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MRI in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078313/unilobar-surgery-for-symptomatic-epileptic-spasms
#1
Carmen Barba, Roberto Mai, Laura Grisotto, Francesca Gozzo, Simona Pellacani, Laura Tassi, Stefano Francione, Flavio Giordano, Francesco Cardinale, Renzo Guerrini
OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with favorable seizure outcome after surgery for symptomatic epileptic spasms and improve knowledge on pathophysiology of this seizure type. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: (1) age between 6 months and 15 years at surgery; (2) active epileptic spasms; (3) follow-up after surgery >1 year. RESULTS: We retrospectively studied 80 children (aged 1.3 ± 2 years at seizure onset; 5.8 ± 4 years at surgery, 11...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075019/differential-recruitment-of-brain-regions-during-response-inhibition-in-children-prenatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#2
Vikas N Kodali, Joseph L Jacobson, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Sandra W Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Response inhibition is a distinct aspect of executive function that is frequently impaired in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We used a Go/NoGo (GNG) task in a functional MRI protocol to investigate differential activation of brain regions in the response inhibition network in children diagnosed with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), compared with healthy controls. METHODS: A rapid, event-related task with 120 Go and 60 NoGo trials was used to study children aged 8 to 12 years-8 with FAS/PFAS, 17 controls...
January 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074581/conflating-capacity-authority-why-we-re-asking-the-wrong-question-in-the-adolescent-decision-making-debate
#3
Erica K Salter
Whether adolescents should be allowed to make their own medical decisions has been a topic of discussion in bioethics for at least two decades now. Are adolescents sufficiently capacitated to make their own medical decisions? Is the mature-minor doctrine, an uncommon legal exception to the rule of parental decision-making authority, something we should expand or eliminate? Bioethicists have dealt with the curious liminality of adolescents-their being neither children nor adults-in a variety of ways. However, recently there has been a trend to rely heavily, and often exclusively, on emerging neuroscientific and psychological data to answer these questions...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074235/long-term-brain-structural-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-functioning-in-children-treated-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-with-high-dose-methotrexate-chemotherapy-alone-or-combined-with-cns-radiotherapy-at-reduced-total-dose-to-12%C3%A2-gy
#4
Olga Zając-Spychała, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Katarzyna Karmelita-Katulska, Jakub Pilarczyk, Katarzyna Derwich, Jacek Wachowiak
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the long-term side effects of central nervous system prophylaxis (high-dose chemotherapy alone vs chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy) according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002. METHODS: Thirty-tree children aged 6.7-19.9 years have been studied. The control group consisted of 12 children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We assessed subcortical gray matter volume using automatic MRI segmentation and cognitive performance to identify differences between two therapeutic schemes and patients prior to treatment...
January 10, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073076/spastic-diplegia-in-preterm-born-children-executive-function-impairment-and-neuroanatomical-correlates
#5
Maria Chiara Di Lieto, Paola Brovedani, Chiara Pecini, Anna Maria Chilosi, Vittorio Belmonti, Franco Fabbro, Cosimo Urgesi, Simona Fiori, Andrea Guzzetta, Silvia Perazza, Elisa Sicola, Giovanni Cioni
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological literature on preterm-born children with spastic diplegia due to periventricular leukomalacia is convergent in reporting deficits in non-verbal intelligence and in visuo-spatial abilities. Nevertheless, other cognitive functions have found to be impaired, but data are scant and not correlated with neuroimaging findings. AIMS: This study analyzes the neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses in preterm-born children with spastic diplegia (pSD) and their relationships with neuroanatomical findings, investigated by a novel scale for MRI classification...
