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MRI in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781568/diastolic-dysfunction-is-associated-with-exercise-impairment-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-anemia
#1
Tarek Alsaied, Omar Niss, Adam W Powell, Robert J Fleck, James F Cnota, Clifford Chin, Punam Malik, Charles T Quinn, Michael D Taylor
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) is an independent risk factor for mortality in sickle cell anemia (SCA) and is associated with increased extracellular volume (ECV) on cardiac MRI (CMR). Exercise impairment is common in SCA, but its causes and prognostic value are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of DD and ECV on cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with SCA. METHODS AND RESULTS: As part of a prospective study to characterize the cardiomyopathy of SCA (NCT02410811), 20 children and adults with SCA underwent CMR, echocardiography, and cycle ergometer CPET (age range 8-43 years)...
May 21, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775132/evaluation-of-lateral-atlantodental-interval-asymmetry-in-the-pediatric-age-group-normative-values
#2
Stephen K Mendenhall, Andrew Huh, Janit Pandya, Vincent Alentado, Karl Balsara, Chang Ho, Andrew Jea
OBJECTIVE The revelation of normative radiographic measurements for the developing pediatric spine is incomplete. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the normal range of asymmetry of the lateral atlantodental interval (LADI) and define age- and sex-related differences. METHODS A total of 3072 children aged 0-18 years who underwent CT scanning of the cervical spine were identified at Riley Hospital for Children between 2005 and 2017. Patients were stratified by sex and age (in years) into 36 cohorts...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774770/high-neurofilament-levels-are-associated-with-clinically-definite-multiple-sclerosis-in-children-and-adults-with-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#3
Roos M van der Vuurst de Vries, Yu Yi M Wong, Julia Y Mescheriakova, E Daniëlle van Pelt, Tessel F Runia, Naghmeh Jafari, Theodora Am Siepman, Marie-José Melief, Annet F Wierenga-Wolf, Marvin M van Luijn, Johnny P Samijn, Rinze F Neuteboom, Rogier Q Hintzen
BACKGROUND: A promising biomarker for axonal damage early in the disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is neurofilament light chain (NfL). It is unknown whether NfL has the same predictive value for MS diagnosis in children as in adults. OBJECTIVE: To explore the predictive value of NfL levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for MS diagnosis in paediatric and adult clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients. METHODS: A total of 88 adult and 65 paediatric patients with a first attack of demyelination were included and followed (mean follow up-time in adults: 62...
May 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773567/balanced-steady-state-free-precession-sequence-ciss-fiesta-3d-driven-equilibrium-radiofrequency-reset-pulse-increases-the-diagnostic-yield-for-spinal-drop-metastases-in-children-with-brain-tumors
#4
K Buch, P Caruso, D Ebb, S Rincon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identification of spinal drop metastases is important in the staging and management of pediatric patients with primary brain tumors. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic utility of the balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence (CISS/FIESTA/3D driven equilibrium radiofrequency reset pulse) for the detection of spinal drop metastases in pediatric patients with primary intracranial tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 44 pediatric patients with primary intracranial tumors undergoing MR imaging spine evaluation for drop metastases before radiation treatment...
May 17, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772552/pet-ct-in-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-osteosarcoma
#5
Xiaojuan Zhang, Zhe Guan
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy that usually occurs in children and young adults, and long-term survival is only about 20% in patients with metastasis or recurrent disease. Traditional non-invasive techniques, such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scanning, may not identify single lesions in the early stage or accurately detect small lesions. A novel technique, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), which is widely used in clinical practice, shows more accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in the diagnosis of osteosarcoma...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771286/local-cortical-gyrification-is-increased-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-but-decreases-rapidly-in-adolescents
#6
Jiwandeep S Kohli, Mikaela K Kinnear, Christopher H Fong, Inna Fishman, Ruth A Carper, Ralph-Axel Müller
Extensive MRI evidence indicates early brain overgrowth in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Local gyrification may reflect the distribution and timing of aberrant cortical expansion in ASDs. We examined MRI data from (Study 1) 64 individuals with ASD and 64 typically developing (TD) controls (7-19 years), and from (Study 2) an independent sample from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (n = 31/group). Local Gyrification Index (lGI), cortical thickness (CT), and surface area (SA) were measured. In Study 1, differences in lGI (ASD > TD) were found in left parietal and temporal and right frontal and temporal regions...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771283/adolescents-at-high-risk-of-obesity-show-greater-striatal-response-to-increased-sugar-content-in-milkshakes
#7
Grace E Shearrer, Eric Stice, Kyle S Burger
