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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905012/microbial-proteins-as-novel-industrial-biotechnology-hosts-to-treat-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Zareen Amtul, Amal A Aziz
Epilepsy is characterized by the hyperexcitability of various neuronal circuits that results due to the imbalance between glutamate-mediated excitation of voltage-gated cation channels and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition of anion channels leading to aberrant, sporadic oscillations or fluctuations in neuronal electrical activity. Epilepsy with a risk of mortality and around 65 million sufferers of all ages all over the world is limited therapeutically with high rates of adverse reactions, lack of complete seizure control, and over 30% patients with refractory epilepsy...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779710/antihypertensive-therapy-improves-insulin-resistance-and-serum-levels-of-interleukin-6-and-10-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-with-steatohepatitis
#2
Masaya Kozono, Hirofumi Uto, Rie Ibusuki, Shiho Arima, Kohei Oda, Hiroki Taguchi, Fumisato Sasaki, Yuichiro Nasu, Shinichi Hashimoto, Hitoshi Setoyama, Shuji Kanmura, Masatsugu Numata, Hirohito Tsubouchi, Akio Ido
Metabolic syndrome based on insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension is a risk factor for advanced liver disease and cardiovascular disease in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The present study investigated the effects of severe hypertension induced by a high‑salt (HS) diet and antihypertensive therapy on the pathophysiological condition of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with steatohepatitis. Steatohepatitis was induced using a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet (CDAA)...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775595/the-molecular-and-cellular-effect-of-homocysteine-metabolism-imbalance-on-human-health
#3
Henrieta Škovierová, Eva Vidomanová, Silvia Mahmood, Janka Sopková, Anna Drgová, Tatiana Červeňová, Erika Halašová, Ján Lehotský
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing non-proteinogenic amino acid derived in methionine metabolism. The increased level of Hcy in plasma, hyperhomocysteinemia, is considered to be an independent risk factor for cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it is still not clear if Hcy is a marker or a causative agent of diseases. More and more research data suggest that Hcy is an important indicator for overall health status. This review represents the current understanding of molecular mechanism of Hcy metabolism and its link to hyperhomocysteinemia-related pathologies in humans...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775533/hemespred-structure-based-ligand-specific-heme-binding-residues-prediction-by-using-fast-adaptive-ensemble-learning-scheme
#4
Jian Zhang, Haiting Chai, Bo Gao, Guifu Yang, Zhiqiang Ma
Heme is an essential biomolecule that widely exists in numerous extant organisms. Accurately identifying heme binding residues (HEMEs) is of great importance in disease progression and drug development. In this study, a novel predictor named HEMEsPred was proposed for predicting HEMEs. First, several sequence- and structure-based features, including amino acid composition, motifs, surface preferences and secondary structure, were collected to construct feature matrices. Second, a novel fast-adaptive ensemble learning scheme was designed to overcome the serious class-imbalance problem as well as to enhance the prediction performance...
October 4, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761676/multicompartment-analysis-of-protein-restricted-phenylketonuric-mice-reveals-amino-acid-imbalances-in-brain
#5
Kara R Vogel, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, K Michael Gibson
BACKGROUND: The mainstay of therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU) remains dietary protein restriction. Developmental and neurocognitive outcomes for patients, however, remain suboptimal. We tested the hypothesis that mice with PKU receiving protein-restricted diets would reveal disruptions of brain amino acids that shed light on these neurocognitive deficits. METHOD: Phenylalanine hydroxylase-deficient (PKU) mice and parallel controls (both wild-type and heterozygous) were fed custom diets containing 18, 6, and 4 % protein for 3 weeks, after which tissues (brain, liver, sera) were collected for amino acid analysis profiling...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754303/lbos-02-04-blood-pressure-associated-polymorphisms-in-slc4a7%C3%A2-sodium-bicarbonate-co-transporter-nbcn1-are-linked-to-gene-expression-and-intracellular-ph-regulation
#6
Fu Liang Ng, Ebbe Boedtkjer, Shu Ye, Mark Caulfield
OBJECTIVE: Chromosome 3p24.1 containing the SLC4A7 gene has been identified by genome-wide association studies as one of the genomic loci that influence blood pressure. SLC4A7 encodes electroneutral Na/HCO3 co-transporter (NBCn1) which regulates intracellular pH (pHi) in various tissues including vascular smooth muscle and endothelium, with knockout models demonstrating an altered blood pressure phenotype. We conducted a functional study of blood pressure-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms at the SLC4A7 locus in primary cultures of human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725259/differential-protein-expression-using-proteomics-from-a-crustacean-brine-shrimp-artemia-sinica-under-co2-driven-seawater-acidification
#7
Xue-Jiao Chang, Chao-Qun Zheng, Yu-Wei Wang, Chuang Meng, Xiao-Lu Xie, Hai-Peng Liu
Gradually increasing atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) has caused an imbalance in carbonate chemistry and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystems, termed seawater acidification. Anthropogenic seawater acidification is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. To understand the possible effects of seawater acidification on the proteomic responses of a marine crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) three groups of cysts were hatched and further raised in seawater at different pH levels (8...