January 7, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072842/fractal-analysis-of-brain-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-bold-signals-from-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi
#6
Olga Dona, Michael D Noseworthy, Carol DeMatteo, John F Connolly
BACKGROUND: Conventional imaging techniques are unable to detect abnormalities in the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Yet patients with mTBI typically show delayed response on neuropsychological evaluation. Because fractal geometry represents complexity, we explored its utility in measuring temporal fluctuations of brain resting state blood oxygen level dependent (rs-BOLD) signal. We hypothesized that there could be a detectable difference in rs-BOLD signal complexity between healthy subjects and mTBI patients based on previous studies that associated reduction in signal complexity with disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072673/the-use-of-ultrasound-measured-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-to-predict-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-failure-in-children
#7
Sophia D Lin, Kimberly R Kahne, Amira El Sherif, Kevin Mennitt, David Kessler, Mary J Ward, Shari L Platt
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of ultrasound-measured optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) as a screen for ventriculoperitoneal shunt failure. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a convenience sample of children presenting to the ED with suspected shunt failure. The ONSD was measured by ultrasound and compared with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) and neurosurgical impression. We defined shunt failure on ultrasound as an ONSD greater than 4...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063601/bone-marrow-fat-content-is-correlated-with-hepatic-fat-content-in-paediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
N Y Yu, T Wolfson, M S Middleton, G Hamilton, A Gamst, J E Angeles, J B Schwimmer, C B Sirlin
AIM: To investigate the relationship between bone marrow fat content and hepatic fat content in children with known or suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant, cross-sectional, prospective analysis of data collected between October 2010 to March 2013 in 125 children with known or suspected NAFLD. Written informed consent was obtained for same-day research magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine, liver, and abdominal adiposity...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060181/predicting-periarticular-infection-in-children-with-septic-arthritis-of-the-hip-regionally-derived-criteria-may-not-apply-to-all-populations
#9
Christian A Refakis, Alexandre Arkader, Keith D Baldwin, David A Spiegel, Wudbhav N Sankar
BACKGROUND: The management of septic arthritis of the hip in children can be complicated by the presence of additional coexisting periarticular infections (PAIs). Criteria predicting the presence of PAI have recently been proposed by Rosenfeld and colleagues with the goal of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) efficiently in the workup of septic arthritis. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of recently published predictive criteria for PAI (developed in the Southwestern United States using a variety of joints) to septic arthritis of the hip treated at a large Northeastern tertiary care center...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060175/cochlear-nerve-deficiency-and-brain-abnormalities-in-pediatric-patients
#10
Thierry Morlet, Markian Pazuniak, Robert C O'Reilly, Vinay Kandula, Arabinda K Choudhary
HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the intracranial abnormalities present in children with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND), including abnormalities of other cranial nerves, and to describe their auditory abilities. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of CND has increased with the development of high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There are varying degrees of CND from true aplasia to hypoplasia. The etiology of CND remains unclear and it may be associated with intracranial abnormalities in some instances...
January 4, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050702/selective-induction-of-il-1%C3%AE-after-a-brief-isoflurane-anesthetic-in-children-undergoing-mri-examination
#11
Emmett E Whitaker, Fievos L Christofi, Kristen M Quinn, Brianne Z Wiemann, Jason C Xia, Joseph D Tobias, Bruno Bissonnette
PURPOSE: To determine if isoflurane anesthesia without surgery causes systemic inflammation in children. Inflammation is targeted as responsible for the development of many neurologic pathologies. The effect will be evaluated by measuring serum cytokine levels before and after isoflurane anesthesia. The possible neurotoxic effect of anesthetic agents is a concern in pediatric anesthesia. Questions remain as to the true effects of anesthesia alone on systemic inflammation. The current study assesses systemic inflammatory response to general anesthesia in children not exposed to surgical stress...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048400/th-b-207b-00-pediatric-image-quality-optimization
#12
Christina Sammet
: This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric image quality optimization challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children's hospitals. One of the most commonly encountered pediatric imaging requirements for the non-specialist hospital is pediatric CT in the emergency room setting. Thus, this educational program will begin with optimization of pediatric CT in the emergency department...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048032/su-f-j-63-abdominal-diameter-changes-in-children-during-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat-is-re-planning-needed
#13
F Guerreiro, G Janssens, E Seravalli, B Raaymakers
