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amino acids imbalance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454986/nano-sized-tio-2-ntio-2-induces-metabolic-perturbations-in-physarum-polycephalum-macroplasmodium-to-counter-oxidative-stress-under-dark-conditions
#1
Zhi Zhang, Zhi Cheng Liang, Jian Hua Zhang, Sheng Li Tian, Jun Le Qu, Jiao Ning Tang, Shi De Liu
Nano-sized TiO2 (nTiO2 ) exerts an oxidative effect on cells upon exposure to solar or UV irradiation and ecotoxicity of the nTiO2 is an urgent concern. Little information is available regarding the effect of TiO2 on cells under dark conditions. Metabolomics is a unique approach to the discovery of biomarkers of nTiO2 cytotoxicity, and leads to the identification of perturbed metabolic pathways and the mechanism underlying nTiO2 toxicity. In the present study, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics was performed to investigate the effect of nTiO2 on sensitive cells (P...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380062/the-profiling-of-plasma-free-amino-acids-and-the-relationship-between-serum-albumin-and-plasma-branched-chain-amino-acids-in-chronic-liver-disease-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#2
Akitoshi Sano, Eiji Kakazu, Tatsuki Morosawa, Jun Inoue, Takayuki Kogure, Masashi Ninomiya, Tomoaki Iwata, Teruyuki Umetsu, Takuya Nakamura, Satoshi Takai, Tooru Shimosegawa
BACKGROUND: It is poorly understood how an imbalance of plasma-free amino acids (PFAAs) occurs and how the imbalance shows an association with the serum albumin (sAlb) level during the progression of chronic liver disease (CLDs). The aim of this study is to elucidate the profiles of PFAAs and the relationship between sAlb and PFAAs in recent patients with CLDs during the progression. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the 1569 data of PFAAs data obtained from 908 patients with various CLDs (CHC, CHB...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327380/effects-of-deficiency-and-surplus-dietary-threonine-on-reproductive-performance-of-primiparous-pregnant-gilts
#3
M Shi, T Liu, T Li, H Wang, T Yuan, D Li, J Wang
Dietary threonine imbalance is known to impair reproductive performances of gestating sows, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, effects of deficiency and surplus dietary threonine during gestation on reproductive performance, serum metabolites and hormones concentration, and colostral nutrient and immunoglobulin contents of primiparous sows were investigated. Ninety primiparous pregnant gilts were assigned to one of the three dietary treatments with different standardized ileal digestible threonine/lysine ratios at 0...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319890/two-novel-unstable-hemoglobin-variants-due-to-in-frame-deletions-of-key-amino-acids-in-the-%C3%AE-globin-chain
#4
Karen Gabriela Scheps, Marcia Anahí Hasenahuer, Gustavo Parisi, Héctor M Targovnik, Eliana García, Ernesto Samuel Veber, Renée Crisp, Graciela Elena, Viviana Varela, María Silvina Fornasari
Hemoglobinopathies are the most common autosomal recessive disorders and are mostly inherited in a recessive manner. However, certain mutations can affect the globin chain stability, leading to dominant forms of thalassemia. The aim of this work was the molecular and structural characterization of two heterozygous in-frame deletions, leading to β-globin variants in pediatric patients in Argentina. The HBB gene of the probands and their parents was sequenced, and other markers of globin chain imbalance were analyzed...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317536/golgi-stress-response-reprograms-cysteine-metabolism-to-confer-cytoprotection-in-huntington-s-disease
#5
Juan I Sbodio, Solomon H Snyder, Bindu D Paul
Golgi stress response is emerging as a physiologic process of comparable importance to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial stress responses. However, unlike ER stress, the identity of the signal transduction pathway involved in the Golgi stress response has been elusive. We show that the Golgi stressor monensin acts via the PKR-like ER kinase/Activating Transcription Factor 4 pathway. ATF4 is the master regulator of amino acid metabolism, which is induced during amino acid depletion and other forms of stress...
January 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289686/the-therapeutic-potential-of-hyaluronan-in-copd
#6
Gerard M Turino, Shuren Ma, Yong Y Lin, Jerome O Cantor
Insights into the clinical course in COPD indicate the need for new therapies in COPD. The discovery of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) led to the protease-antiprotease imbalance hypothesis which was applied to COPD related and not related to AATD. The discovery of AATD brought recognition to the importance of elastin fibers in maintaining lung matrix structure. Two cross-linking amino acids are unique to mature elastin, desmosine and isodesmosine (DI), which can serve as biomarkers of the degradation of elastin...
December 28, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285660/effect-of-blood-phenylalanine-levels-on-oxidative-stress-in-classical-phenylketonuric-patients
#7
Burcu Kumru, Davut Sinan Kaplan, Burcu Oztürk Hismi, Hakim Celik
Mental retardation, which occurs in phenylketonuric patients, is associated with increased levels of phenylalanine, increased oxidative stress, and an imbalance of amino acids in the brain. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of phenylketonuria. In this work, we aimed to compare the influence of blood phenylalanine levels on oxidative stress parameters in phenylketonuric patients who divided patients into groups according to blood Phe levels during follow-up visits and compared these groups with healthy controls...