Background: Children of overweight or obese parents are at a high risk of developing obesity. Objective: This study sought to examine the underlying neural factors related to parental obesity risk and the relative impact of sugar and fat when consuming a palatable food, as well as the impact of obesity risk status on brain response to appetizing food images. Design: With the use of functional MRI, the responses of 108 healthy-weight adolescents [mean ± SD body mass index (kg/m2): 20...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768373/acute-myelitis-of-children-with-positive-anti-gm1-antibody-case-series-and-literature-review
#8
Zhiling Wang, Di Qie, Hui Zhou, Xiao Tang Cai
RATIONALE: To explore the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of acute myelitis (AM) of children with positive blood anti- ganglioside (GM1) antibodies. PATIENT CONCERNS: Two cases of AM of children with positive anti-GM1 antibody were retrospectively collected and followed up for 6 months. Two cases had positive helicobacter pylori IgG antibody, and Case 2 also had positive mycoplasma IgM antibody. DIAGNOSES: Two cases had typical symptoms of myelitis, abnormal spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positive serum anti-GM1 IgM...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768295/requirement-for-head-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-children-who-present-to-the-emergency-department-with-acute-nontraumatic-visual-disturbance
#9
Jeong-Yong Lee, Jung-Heon Kim, Hyung-Rae Cho, Jong-Seung Lee, Jeong-Min Ryu, Mi-Sun Yum, Tae-Sung Ko
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the clinical features and head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in children who presented to the emergency department with acute nontraumatic visual disturbance and to study related clinical factors for discovering positive lesions on head MRI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 1-month to 15-year-old children who underwent head MRI as an evaluation for acute nontraumatic visual disturbance as a chief complaint in our pediatric emergency department between March 2010 and March 2015...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766474/masses-of-developmental-and-genetic-origin-affecting-the-paediatric-craniofacial-skeleton
#10
REVIEW
Salvatore Stefanelli, Pravin Mundada, Anne-Laure Rougemont, Vincent Lenoir, Paolo Scolozzi, Laura Merlini, Minerva Becker
Although rare, masses and mass-like lesions of developmental and genetic origin may affect the paediatric craniofacial skeleton. They represent a major challenge in clinical practice because they can lead to functional impairment, facial deformation and disfigurement. The most common lesions include fibrous dysplasia, dermoid cysts, vascular malformations and plexiform neurofibromas. Less common lesions include torus mandibularis and torus palatinus, cherubism, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, meningoencephalocele and nasal sinus tract...
May 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766265/surgery-for-subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytomas-in-children-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#11
Martine Fohlen, Sarah Ferrand-Sorbets, Olivier Delalande, Georg Dorfmüller
OBJECTIVE: Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are low-grade intraventricular glial tumors that develop in 10-15% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex; they often cause hydrocephalus and are potentially accessible to a surgical treatment. Our aim is to evaluate morbidity and results after surgery in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. METHOD: We present a retrospective series of 18 pediatric patients operated on for SEGA between 2006 and 2016 at our institution...
May 15, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766249/imaging-of-temporomandibular-joint-abnormalities-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-with-a-focus-on-developing-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-protocol
#12
REVIEW
Elka Miller, Emilio J Inarejos Clemente, Nikolay Tzaribachev, Saurabh Guleria, Mirkamal Tolend, Arthur B Meyers, Thekla von Kalle, Jennifer Stimec, Bernd Koos, Simone Appenzeller, Linda Z Arvidsson, Eva Kirkhus, Andrea S Doria, Christian J Kellenberger, Tore A Larheim
Inflammation and damage in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) often develop without clinical symptoms but can lead to severe facial growth abnormalities and impaired health-related quality of life, making early diagnosis of TMJ changes crucial to identify. Inflammatory and osteochondral changes detectable through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) occur in TMJs of approximately 40% of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and no other imaging modality or physical method of examination can reliably detect these changes...
June 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766248/imaging-of-the-knee-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#13
REVIEW
Robert Hemke, Nikolay Tzaribachev, Anouk M Barendregt, J Merlijn van den Berg, Andrea S Doria, Mario Maas
In juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), imaging is increasingly used in clinical practice. In this paper we discuss imaging of the knee, the clinically most commonly affected joint in JIA. In the last decade, a number of important steps have been made in the development of imaging outcome measures in children with JIA knee involvement. Ultrasound is undergoing a fast validation process, which should be accomplished within the next few years. The validation processes of MRI as an imaging biomarker for clinical trials in the JIA knee are at an advanced stage, with important data available on the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring system...
