enrolled 224 consecutive BrS patients without previous CA (mean age 51 ± 14 years, 209 males), who underwent PES with the identical protocol...
June 16, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Almog Lahav, Tanya Chernyakova, Yonina C Eldar
Modern imaging systems typically use single-carrier short pulses for transducer excitation. Coded signals together with pulse compression are successfully used in radar and communication to increase the amount of transmitted energy. Previous research verified significant improvement in signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and imaging depth for ultrasound imaging with coded signals. Since pulse compression needs to be applied at each transducer element, the implementation of coded excitation (CE) in array imaging is computationally complex...
October 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Aradhana Pindwal, KaKing Yan, Smita Patnaik, Bradley M Schmidt, Arkady Ellern, Igor I Slowing, Cheolbeom Bae, Aaron D Sadow
Homoleptic tris(alkyl) rare earth complexes Ln{C(SiHMe2)3}3 (Ln = La, 1a; Ce, 1b; Pr, 1c; Nd, 1d) are synthesized in high yield from LnI3THFn and 3 equiv. of KC(SiHMe2)3. X-ray diffraction studies reveal 1a-d are isostructural, pseudo-C3-symmetric molecules that contain two secondary Ln↼HSi interactions per alkyl ligand (six total). Spectroscopic assignments are supported by comparison with Ln{C(SiDMe2)3}3 and DFT calculations. The Ln↼HSi and terminal SiH exchange rapidly on the NMR timescale at room temperature but the two motifs are resolved at low temperature...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
U Methner, A Berndt, M Locke
A live Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine (SE147N ΔphoP fliC), able to express both a homologous intestinal colonisation-inhibition effect and a systemic invasion-inhibition effect, was tested for its potential to generate a postulated additive protective effect in case of combined application with a competitive exclusion (CE) culture against Salmonella exposure in very young chicks. Both, SE147N ΔphoP fliC and the CE culture alone were highly protective against systemic and intestinal colonisation of the challenge strain in case of moderate Salmonella exposure, consequently, additive protective effects in combined use could not be detected...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
Honghu Zhang, Srikanth Nayak, Wenjie Wang, Surya K Mallapragada, David Vaknin
We report on pH- and salt-responsive assembly of nanoparticles capped with polyelectrolytes at vapor-liquid interfaces. Two types of alkylthiol-terminated poly(acrylic acid) (PAAs, varying in length) are synthesized and used to functionalize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in order to mimic similar assembly effects of single-stranded DNA-capped AuNPs using synthetic polyelectrolytes. Using surface-sensitive X-ray scattering techniques, including grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR), we demonstrate that PAA-AuNPs spontaneously migrate to the vapor-liquid interfaces and form Gibbs monolayers by lowering the pH of the suspension...
October 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Wei Sun, Nonglin Zhou, Yin Xiao, Shirong Wang, Xianggao Li
Typical π-π stacking and the aggregation caused quenching could be suppressed in the film-state by the spiro conformation molecular design in the filed of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Herein, a novel deep-blue fluorescent material with spiro conformation, 1-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-2-(4-(10-phenyl-10H-spiro[acridine-9,9'-fluoren]-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-phena-nthro[9,10-d]imidazole (SAF-BPI), was designed and synthesized. The compound consists of spiro-acridine-fluorene (SAF) as donor part and phenanthroimidazole (BPI) as acceptor part...
October 6, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Alicia DiBattista, Dianne Rampersaud, Howard Lee, Marcus Kim, Philip Britz-McKibbin
New technologies are urgently required for reliable drug screening given a worldwide epidemic of prescription drug abuse and its devastating socioeconomic impacts on public health. Primary screening of drugs of abuse (DoA) currently relies on immunoassays that are prone to bias, and are not applicable to detect an alarming array of psychoactive stimulants, tranquilizers and synthetic opioids. These limitations impact patient safety when monitoring for medication compliance, drug substitution or misuse/abuse, and require follow-up confirmatory testing by more specific yet lower throughput instrumental methods...
October 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Fashui Hong, Chunxiang Qu, Ling Wang
It had been indicated that cerium (Ce) could promote maize growth involving photosynthetic improvement under potassium (K) deficiency, salt stress, and combined stress of K(+) deficiency and salt stress. However, whether the improved growth is related to leaf morphological structure, oxidative stress in maize leaves is not well understood. The present study showed that K(+) deficiency, salt stress, and their combined stress inhibited growth of maize seedlings, affecting the formation of appendages of leaf epidermal cells, and stomatal opening, which may be due to increases in H2O2 and malondialdehyde levels, and reductions in Ca(2+) content, ratios of glutathione/oxidized glutathione, ascorbic acid/dehydroascorbic acid, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbic acid peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in leaves under different stresses...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Riccardo Freccero, Pavlo Solokha, Davide M Proserpio, Adriana Saccone, Serena De Negri
The R2PdGe6 series (R = rare earth metal) was structurally characterized, and the results achieved were extended for a comprehensive study on R2MGe6 (M = another metal) compounds, employing symmetry-based structural rationalization and energy calculations. Directly synthesized R2PdGe6 exists for almost all R-components (R = Y, La-Nd, Sm and Gd-Lu) and even if with La is probably metastable. Several single crystal X-ray analyses (R = Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Er and Lu) indicated oS72-Ce2(Ga0.1Ge0.9)7 as the correct structure...
