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MRI in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527006/analysis-of-surgical-and-mri-factors-associated-with-cerebellar-mutism
#1
Anjali Sergeant, Michelle Masayo Kameda-Smith, Branavan Manoranjan, Brij Karmur, JoAnn Duckworth, Tina Petrelli, Katey Savage, Olufemi Ajani, Blake Yarascavitch, M Constantine Samaan, Katrin Scheinemann, Cheryl Alyman, Saleh Almenawer, Forough Farrokhyar, Adam J Fleming, Sheila Kumari Singh, Nina Stein
The surgical risk factors and neuro-imaging characteristics associated with cerebellar mutism (CM) remain unclear and require further investigation. Therefore, we aimed to examine surgical and MRI findings associated with CM in children following posterior fossa tumor resection. Using our data registry, we retrospectively collected data from pediatric patients who acquired CM and were matched based on age and pathology type with individuals who did not acquire CM after posterior fossa surgery. The strength of association between surgical and MRI variables and CM were examined using odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525353/molecular-genetics-of-growth-hormone-deficient-children-correlation-with-auxology-and-response-to-first-year-of-growth-hormone-therapy
#2
Vaman Khadilkar, Nikhil Phadke, Kavita Khatod, Veena Ekbote, Supriya Phanse Gupte, Ruchi Nadar, Anuradha Khadilkar
BACKGROUND: With the paucity of available literature correlating genetic mutation and response to treatment, we aimed to study the genetic makeup of children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency in Western India and correlate the mutation with auxology and response to GH treatment at end of 1 year. METHODS: Fifty-three (31 boys and 22 girls) children with severe short stature (height for age z-score <-3) and failed GH stimulation test were studied. Those having concomitant thyroid hormone or cortisol deficiencies were appropriately replaced prior to starting GH treatment...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523341/cost-of-unnecessary-testing-in-the-evaluation-of-pediatric-syncope
#3
Connor Redd, Cameron Thomas, Martha Willis, Michelle Amos, Jeffrey Anderson
Syncope is a common and a typically benign clinical problem in children and adolescents. The majority of tests ordered in otherwise healthy pediatric patients presenting with syncope have low diagnostic yield. This study quantifies testing and corresponding patient charges in a group of pediatric patients presenting for outpatient evaluation for syncope. Patients seen between 3/2011 and 4/2013 in the multi-disciplinary Syncope Clinic at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center were enrolled in a registry which was reviewed for patient information...
May 18, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522662/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-value-changes-and-clinical-correlation-in-90-cases-of-cytomegalovirus-infected-fetuses-with-unremarkable-fetal-mri-results
#4
D Kotovich, J S B Guedalia, C Hoffmann, G Sze, A Eisenkraft, G Yaniv
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus is the leading intrauterine infection. Fetal MR imaging is an accepted tool for fetal brain evaluation, yet it still lacks the ability to accurately predict the extent of the neurodevelopmental impairment, especially in fetal MR imaging scans with unremarkable findings. Our hypothesis was that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection causes diffusional changes in fetal brains and that those changes may correlate with the severity of neurodevelopmental deficiencies...
May 18, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518477/acute-oligodendrocyte-loss-with-persistent-white-matter-injury-in-a-third-trimester-equivalent-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#5
Jessie Newville, Carlos Fernando Valenzuela, Lu Li, Lauren L Jantzie, Lee Anna Cunningham
Alcohol exposure during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Human imaging studies have revealed significant white matter (WM) abnormalities linked to cognitive impairment in children with FASD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated both the acute and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on oligodendrocyte number and WM integrity in a third trimester-equivalent mouse model of FASD, in which mouse pups were exposed to alcohol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development...
May 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516403/long-term-clinical-outcome-of-spinal-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-in-children
#6
Seong Wook Lee, Hyery Kim, Jin Kyung Suh, Kyung-Nam Koh, Ho Joon Im, Hee Mang Yoon, Jong Jin Seo
Spinal involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) affects morbidity, but outcomes are not well understood. We analyzed long-term outcomes following uniform treatment at a single institution. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of spinal LCH patients were retrospectively analyzed. Height ratios were calculated using the anterior height of the involved vertebral body on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the expected normal vertebral height. Twenty-two (22.4%) of 98 patients diagnosed with LCH had spinal involvement...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512714/comparison-of-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-pet-mri-to-pet-ct-acquired-fdg-brain-exams-for-seizure-focus-detection-a-prospective-study
#7
Michael J Paldino, Erica Yang, Jeremy Y Jones, Nadia Mahmood, Andrew Sher, Wei Zhang, Shireen Hayatghaibi, Ramkumar Krishnamurthy, Victor Seghers
BACKGROUND: There is great interest in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) as a clinical tool due to its capacity to provide diverse diagnostic information in a single exam. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this exam is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MR-acquired [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) brain exams to that of PET/CT with respect to identifying seizure foci in children with localization-related epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent were obtained for this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, prospective study...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511233/-diagnostic-imaging-in-cases-of-acute-scrotum
#8
Natalie Ring, Gundula Staatz
Acute scrotum is one of the most common urologic emergencies in children and adolescents. This condition involves acute testicular pain, which is often accompanied by scrotal swelling and erythema. It is most important to distinguish between cases that require immediate surgery and those that can be treated conservatively. As patient history and physical findings may not always be unequivocal, ultrasound with Colour-Coded Doppler Sonography is the imaging modality of choice for further evaluation. Testicular torsion and other differential diagnoses such as epididymitis, appendiceal torsion, intratesticular haematoma after trauma, or complicated inguinal hernia have to be considered...