October 7, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704473/direct-visualization-of-neurotransmitters-in-rat-brain-slices-by-desorption-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-imaging-desi-ms
#8
Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Pedro H Vendramini, Renan Galaverna, Nicolas V Schwab, Luciane C Alberici, Rodinei Augusti, Roger F Castilho, Marcos N Eberlin
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of neurotransmitters has so far been mainly performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) where derivatization reagents, deuterated matrix and/or high resolution, or tandem MS have been applied to circumvent problems with interfering ion peaks from matrix and from isobaric species. We herein describe the application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI)-MSI in rat brain coronal and sagittal slices for direct spatial monitoring of neurotransmitters and choline with no need of derivatization reagents and/or deuterated materials...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696676/severity-of-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-modulates-changes-in-concentrations-of-cerebral-free-amino-acids
#9
Angela Maria Amorini, Giacomo Lazzarino, Valentina Di Pietro, Stefano Signoretti, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Antonio Belli, Barbara Tavazzi
In this study, concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) and amino group containing compounds (AGCC) following graded diffuse traumatic brain injury (mild TBI, mTBI; severe TBI, sTBI) were evaluated. After 6, 12, 24, 48 and 120 hr aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu), asparagine (Asn), serine (Ser), glutamine (Gln), histidine (His), glycine (Gly), threonine (Thr), citrulline (Cit), arginine (Arg), alanine (Ala), taurine (Tau), γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), tyrosine (Tyr), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), l-cystathionine (l-Cystat), valine (Val), methionine (Met), tryptophane (Trp), phenylalanine (Phe), isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), ornithine (Orn), lysine (Lys), plus N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were determined in whole brain extracts (n = 6 rats at each time for both TBI levels)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643301/lbos-02-04-blood-pressure-associated-polymorphisms-in-slc4a7%C3%A2-sodium-bicarbonate-co-transporter-nbcn1-are-linked-to-gene-expression-and-intracellular-ph-regulation
#10
Fu Liang Ng, Ebbe Boedtkjer, Shu Ye, Mark Caulfield
OBJECTIVE: Chromosome 3p24.1 containing the SLC4A7 gene has been identified by genome-wide association studies as one of the genomic loci that influence blood pressure. SLC4A7 encodes electroneutral Na/HCO3 co-transporter (NBCn1) which regulates intracellular pH (pHi) in various tissues including vascular smooth muscle and endothelium, with knockout models demonstrating an altered blood pressure phenotype. We conducted a functional study of blood pressure-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms at the SLC4A7 locus in primary cultures of human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630724/improvement-in-the-amino-acid-imbalance-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients-after-viral-eradication-by-interferon-treatment
#11
Hirayuki Enomoto, Hiroki Nishikawa, Naoto Ikeda, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Kazunori Yoh, Ryo Takata, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Takashi Nishimura, Akio Ishii, Tomoyuki Takashima, Yoshinori Iwata, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in particular may cause various metabolic disorders. We previously reported that the value of the ratio of branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine (BTR) decreased with the progression of liver fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the changes in clinical variables during interferon (IFN) treatment and assessed whether HCV eradication improved the amino acid imbalance in HCV infected patients...
June 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601684/interactive-effects-of-dietary-arginine-and-eimeria-acervulina-infection-on-broiler-growth-performance-and-metabolism
#12
S J Rochell, A Helmbrecht, C M Parsons, R N Dilger
The influence of dietary Arg concentration and Eimeria acervulina infection on broiler growth performance and plasma carotenoid, nitric oxide (NO), amino acid, and urea concentrations was evaluated. Male Ross × Ross 308 broilers (384 total) were fed a common diet for 10 d post-hatch and provided experimental diets formulated to contain 1.23 (HA) or 0.74% (LA) standardized ileal digestible Arg from 10 to 28 d. At 21 d, one-half of the broilers were switched to the opposite diet to create 4 dietary regimens where birds were fed the LA diet throughout, the LA diet replaced by the HA diet at 21 d, the HA diet throughout, or the HA diet replaced by the LA diet at 21 d...
September 6, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590711/increased-rate-of-nad-metabolism-shortens-plant-longevity-by-accelerating-developmental-senescence-in-arabidopsis
#13
Shin-Nosuke Hashida, Taketo Itami, Kentaro Takahara, Takayuki Hirabayashi, Hirofumi Uchimiya, Maki Kawai-Yamada
NAD is a well-known co-enzyme that mediates hundreds of redox reactions and is the basis of various processes regulating cell responses to different environmental and developmental cues. The regulatory mechanism that determines the amount of cellular NAD and the rate of NAD metabolism remains unclear. We created Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the NAD synthase (NADS) gene that participates in the final step of NAD biosynthesis. NADS overexpression enhanced the activity of NAD biosynthesis but not the amounts of NAD(+), NADH, NADP(+), or NADPH...