October 5, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jiaquan Chen, Yingxiang Du, Xiaodong Sun
The combined use of chiral ionic liquids (ILs) and chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to establish a synergistic system has proven to be an effective approach for enantioseparation. In this article, tetramethylammonium-L-arginine, a kind of amino acid chiral IL, was applied to investigate its potential synergistic effect with maltodextrin in CE enantioseparation. The established maltodextrin-based synergistic system showed markedly improved enantioseparations compared with the single maltodextrin system...
October 3, 2017: Chirality
Yen Wei Lim, Asrul Akmal Shafie, Gin Nie Chua, Mohammed Azmi Ahmad Hassali
BACKGROUND: One major challenge in prioritizing health care using cost-effectiveness (CE) information is when alternatives are more expensive but more effective than existing technology. In such a situation, an external criterion in the form of a CE threshold that reflects the willingness to pay (WTP) per quality-adjusted life-year is necessary. OBJECTIVES: To determine a CE threshold for health care interventions in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional, contingent valuation study was conducted using a stratified multistage cluster random sampling technique in four states in Malaysia...
September 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Sabuj Kanti Das, Sauvik Chatterjee, Subhajit Bhunia, Abhishake Mondal, Partha Mitra, Vandana Kumari, Anirban Pradhan, Asim Bhaumik
Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) bearing multicarboxylate linkers are in great demand for designing robust heterogeneous catalysts. A new microporous Ce(iii)-based metal organic framework (Ce2NDC3) has been synthesized under solvothermal conditions, which showed strong paramagnetism and a CO2 uptake capacity of 1.64 mmol g(-1) (7.23 weight%) at 273 K. The Ce2NDC3 showed high catalytic activity in CO2 fixation for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates with a maximum yield of 92% at ambient temperature and pressure...
September 29, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Norman E Wong, Padmini Ramaswamy, Andrew Lee, Benjamin S Gelfand, Kamila Bladek, Jared M Taylor, Denis Spasyuk, George K H Shimizu
Seven isomorphous lanthanide metal-organic frameworks in the PCMOF-5 family, [Ln(H5L)(H2O)n](H2O) (L = 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(phosphonomethyl)benzene, Ln= La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) have been synthesized and characterized. This family contains 1-D water-filled channels lined with free hydrogen phosphonate groups and gives a very low activation energy pathway for proton transfer. The lanthanide contraction was employed to systematically vary the unit cell dimensions and tune the proton conducting pathways. LeBail fitting of the crystalline series shows that the crystallographic a axis, along the channel, can be varied in increments less than 0...
September 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Linzheng Ye, Xijing Zhu, Lujie Wang, Ce Guo
Ultrasonic vibration honing technology is an effective means for materials difficult to machine, where cavitation occurs in grinding fluid under the action of ultrasound. To investigate the changes of single cavitation bubble characteristics in the grinding area and how honing parameters influence bubble characteristics, a dynamic model of single cavitation bubble in the ultrasonic vibration honing grinding area was established. The model was based on the bubble dynamics and considered the condensation and evaporation of kerosene steam and honing processing environment...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Shokoofeh Geranmayeh, Masoumeh Mohammadnejad, Samaneh Mohammadi
Micro and nano-structures of a new Ce(III) Coordination supramolecular compound, [Ce (1,5-NDS)1.5(H2O)5]n,1, (1,5-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid), were prepared using hydrothermal and sonochemical approaches, respectively. These new micro and nano structures were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction. The X-ray single crystal structure determination of 1 shows that it features a neutral 2D framework based on the [Ce2H20O16S2] clusters as a secondary building unit (SBU) which shows a sql/Shubnikov tetragonal plane net...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Ekaterina Mikhaylova, Valerio Tabacchini, Giacomo Borghi, Pieter Mollet, Ester D'Hoe, Dennis R Schaart, Stefaan Vandenberghe
The goal of this simulation study is the performance evaluation and comparison of six potential designs for a time-of-flight PET scanner for pediatric patients of up to about 12 years of age. It is designed to have a high sensitivity and provide high-contrast and high-resolution images. The simulated pediatric PET is a full ring scanner, consisting of 32 × 32 mm<sup>2</sup> monolithic LYSO:Ce crystals coupled to digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM) arrays. The six considered designs differ in axial lengths (27...
September 25, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Klaus Faserl, Bettina Sarg, Laura Sola, Herbert H Lindner
In this study we demonstrate the potential of sequential injection of samples in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) for rapid and sensitive proteome characterization of human lymphoblastic T-cells (line CCRF-CEM). Proteins were extracted, enzymatically digested, and the resulting peptides fractionated by RP-HPLC. Twenty fractions were thereafter analyzed by CE-MS within a single MS analysis. The CE-MS method was designed that every 10 minutes a new fraction was injected into the CE system. Without any rinsing or equilibration steps we were able to generate a continuous stream of peptides feeding the mass analyzer...
September 20, 2017: Proteomics
Christine J Moffatt, Aimee Aubeeluck, Peter J Franks, Debra C Doherty, Peter Mortimer, Isabelle Quere
BACKGROUND: To examine psychological health and perceived social support in patients with chronic edema (CE). METHODS AND RESULTS: A random sample of 107 patients with CE was group matched for age and gender with 102 community controls. The cases had swelling of the arm (38%) and leg (61%) and midline swelling (14%). Cases were more likely to be single or divorced/separated (p = 0.041) and have reduced mobility (p < 0.001). They had significantly poorer overall health related quality of life (HRQoL), in particular physical functioning (p = 0...
September 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
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