December 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196673/proton-gradients-and-ph-oscillations-emerge-from-heat-flow-at-the-microscale
#8
Lorenz M R Keil, Friederike M Möller, Michael Kieß, Patrick W Kudella, Christof B Mast
Proton gradients are essential for biological systems. They not only drive the synthesis of ATP, but initiate molecule degradation and recycling inside lysosomes. However, the high mobility and permeability of protons through membranes make pH gradients very hard to sustain in vitro. Here we report that heat flow across a water-filled chamber forms and sustains stable pH gradients. Charged molecules accumulate by convection and thermophoresis better than uncharged species. In a dissociation reaction, this imbalances the reaction equilibrium and creates a difference in pH...
December 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162516/structure-and-function-of-a-novel-antioxidant-peptide-from-the-skin-of-tropical-frogs
#9
Eder Alves Barbosa, Ana Oliveira, Alexandra Plácido, Renato Socodato, Camila C Portugal, Ana Carolina Mafud, Alicia S Ombredane, Daniel C Moreira, Nuno Vale, Lucinda J Bessa, Graziella A Joanitti, Cláudia Alves, Paula Gomes, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Yvonne Primerano Mascarenhas, Mariela M Marani, João B Relvas, Manuela Pintado, José Roberto S A Leite
The amphibian skin plays an important role protecting the organism from external harmful factors such as microorganisms or UV radiation. Based on biorational strategies, many studies have investigated the cutaneous secretion of anurans as a source of bioactive molecules. By a peptidomic approach, a novel antioxidant peptide (AOP) with in vitro free radical scavenging ability was isolated from Physalaemus nattereri. The AOP, named antioxidin-I, has a molecular weight [M+H]+ = 1543.69Da and a TWYFITPYIPDK primary amino acid sequence...
February 1, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160327/imbalance-in-amino-acid-and-purine-metabolisms-at-the-hypothalamus-in-inflammation-associated-depression-by-gc-ms
#10
Yu Wu, Yonghong Li, Yanjuan Jia, Chaojun Wei, Hui Xu, Rui Guo, Yuanting Li, Jing Jia, Xiaoming Qi, Xiaoling Gao
Hypothalamic dysfunction is a key factor in depression; increasing evidence highlights neuroinflammation abnormalities as well as imbalances in neurotransmitters and the purinergic system in the pathophysiology of depression. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in the hypothalamus of depressed patients with neuroinflammation. Herein, taking advantage of the well-established lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression mouse model, we measured metabolic changes in the hypothalamus using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
November 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127884/regional-dysregulation-of-taurine-and-related-amino-acids-in-the-fetal-rat-brain-following-gestational-alcohol-exposure
#11
Raine Lunde-Young, Katie Davis-Anderson, Vishal Naik, Matthew Nemec, Guoyao Wu, Jayanth Ramadoss
The fetal brain exhibits exquisite alcohol-induced regional neuronal vulnerability. A candidate mechanism for alcohol-mediated brain deficits is disruption of amino acid (AA) bioavailability. AAs are vitally important for proper neurodevelopment, as they comprise the most abundant neurotransmitters in the brain and act as neurotransmitter precursors, nitric oxide donors, antioxidants, and neurotrophic factors, which induce synaptogenesis, neuronal proliferation, and migration. We hypothesized that gestational alcohol alters brain AA concentrations, disrupts AAs associated with neuropathogenesis, and that alterations are region-specific...
September 30, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100918/prediction-of-protein-subcellular-localization-with-oversampling-approach-and-chou-s-general-pseaac
#12
Shengli Zhang, Xin Duan
Predicting protein subcellular location with support vector machine has been a popular research area recently because of the dramatic explosion of bioinformation. Though substantial achievements have been obtained, few researchers considered the problem of data imbalance before classification, which will lead to low accuracy for some categories. So in this work, we combined oversampling method with SVM to deal with the protein subcellular localization of unbalanced data sets. To capture valuable information of a protein, a PseAAC (Pseudo Amino Acid Composition) has been extracted from PSSM(Position-Specific Scoring Matrix) as a feature vector, and then be selected by principal component analysis (PCA)...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059604/the-imbalance-between-c-and-n-metabolism-during-high-nitrate-supply-inhibits-photosynthesis-and-overall-growth-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#13
Iñigo Saiz-Fernández, Nuria De Diego, Břetislav Brzobohatý, Alberto Muñoz-Rueda, Maite Lacuesta
Nitrogen (N) is an important regulator of photosynthetic carbon (C) flow in plants, and an adequate balance between N and C metabolism is needed for correct plant development. However, an excessive N supply can alter this balance and cause changes in specific organic compounds associated with primary and secondary metabolism, including plant growth regulators. In previous work, we observed that high nitrate supply (15 mM) to maize plants led to a decrease in leaf expansion and overall biomass production, when compared with low nitrate supply (5 mM)...
