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Bone and Mineral Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737140/bone-mineral-density-of-indian-children-and-adolescents-with-cystic-fibrosis
#1
Sumita Gupta, Aparna Mukherjee, Rajesh Khadgawat, Madhulika Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil K Kabra
OBJECTIVE: To document bone mineral density of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary-care center of Northern India, July 2012 to August 2015. PARTICIPANTS: 52 children aged 6-18 years with cystic fibrosis and 62 healthy controls of similar age and sex. METHODS: Both patients and controls were stratified into two groups, as pre-pubertal and peri-/post-pubertal, and compared for whole body bone mineral density, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
July 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736799/rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-is-suppressed-by-4-o-methylhonokiol-in-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages
#2
Kyung-Ran Park, Ji-Youn Kim, Eun-Cheol Kim, Hyung-Mun Yun, Jin Tae Hong
Magnolol, honokiol, and obovatol are well known bioactive constituents of the bark of Magnolia officinalis and have been reported to have beneficial effects in various diseases. We recently isolated a novel active compound, 4-O-methylhonokiol (4-O-MH) from the ethanol extract of M. officinalis, which was previously reported to have pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-aging activities. Here, we examined the pharmacological properties of 4-O-MH on osteoblast (bone-forming cells) and osteoclast (bone-resorbing cells) differentiation, and its underlying signaling pathways in primary cultured pre-osteoblasts and bone marrow macrophages...
July 24, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736564/characterization-of-an-animal-model-to-study-risk-factors-and-new-therapies-for-the-cardiorenal-syndrome-a-major-health-issue-in-our-aging-population
#3
Anja Verhulst, Ellen Neven, Patrick C D'Haese
BACKGROUND: The cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a major health problem in our aging population. The term was introduced to cover disorders of the kidneys and heart, whereby dysfunction of one organ may induce dysfunction of the other. As the natural history of the CRS is mostly slow, hence difficult to explore in clinical trials, adequate animal models combining cardiovascular and renal disease are required. Therefore, we developed and characterized a usable model for CRS type 4, i.e. chronic kidney disease (CKD) causing cardiac dysfunction...
June 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736246/in-vitro-osteoclastogenesis-from-gaucher-patients-cells-correlates-with-bone-mineral-density-but-not-with-chitotriosidase
#4
C Bondar, J Mucci, A Crivaro, M Ormazabal, R Ceci, B Oliveri, D González, P Rozenfeld
Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by mutations on the gene encoding for the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Type I GD (GD1) patients present anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and bone alterations. In spite of treatment, bone alterations in GD patients persist, including poor bone mineral density (BMD). Mechanisms leading to bone damage are not completely understood, but previous reports suggest that osteoclasts are involved. Chitotriosidase (CHIT) is the most reliable biomarker used in the follow up of patients, although its correlation with bone status is unknown...
July 20, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734710/use-of-trabecular-bone-score-tbs-as-a-complementary-approach-to-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-dxa-for-fracture-risk-assessment-in-clinical-practice
#5
Enisa Shevroja, Olivier Lamy, Lynn Kohlmeier, Fjorda Koromani, Fernando Rivadeneira, Didier Hans
Osteoporosis is a common bone disease characterized by low bone mass and altered bone microarchitecture, resulting in decreased bone strength with an increased risk of fractures. In clinical practice, physicians can assess the risk of fracture for a patient based on several risk factors. Some such as age, weight, and history of fractures after 50 years of age, parental fracture, smoking status, and alcohol intake are incorporated into FRAX, an assessment tool that estimates the 10-year probability of hip fracture and major osteoporotic fractures based on the individual's risk factors profile...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734709/worldwide-fracture-prediction
#6
Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan, Marlene Chakhtoura, Jane A Cauley, Nariman Chamoun
The substantial increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases in general and osteoporosis in particular, necessitates the establishment of efficient and targeted diagnosis and treatment strategies. This chapter reviews and compares different tools for osteoporosis screening and diagnosis; it also provides an overview of different treatment guidelines adopted by countries worldwide. While access to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure bone mineral density (BMD) is limited in most areas in the world, the introduction of risk calculators that combine risk factors, with or without BMD, have resulted in a paradigm shift in osteoporosis screening and management...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733716/osteosarcopenia-where-bone-muscle-and-fat-collide
#7
REVIEW
H P Hirschfeld, R Kinsella, G Duque
As the world's population ages, the prevalence of chronic diseases increases. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are two conditions that are associated with aging, with similar risk factors that include genetics, endocrine function, and mechanical factors. Additionally, bone and muscle closely interact with each other not only anatomically, but also chemically and metabolically. Fat infiltration, a phenomenon observed in age-related bone and muscle loss, is highly prevalent and more severe in sarcopenic and osteoporotic subjects...