September 1, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533115/the-effect-of-intraumbilical-fetal-nutrition-via-a-subcutaneously-implanted-port-system-on-amino-acid-concentration-by-severe-iugr-human-fetuses
#14
Michael Tchirikov, Zhaxybay Sh Zhumadilov, Gauri Bapayeva, Michael Bergner, Michael Entezami
OBJECTIVE: To determine if intrauterine intraumbilical supplementation with amino acids (AA) and glucose can improve neonatal outcome of severe growth restricted human fetuses (IUGR). METHODS: Prospective pilot study of intrauterine treatment of severe IUGR fetuses [n=14, 27 weeks of gestation (range 23-31)] with cerebroplacental ratio <1, with long-term intraumbilical AA and glucose supplementation (10% of feto-placental blood volume/day) using a perinatal port system alone (n=5) or combined with hyperbaric oxygenation (n=1, HBO) vs...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519659/severe-compromise-of-preosteoblasts-in-a-surgical-mouse-model-of-bisphosphonate-associated-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw
#15
Luis A Córdova, Florian Guilbaud, Jérôme Amiaud, Séverine Battaglia, Céline Charrier, Frédéric Lezot, Benoît Piot, Françoise Redini, Dominique Heymann
OBJECTIVES: The effect of amino-bisphosphonates on osteoblastic lineage and its potential contribution to the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BONJ) remain controversial. We assessed the effects of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on bone and vascular cells of the alveolar socket using a mouse model of BONJ. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two mice were treated twice a week with either 100 μg/kg of ZOL or saline for 12 weeks. The first left maxillary molar was extracted at the third week...
September 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508834/-op-7c-02-blood-pressure-associated-polymorphisms-in-slc4a7%C3%A2-sodium-bicarbonate-co-transporter-nbcn1-are-linked-with-gene-expression-and-intracellular-ph-regulation
#16
F Ng, E Bødtkjer, M J Caulfield, S Ye
OBJECTIVE: Genomewide-association studies have identified a number of loci influencing blood pressure, one of which is located near SLC4A7 (lead SNP rs13082711). SLC4A7 encodes an electroneutral Na+, HCO3- co-transporter, NBCn1, which contributes to intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in a range of tissues, including vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. Additionally, the NBCn1 knockout mouse demonstrates an altered blood pressure phenotype. We investigated the potential influence of SLC4A7 genotype on DNA-protein interaction, gene expression, and pHi regulation...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506743/imbalance-of-plasma-amino-acids-metabolites-and-lipids-in-patients-with-lysinuric-protein-intolerance-lpi
#17
Johanna Kurko, Maaria Tringham, Laura Tanner, Kirsti Näntö-Salonen, Mari Vähä-Mäkilä, Heli Nygren, Päivi Pöhö, Niina Lietzen, Ismo Mattila, Anu Olkku, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Matej Orešič, Olli Simell, Harri Niinikoski, Juha Mykkänen
BACKGROUND: Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI [MIM 222700]) is an aminoaciduria with defective transport of cationic amino acids in epithelial cells in the small intestine and proximal kidney tubules due to mutations in the SLC7A7 gene. LPI is characterized by protein malnutrition, failure to thrive and hyperammonemia. Many patients also suffer from combined hyperlipidemia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with an unknown etiology. METHODS: Here, we studied the plasma metabolomes of the Finnish LPI patients (n=26) and healthy control individuals (n=19) using a targeted platform for analysis of amino acids as well as two analytical platforms with comprehensive coverage of molecular lipids and polar metabolites...
September 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486806/new-biochemical-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-humans
#18
Renata Bujak, Jesús Mateo, Isabel Blanco, José Luis Izquierdo-García, Danuta Dudzik, Michał J Markuszewski, Victor Ivo Peinado, Martín Laclaustra, Joan Albert Barberá, Coral Barbas, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello
Diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and biomarkers, especially at early stages. We compared plasma metabolic fingerprints of PAH patients (n = 20) with matched healthy volunteers (n = 20) using, for the first time, untargeted multiplatform metabolomics approach consisting of high-performance liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to select metabolites that contribute most to groups' classification (21 from liquid in both ionization modes and 9 from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436896/transcriptional-control-of-amino-acid-homeostasis-is-disrupted-in-huntington-s-disease
#19
Juan I Sbodio, Solomon H Snyder, Bindu D Paul
Disturbances in amino acid metabolism, which have been observed in Huntington's disease (HD), may account for the profound inanition of HD patients. HD is triggered by an expansion of polyglutamine repeats in the protein huntingtin (Htt), impacting diverse cellular processes, ranging from transcriptional regulation to cognitive and motor functions. We show here that the master regulator of amino acid homeostasis, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), is dysfunctional in HD because of oxidative stress contributed by aberrant cysteine biosynthesis and transport...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434237/metabolic-profiles-of-obesity-in-american-indians-the-strong-heart-family-study
#20
Qi Zhao, Yun Zhu, Lyle G Best, Jason G Umans, Karan Uppal, ViLinh T Tran, Dean P Jones, Elisa T Lee, Barbara V Howard, Jinying Zhao
Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators...
2016: PloS One
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