May 16, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511077/clinical-and-laboratory-parameters-predicting-a-requirement-for-the-reevaluation-of-growth-hormone-status-during-growth-hormone-treatment-retesting-early-in-the-course-of-gh-treatment
#9
Dogus Vuralli, E Nazli Gonc, Z Alev Ozon, Ayfer Alikasifoglu, Nurgun Kandemir
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to define the predictive criteria, in the form of specific clinical, hormonal and radiological parameters, for children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) who may benefit from the reevaluation of GH status early in the course of growth hormone (GH) treatment. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two hundred sixty-five children with growth hormone deficiency were retested by GH stimulation at the end of the first year of GH treatment. The initial clinical and laboratory characteristics of those with a normal (GH≥10ng/ml) response and those with a subnormal (GH<10ng/ml) response were compared to predict a normal GH status during reassessment...
May 10, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509686/accuracy-of-point-of-care-ultrasonography-for-pediatric-ankle-sprain-injuries
#10
Sarah Jones, Keith Colaco, Jason Fischer, Jennifer Stimec, Charisse Kwan, Kathy Boutis
OBJECTIVES: In children with radiograph fracture-negative lateral ankle injuries, the main objective of this pilot study was to explore the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) performed by a pediatric emergency physician in diagnosing anterior talofibular ligament injuries, radiographically occult distal fibular fractures, and effusions compared with reference standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: This was a prospective cohort pilot study...
May 15, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508521/an-incidental-diffuse-midline-glioma-found-at-autopsy
#11
Meggen Walsh, William Hamilton, Vektra Casler, Anthony Yachnis
This case shows an unexpected midline glioma found at autopsy. Two siblings were riding on a single bicycle on the side of a road. The 13-year-old brother was seated and steering the bicycle, while the 14-year-old sister held onto the back. The bicycle veered left into traffic and was struck by a vehicle. The siblings were admitted to the local Level 1 trauma center, but both later succumbed to injuries. Autopsies were performed on the children, including brains for neuropathologic evaluation. The brother was found to have an infiltrating astrocytoma located in the left middle cerebellar peduncle, with extension to the pons and medulla...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507643/imaging-of-complications-after-limb-prostheses-implantation-in-children-with-bone-tumors
#12
Beata Iwanowska, Hanna Brągoszewska, Jarosław Mądzik, Sylwia Szkudlińska-Pawlak, Izabela Kopyś-Wiszniewska, Małgorzata Jastrzębska, Barbara Kowalska, Maria Uliasz, Monika Bekiesińska-Figatowska
BACKGROUND: Tumors of the developmental age are an important problem in clinical practice. Primary bone tumors constitute 1-1.5% of all tumors, and 7% of all tumors diagnosed in the developmental age. The aim of the study was to assess the capabilities of imaging methods in diagnosing complications of limb endoprostheses in children with osteoarticular tumors. MATERIAL/METHODS: We included 155 patients with limb endoprostheses, aged 7-26 years. There were 113 patients with knee prostheses, 1 patient with bilateral knee prostheses, 16 patients with shoulder prostheses, 14 patients with hip prostheses, 11 patients with hip and knee prostheses, and 1 patient with a femoral prosthesis...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506237/clinical-and-mri-outcome-of-cervical-spine-lesions-in-children-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-treated-with-anti-tnf%C3%AE-drugs-early-in-disease-course
#13
Damjana Ključevšek, Nina Emeršič, Nataša Toplak, Tadej Avčin
BACKGROUNDS: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome of cervical spine arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), who received anti-TNFα early in the course of cervical spine arthritis. METHODS: Medical charts and imaging of JIA patients with cervical spine involvement were reviewed in this retrospective study. Data, including age at disease onset, JIA type, disease activity, treatment and clinical outcome were collected...