July 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733032/pilose-antler-polypeptides-potentiates-osteoblast-differentiation-and-inhibits-osteoclastogenesis-via-manipulating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#8
Guangwang Liu, Chao Ma, Peian Wang, Peiying Zhang, Xinhua Qu, Shen Liu, Zanjing Zhai, Degang Yu, Juan Gao, Jun Liang, Weixiang Dai, Lindong Zhou, Mengjiao Xia, Huilin Yang
Bones are inflexible yet ever-changing metabolic organs, and bone homeostasis is maintained through two delicately regulated processes: bone construction and bone reabsorption. An imbalance in bone metabolism is linked to most orthopedic diseases, including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Importantly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blocks osteoblast differentiation and stimulates osteoclast formation, resulting in delayed deposition of new bone and accelerated bone resorption, especially in rheumatoid arthritis patients with inflammatory conditions...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729046/bone-mineralization-and-fracture-risk-assessment-in-the-pediatric-population
#9
Halley Wasserman, Catherine M Gordon
Identifying children most susceptible to clinically significant fragility fractures (low trauma fractures or vertebral compression fractures) or recurrent fractures is an important issue facing general pediatricians and subspecialists alike. Over the last decade, several imaging technologies, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography, have become useful to identify abnormal bone mineralization in children and in adolescents. This review aimed to summarize the latest literature on the utility of these modalities as they pertain to use in pediatrics...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728874/profile-of-chronic-kidney-disease-related-mineral-bone-disorders-in-newly-diagnosed-advanced-predialysis-diabetic-kidney-disease-patients-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-study
#10
S Ray, A M Beatrice, A Ghosh, S Pramanik, R Bhattacharjee, S Ghosh, A Raychaudhury, S Mukhopadhyay, S Chowdhury
AIM: Chronic kidney disease related-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has been poorly studied in pre-dialysis Indian CKD population. There are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in diabetic CKD patients. Therefore, a study was conducted to find out the profile of mineral bone disorders in T2DM patients with pre-dialysis CKD. METHODS: In this cross-sectional design, diabetic patients with newly-diagnosed stage 4 and 5 CKD were evaluated. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25 hydroxy vitamin D and total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in all patients...
July 8, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726652/investigation-of-bone-mineralization-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-complicated-by-chronic-heart-failure-stage-ii-a
#11
I Krynytska, M Marushchak, T Zaets, I Savchenko, H Habor
The majority of the studies have shown that individuals with cardiovascular diseases have a higher risk of experiencing bone loss and thus greater predisposition to risk of fracture. On the other hand there is growing evidence that individuals with low bone mass have higher mortality for cardiovascular events compared to patients with cardiovascular disease with normal bone mass. This research aims to investigate bone mineralization in patients with coronary heart disease complicated by stage II-A chronic heart failure...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726185/raising-awareness-on-the-therapeutic-role-of-cholecalciferol-in-ckd-a-multidisciplinary-based-opinion
#12
REVIEW
Sandro Giannini, Sandro Mazzaferro, Salvatore Minisola, Luca De Nicola, Maurizio Rossini, Mario Cozzolino
Vitamin D is recognized to play an essential role in health and disease. In kidney disease, vitamin D analogs have gained recognition for their involvement and potential therapeutic importance. Nephrologists are aware of the use of oral native vitamin D supplementation, however, uncertainty still exists with regard to the use of this treatment option in chronic kidney disease as well as clinical settings related to chronic kidney disease, where vitamin D supplementation may be an appropriate therapeutic choice...
July 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722691/structural-basis-of-bone-fragility-in-young-subjects-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-high-resolution-pqct-study-of-the-swiss-ibd-cohort-sibdc
#13
Jessica Pepe, Sophie Zawadynski, Francois R Herrmann, Pascal Juillerat, Pierre Michetti, Sylvie Ferrari-Lacraz, Dominique Belli, Osman Ratib, René Rizzoli, Thierry Chevalley, Serge L Ferrari
BACKGROUND: The onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during childhood/adolescence compromises peak bone mass acquisition and predisposes to fractures later in life. However, the structural basis for bone fragility in young adults with IBD remains unknown. METHODS: One hundred two young subjects from the Swiss IBD cohort were included. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at distal radius, hip, and spine as well as morphometric vertebral fractures were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique...