June 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759327/immunotherapy-responsive-childhood-neurodegeneration-with-systemic-and-central-nervous-system-inflammation
#14
Mario Sa, Yael Hacohen, Lucy Alderson, W K Kling Chong, Glenn Anderson, Thomas S Jacques, David Neubauer, Elzbieta Szczepanik, Ming Lim, Marios Kaliakatsos
Subacute neuroregression in association with raised neopterin and overexpression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) could indicate a type 1 interferonopathy. Here we describe a novel immunotherapy-responsive, clinico-immunological and imaging phenotype with evidence of innate immune activation. Three children (patient 1: 22-month-old boy; patient 2: 5-year-old girl; patient 3: 4-year-old girl) presented with asymmetric bilateral mixed dystonia and spasticity, regression in language (expressive more than receptive) and bulbar symptoms with no evidence of seizures...
April 27, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758582/-relevance-of-mri-after-closed-reduction-of-traumatic-hip-dislocation-in-children
#15
Christoph Mauritz Strüwind, Christian von Rüden, Andreas Thannheimer, Volker Bühren, Dorien Schneidmueller
BACKGROUND: Traumatic hip dislocation in children and adolescents is a rare entity that typically results from high-energy trauma. After closed joint reduction, further treatment depends on the specific pattern of the lesion as identified using cross sectional imaging. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate relevant side effects after traumatic hip dislocation in children and adolescents in order to examine the need for focused diagnostics. PATIENTS/MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective analysis covered 8 adolescents under 18 years suffering isolated traumatic hip joint dislocation between 2001 and 2017...
May 14, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758375/alterations-in-the-microstructure-of-white-matter-in-children-and-adolescents-with-tourette-syndrome-measured-using-tract-based-spatial-statistics-and-probabilistic-tractography
#16
Hilmar P Sigurdsson, Sophia E Pépés, Georgina M Jackson, Amelia Draper, Paul S Morgan, Stephen R Jackson
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by repetitive and intermittent motor and vocal tics. TS is thought to reflect fronto-striatal dysfunction and the aetiology of the disorder has been linked to widespread alterations in the functional and structural integrity of the brain. The aim of this study was to assess white matter (WM) abnormalities in a large sample of young patients with TS in comparison to a sample of matched typically developing control individuals (CS) using diffusion MRI...
April 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757450/a-case-report-of-a-4-year-old-boy-with-intradural-spinal-cord-abscess-successfully-treated-with-adjuvant-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#17
Ayse Sahin, Mustafa Kilic, Nazan Dalgic
Intradural spinal cord abscesses are rare infections in early childhood and usually result from pre-existing congenital anomalies of the spinal column. The formation of abscess may be the result of hematogenous spread. It is treated by surgical and parenteral antibiotic treatment, but some special cases may require additional treatments. This article presents a 4-year-old male patient who was operated because of spina bifida (meningocele and tethered cord) at the external center, and upon complains of not being able to walk after one month, he was operated with the diagnosis of spinal intradural abscess and referred to us to continue his treatment...
April 26, 2018: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754132/recovery-of-brain-abscess-induced-stuttering-after-neurosurgical-intervention
#18
Daisuke Sudo, Youichi Doutake, Hidenori Yokota, Eiju Watanabe
Stuttering occurs in approximately 5% of all children and 1% of adults. One type, neurogenic stuttering, is usually attributable to strokes or other structural damages to the brain areas that are responsible for language fluency. Here, we present the first case of neurogenic stuttering caused by a brain abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man admitted for a seizure and administered an anticonvulsant, after which he began stuttering. MRI revealed a brain abscess in the left frontal lobe that extended to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA (Brodmann's area) 9 and 46), frontal eye field (BA 8) and premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (BA 6)...
May 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753575/quantitative-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-mapping-may-predict-seizure-onset-in-children-with-sturge-weber-syndrome
#19
Anna L R Pinto, Yangming Ou, Mustafa Sahin, P Ellen Grant
BACKGROUND: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is often accompanied by seizures, stroke-like episodes, hemiparesis, and visual field deficits. This study aimed to identify early pathophysiologic changes that exist before the development of clinical symptoms and to evaluate if the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map is a candidate early biomarker of seizure risk in patients with SWS. METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study using quantitative ADC analysis to predict onset of epilepsy...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749883/rapid-sequence-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-chiari-i-abnormality
#20
James Pan, Jennifer L Quon, Eli Johnson, Bryan Lanzman, Anjeza Chukus, Allen L Ho, Michael S B Edwards, Gerald A Grant, Kristen W Yeom
OBJECTIVE Fast magnetic resonance imaging (fsMRI) sequences are single-shot spin echo images with fast acquisition times that have replaced CT scans for many conditions. Introduced as a means of evaluating children with hydrocephalus and macrocephaly, these sequences reduce the need for anesthesia and can be more cost-effective, especially for children who require multiple surveillance scans. However, the role of fsMRI has yet to be investigated in evaluating the posterior fossa in patients with Chiari I abnormality (CM-I)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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