PURPOSE: To investigate the dosimetric impact of daily changes in patient's diameter, due to weight gain/loss and air in the bowel, based on CBCT information during radiotherapy treatment of pediatric abdominal tumors. METHODS: 10 pediatric patients with neuroblastoma (n=6) and Wilms' (n=4) tumors were included. Available CBCTs were affinely registered to the planning CT for daily set-up variations corrections. A density override approach assigning air-density to the random air pockets and water-density to the remaining anatomy was used to determine the CBCT and CT dose...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047755/th-b-207b-01-optimizing-pediatric-ct-in-the-emergency-department
#14
C Dodge
: This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric image quality optimization challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children's hospitals. One of the most commonly encountered pediatric imaging requirements for the non-specialist hospital is pediatric CT in the emergency room setting. Thus, this educational program will begin with optimization of pediatric CT in the emergency department...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047673/su-d-207a-06-pediatric-abdominal-organ-motion-quantified-via-a-novel-4d-mri-method
#15
J Uh, M J Krasin, J T Lucas, C Tinkle, T E Merchant, C Hua
PURPOSE: To develop a 4D MRI method for assessing respiration-induced abdominal organ motion in children receiving radiation therapy. METHODS: A 4D MRI using internal image-based respiratory surrogate has been developed and implemented on a clinical scanner (1.5T Siemens Avanto). Ten patients (younger group: N=6, 2-5 years, anesthetized; older group: N=4, 11-15 years) with neuroblastoma, Wilm's tumor rhabdomyosarcoma, or desmoplastic small round cell tumor received free breathing 4D MRI scans for treatment planning...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046437/th-b-207b-02-optimizing-pediatic-cardiovascular-mri
#16
J Deng
: This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric image quality optimization challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children's hospitals. One of the most commonly encountered pediatric imaging requirements for the non-specialist hospital is pediatric CT in the emergency room setting. Thus, this educational program will begin with optimization of pediatric CT in the emergency department...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045839/the-use-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-management-of-minimally-displaced-or-nondisplaced-lateral-humeral-condyle-fractures-in-children
#17
Gregory Haillotte, Manon Bachy, Marion Delpont, Reda Kabbaj, Hubert Ducou le Pointe, Raphaël Vialle
OBJECTIVES: Fractures of the lateral humeral condyle are common in children. Nondisplaced fractures are managed with cast immobilization and frequent radiographic follow-up. Possibility of assessing the displacement and stability of such fractures may be helpful in planning the initial treatment and survey. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a useful tool in determining the stability of lateral condyle in children. We propose to investigate the use of MRI in such indication. METHODS: Fourteen patients presenting with a minimally displaced or nondisplaced fracture were initially treated with a long arm cast and had an MRI within 5 days of injury...
January 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041798/early-seizures-predict-the-development-of-epilepsy-in-children-and-adolescents-with-stroke
#18
Ina Breitweg, Celina von Stülpnagel, Tom Pieper, Karen Lidzba, Hans Holthausen, Martin Staudt, Gerhard Kluger
PURPOSE: To identify risk factors for the development of epilepsy after pediatric stroke. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of hospital charts of 93 children and adolescents with post-neonatal non-traumatic stroke and a minimum follow-up of two years. Seizures during the first 48 h after onset of stroke symptoms were defined as "early seizures"; when two or more seizures occurred after this period, the patient was classified as "epileptic". RESULTS: Early seizures, young age at stroke and MRI evidence of cortical involvement were observed more frequently in the children who developed epilepsy...
December 18, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040805/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-dce-mri-combined-with-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-pet-ct-and-video-electroencephalography-veeg-have-excellent-diagnostic-value-in-preoperative-localization-of-epileptic-foci-in-children
#19
Gui-Bin Wang, Wei Long, Xiao-Dong Li, Guang-Yin Xu, Ji-Xiang Lu
BACKGROUND To investigate the effect that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has on surgical decision making relative to video-electroencephalography (VEEG) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and if the differences in these variables translates to differences in surgical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 166 children with epilepsy undergoing preoperative DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT examinations, surgical resection of epileptic foci, and intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) monitoring were enrolled...
January 1, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040316/ovarian-teratoma-development-after-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-treatment
#20
Taku Omata, Kazuo Kodama, Yoshimi Watanabe, Yukiko Iida, Yoshiaki Furusawa, Akiko Takashima, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Hiroshi Sakuma, Keiko Tanaka, Katsunori Fujii, Naoki Shimojo
BACKGROUND: Anti-NMDA-R receptor encephalitis occurs predominantly in younger women and is often comorbid with ovarian teratoma, a feature that is often absent in children. Here, we report our experience with two pediatric patients, in whom no tumors were present during treatment for encephalitis, but in whom ovarian teratomas developed without encephalitis relapse after treatment was completed. CASES: Patient 1 was a 14-year-old girl who was diagnosed due to characteristic symptoms and anti-NMDA-R antibody...
December 28, 2016: Brain & Development
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