October 12, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987273/tranexamic-acid-impairs-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-mediated-by-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-receptor-type-a
#14
Hedwig Irl, Stephan Kratzer, Stefan Schwerin, Eberhard Kochs, Manfred Blobner, Gerhard Schneider, Gerhard Rammes, Rainer Haseneder
High-dose application of tranexamic acid (TXA), a widely used antifibrinolytic drug, can cause seizures in patients undergoing surgery. Mechanistically, seizures are considered to arise from an imbalance between inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission, whose main transmitters are gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TXA on neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, a structure that plays a pivotal role in human epilepsy...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951189/cofactor-self-sufficient-whole-cell-biocatalysts-for-the-production-of-2-phenylethanol
#15
Pengchao Wang, Xinwei Yang, Baixue Lin, Jianzhong Huang, Yong Tao
The efficiency of biocatalysis is often affected by an insufficient supply and regeneration of cofactors and redox equivalents. To alleviate this shortcoming, a cofactor self-sufficient system was developed for enhanced production of 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) in E. coli. A "bridge" between the amino acid and its corresponding alcohol was designed in the system using glutamate dehydrogenase. By coupling glutamate dehydrogenase with transaminase and alcohol dehydrogenase, the cosubstrate (2-oxoglutarate) and redox equivalents (NAD(P)H) were regenerated simultaneously, so that no external cofactor or redox source was required...
September 22, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932183/plant-polyphenols-and-exendin-4-prevent-hyperactivity-and-tnf-%C3%AE-release-in-lps-treated-in-vitro-neuron-astrocyte-microglial-networks
#16
Francesca Gullo, Michela Ceriani, Alessia D'Aloia, Enzo Wanke, Andrew Constanti, Barbara Costa, Marzia Lecchi
Increasing evidence supports a decisive role for neuroinflammation in the neurodegenerative process of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Microglia are essential mediators of neuroinflammation and can regulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines. We have recently shown that also in ex-vivo cortical networks of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, an increased level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was detected a few hours after exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926741/cellular-glutathione-levels-in-hl-60-cells-during-respiratory-burst-are-not-correlated-with-ultra-weak-photon-emission
#17
Rosilene Cristina Rossetto Burgos, Wei Zhang, Eduard P A van Wijk, Thomas Hankemeier, Rawi Ramautar, Jan van der Greef
Recently, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was developed as a novel tool for measuring oxidative metabolic processes, as its generation is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both an imbalance in ROS or the uncontrolled production of ROS can lead to oxidative stress, which is commonly associated with many diseases. In addition to playing several biological functions, the thiol amino acid glutathione has an important antioxidant function in the body's defense against ROS. Specifically, glutathione is an important endogenous antioxidant that helps maintain oxidant levels...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920103/existence-of-brain-5-ht1a-5-ht2a-isoreceptor-complexes-with-antagonistic-allosteric-receptor-receptor-interactions-regulating-5-ht1a-receptor-recognition
#18
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Xiang Li, Alexander O Tarakanov, David Savelli, Manuel Narváez, Kirill Shumilov, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Jimenez-Beristain, Bartosz Pomierny, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Riccardo Cuppini, Patrizia Ambrogini, Maria Lindskog, Kjell Fuxe
Studies on serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors have established that disturbances in the ascending 5-HT neuron systems and their 5-HT receptor subtypes and collateral networks to the forebrain contribute to the etiology of major depression and are targets for treatment. The therapeutic action of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors is of proven effectiveness, but the mechanisms underlying their effect are still unclear. There are many 5-HT subtypes involved; some need to be blocked (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7), whereas others need to be activated (e...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893333/review-use-of-human-edible-animal-feeds-by-ruminant-livestock
#19
J M Wilkinson, M R F Lee
The drive to increase the output of animal product in some sectors of ruminant livestock production has led to greater use of feeds such as cereal grains and soyabean meal that are potentially human-edible. This trend has caused concern since, by so doing, ruminants compete not only with monogastric livestock but also with the human population for a limited global area of cultivatable land on which to produce grain crops. Reasons for using potentially human-edible feeds in ruminant diets include increased total daily energy intake, greater supply of essential amino acids and improved ruminal balance between fermentable energy and degradable protein...
September 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860505/endolysin-lysef-p10-shows-potential-as-an-alternative-treatment-strategy-for-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-infections
#20
Mengjun Cheng, Yufeng Zhang, Xinwei Li, Jiaming Liang, Liyuan Hu, Pengjuan Gong, Lei Zhang, Ruopeng Cai, Hao Zhang, Jinli Ge, Yalu Ji, Zhimin Guo, Xin Feng, Changjiang Sun, Yongjun Yang, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han, Jingmin Gu
Phage-derived lysins can hydrolyse bacterial cell walls and show great potential for combating Gram-positive pathogens. In this study, the potential of LysEF-P10, a new lysin derived from a isolated Enterococcus faecalis phage EF-P10, as an alternative treatment for multidrug-resistant E. faecalis infections, was studied. LysEF-P10 shares only 61% amino acid identity with its closest homologues. Four proteins were expressed: LysEF-P10, the cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain (LysEF-P10C), the putative binding domain (LysEF-P10B), and a fusion recombination protein (LysEF-P10B-green fluorescent protein)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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