August 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722515/construction-of-a-plga-based-targeted-sirna-delivery-system-for-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#14
Deniz Sezlev Bilecen, Jose Carlos Rodriguez-Cabello, Hasan Uludag, Vasif Hasirci
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder which occurs when the bone turnover balance is disrupted. With the identification of the genes involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, studies on development of new osteoporosis treatments has intensified. RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism uses short interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown disease related gene expression as a treatment approach. Targeting while protecting siRNA against hydrolysis by nucleases in vivo is, however, challenging. The maintenance of therapeutic plasma level is also hampered by the clearance of siRNA from the body...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721218/spontaneous-reossification-of-the-sella-in-transsphenoidal-reoperation-associated-with-strontium-ranelate
#15
Maria Mercedes Pineyro, Daiana Arrestia, Mariana Elhordoy, Ramiro Lima, Saul Wajskopf, Raul Pisabarro, Maria Pilar Serra
Spontaneous reossification of the sellar floor after transsphenoidal surgery has been rarely reported. Strontium ranelate, a divalent strontium salt, has been shown to increase bone formation, increasing osteoblast activity. We describe an unusual case of a young patient with Cushing's disease who was treated with strontium ranelate for low bone mass who experienced spontaneous sellar reossification after transsphenoidal surgery. A 21-year-old male presented with Cushing's features. His past medical history included delayed puberty diagnosed at 16 years, treated with testosterone for 3 years without further work-up...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721134/osteoporosis-in-men
#16
REVIEW
Waldemar Misiorowski
Osteoporotic fractures are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among aging men. 30% of all hip fractures occur in men, and mortality resulting from not only the hip fracture, but also the spine and other major osteoporotic fractures, is significantly higher in men than in women. As in women, hypogonadism is the best documented risk factor for developing osteoporosis in men. In older men, testosterone levels are negatively correlated with the risk of fractures, and it seems that this age-related testosterone deficiency should not be considered as one of the many causes of secondary osteoporosis, rather one of the major and most important mechanisms of senile osteoporosis...
June 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720774/a-novel-fluorescent-probe-based-flow-cytometric-assay-for-mineral-containing-nanoparticles-in-serum
#17
Edward R Smith, Tim D Hewitson, Michael M X Cai, Parisa Aghagolzadeh, Matthias Bachtler, Andreas Pasch, Stephen G Holt
Calciprotein particles, nanoscale aggregates of insoluble mineral and binding proteins, have emerged as potential mediators of phosphate toxicity in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Although existing immunochemical methods for their detection have provided compelling data, these approaches are indirect, lack specificity and are subject to a number of other technical and theoretical shortcomings. Here we have developed a rapid homogeneous fluorescent probe-based flow cytometric method for the detection and quantitation of individual mineral-containing nanoparticles in human and animal serum...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719650/heat-stimuli-enhanced-osteogenesis-using-clinically-available-biomaterials
#18
Takehiro Ota, Yoshihiro Nishida, Kunihiro Ikuta, Ryuji Kato, Eiji Kozawa, Shunsuke Hamada, Tomohisa Sakai, Naoki Ishiguro
A recent study reported that heat stress stimulates osteogenesis in an in vivo rat model using alginate gel and magnetite cationic liposomes. However, for clinical use, the efficacy for promoting osteogenesis needs to be investigated using clinically approved materials, and preferably with animals larger than rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate multiple heat stimuli-triggered osteogenesis in rat tibial defect models using already clinically applicable materials (Resovist® and REGENOS®) and determine the efficacy also in the rabbit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717072/the-relationship-of-bone-mineral-density-in-men-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-classified-according-to-the-global-initiative-for-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease-gold-combined-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-assessment-system
#19
Yoriko Sakurai-Iesato, Naoko Kawata, Yuji Tada, Ken Iesato, Yukiko Matsuura, Misuzu Yahaba, Toshio Suzuki, Jun Ikari, Noriyuki Yanagawa, Yasunori Kasahara, James West, Koichiro Tatsumi
Objective Osteoporosis, which is now recognized as a major comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), must be diagnosed by appropriate methods. The aims of this study were to clarify the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and COPD-related clinical variables and to explore the association of BMD with the updated Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification in men. Methods We enrolled 50 Japanese men with clinically stable COPD who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), pulmonary function testing, and computerized tomography (CT) and who had completed a questionnaire (COPD assessment test [CAT])...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716974/heart-failure-in-patients-with-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Courtney Tuegel, Nisha Bansal
Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the population of CKD patients with concurrent HF continues to grow. The accurate diagnosis of HF is challenging in patients with CKD in part due to a lack of validated imaging and biomarkers specifically in this population. The pathophysiology between the heart and the kidneys is complex and bidirectional. Patients with CKD have greater prevalence of traditional HF risk factors as well as unique kidney-specific risk factors including malnutrition, acid-base alterations, uraemic toxins, bone mineral changes, anemia and myocardial stunning...
July 17, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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