May 15, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504544/radial-ultrashort-te-imaging-removes-the-need-for-breath-holding-in-hepatic-iron-overload-quantification-by-r2-mri
#14
Aaryani Tipirneni-Sajja, Axel J Krafft, M Beth McCarville, Ralf B Loeffler, Ruitian Song, Jane S Hankins, Claudia M Hillenbrand
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate radial free-breathing (FB) multiecho ultrashort TE (UTE) imaging as an alternative to Cartesian FB multiecho gradient-recalled echo (GRE) imaging for quantitative assessment of hepatic iron content (HIC) in sedated patients and subjects unable to perform breath-hold (BH) maneuvers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FB multiecho GRE imaging and FB multiecho UTE imaging were conducted for 46 test group patients with iron overload who could not complete BH maneuvers (38 patients were sedated, and eight were not sedated) and 16 control patients who could complete BH maneuvers...
May 15, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504359/changing-the-paradigm-for-diagnostic-mri-in-pediatrics-don-t-hold-your-breath
#15
Melissa M Masaracchia, Michael J Tsapakos, Nancy J McNulty, Michael L Beach
Increasingly complex pediatric patients and improvements in technology warrant reevaluation of the risk associated with anesthesia for diagnostic imaging. Although magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice for children given the potentially harmful effects of computerized tomography-associated ionizing radiation, we dare to suggest that certain patients would benefit from the liberalization of our current standard. Incorporating the use of newer computerized tomography technology may improve safety for those that are already at higher risk for adverse events...
May 15, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498230/high-frequency-of-neuroimaging-abnormalities-among-pediatric-patients-with-sepsis-who-undergo-neuroimaging
#16
Mary K Sandquist, Mark S Clee, Smruti K Patel, Kelli A Howard, Toni Yunger, Usha D Nagaraj, Blaise V Jones, Lin Fei, Sudhakar Vadivelu, Hector R Wong
OBJECTIVES: This study was intended to describe and correlate the neuroimaging findings in pediatric patients after sepsis. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Single tertiary care PICU. PATIENTS: Patients admitted to Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center with a discharge diagnosis of sepsis or septic shock between 2004 and 2013 were crossmatched with patients who underwent neuroimaging during the same time period...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495248/clinical-benefits-echocardiographic-and-mri-assessment-after-pulmonary-sequestration-treatment
#17
Francesco Borgia, Francesca Santamaria, Carmine Mollica, Felice Mongiello, Francesca Esposito, Gaetano Palma, Luca Botta, Silvia Montella, Bruno Trimarco, Antonio Rapacciuolo
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore systematically procedural results, clinical benefits with echocardiographic and chest-MRI assessment of pulmonary sequestration percutaneous treatment. METHODS: 13 consecutive infants and children with diagnosis of isolated pulmonary sequestration (PS) had percutaneous closure of the aberrant artery supplying pulmonary sequestration between 2010 and 2015. By protocol, echocardiographic and chest-MRI assessment was performed before and respectively at 6-12months and 1year with the aim to study the effects of embolization on heart volume overload and regression of pulmonary sequestration...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493011/mri-of-thoracic-outlet-syndrome-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Govind B Chavhan, Vaishnavi Batmanabane, Prakash Muthusami, Alexander J Towbin, Gregory H Borschel
Thoracic outlet syndrome is caused by compression of the neurovascular bundle as it passes from the upper thorax to the axilla. The neurovascular bundle can be compressed by bony structures such as the first rib, cervical ribs or bone tubercles, or from soft-tissue abnormalities like a fibrous band, muscle hypertrophy or space-occupying lesion. Thoracic outlet syndrome commonly affects young adults but can be seen in the pediatric age group, especially in older children. Diagnosis is based on a holistic approach encompassing clinical features, physical examination findings including those triggered by various maneuvers, electromyography, nerve conduction studies and imaging...
May 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492849/language-development-and-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-characteristics-in-preschool-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#19
Ja Young Choi, Yoon Seong Choi, Eun Sook Park
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of language development in relation to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and the other contributing factors to language development in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The study included 172 children with CP who underwent brain MRI and language assessments between 3 and 7 years of age. The MRI characteristics were categorized as normal, malformation, periventricular white matter lesion (PVWL), deep gray matter lesion, focal infarct, cortical/subcortical lesion, and others...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490224/prevalence-of-abnormal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-children-with-persistent-symptoms-after-pediatric-sports-related-concussion
#20
Robert H Bonow, Seth D Friedman, Francisco A Perez, Richard G Ellenbogen, Samuel R Browd, Christine L MacDonald, Monica S Vavilala, Frederick P Rivara
A subset of patients experience persistent symptoms after pediatric concussion, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to evaluate for pathology. The utility of this practice is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to describe the MRI findings in children with concussion. A registry of all patients seen at our institution from January 2010 through March 2016 with pediatric sports-related concussion was cross-referenced with a database of radiographic studies. Radiology reports were reviewed for abnormal findings...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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