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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196673/proton-gradients-and-ph-oscillations-emerge-from-heat-flow-at-the-microscale
#1
Lorenz M R Keil, Friederike M Möller, Michael Kieß, Patrick W Kudella, Christof B Mast
Proton gradients are essential for biological systems. They not only drive the synthesis of ATP, but initiate molecule degradation and recycling inside lysosomes. However, the high mobility and permeability of protons through membranes make pH gradients very hard to sustain in vitro. Here we report that heat flow across a water-filled chamber forms and sustains stable pH gradients. Charged molecules accumulate by convection and thermophoresis better than uncharged species. In a dissociation reaction, this imbalances the reaction equilibrium and creates a difference in pH...
December 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162516/structure-and-function-of-a-novel-antioxidant-peptide-from-the-skin-of-tropical-frogs
#2
Eder Barbosa, Ana Oliveira, Alexandra Plácido, Renato Socodato, Camila C Portugal, Ana Carolina Mafud, Alicia S Ombredane, Daniel C Moreira, Nuno Vale, Lucinda J Bessa, Graziella A Joanitti, Cláudia Alves, Paula Gomes, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Yvonne Primerano Mascarenhas, Mariela M Marani, João B Relvas, Manuela Pintado, José Roberto S A Leite
The amphibian skin plays an important role protecting the organism from external harmful factors such as microorganisms or UV radiation. Based on biorational strategies, many studies have investigated the cutaneous secretion of anurans as a source of bioactive molecules. By a peptidomic approach, a novel antioxidant peptide (AOP) with in vitro free radical scavenging ability was isolated from Physalaemus nattereri. The AOP, named antioxidin-I, has a molecular weight [M+H](+) = 1543.69Da and a TWYFITPYIPDK primary amino acid sequence...
November 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160327/imbalance-in-amino-acid-and-purine-metabolisms-at-the-hypothalamus-in-inflammation-associated-depression-by-gc-ms
#3
Yu Wu, Yonghong Li, Yanjuan Jia, Chaojun Wei, Hui Xu, Rui Guo, Yuanting Li, Jing Jia, Xiaoming Qi, Xiaoling Gao
Hypothalamic dysfunction is a key factor in depression; increasing evidence highlights neuroinflammation abnormalities as well as imbalances in neurotransmitters and the purinergic system in the pathophysiology of depression. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in the hypothalamus of depressed patients with neuroinflammation. Herein, taking advantage of the well-established lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression mouse model, we measured metabolic changes in the hypothalamus using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
November 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127884/regional-dysregulation-of-taurine-and-related-amino-acids-in-the-fetal-rat-brain-following-gestational-alcohol-exposure
#4
Raine Lunde-Young, Katie Davis-Anderson, Vishal Naik, Matthew Nemec, Guoyao Wu, Jayanth Ramadoss
The fetal brain exhibits exquisite alcohol-induced regional neuronal vulnerability. A candidate mechanism for alcohol-mediated brain deficits is disruption of amino acid (AA) bioavailability. AAs are vitally important for proper neurodevelopment, as they comprise the most abundant neurotransmitters in the brain and act as neurotransmitter precursors, nitric oxide donors, antioxidants, and neurotrophic factors, which induce synaptogenesis, neuronal proliferation, and migration. We hypothesized that gestational alcohol alters brain AA concentrations, disrupts AAs associated with neuropathogenesis, and that alterations are region-specific...
September 30, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100918/prediction-of-protein-subcellular-localization-with-oversampling-approach-and-chou-s-general-pseaac
#5
Shengli Zhang, Xin Duan
Predicting protein subcellular location with support vector machine has been a popular research area recently because of the dramatic explosion of bioinformation. Though substantial achievements have been obtained, few researchers considered the problem of data imbalance before classification, which will lead to low accuracy for some categories. So in this work, we combined oversampling method with SVM to deal with the protein subcellular localization of unbalanced data sets. To capture valuable information of a protein, a PseAAC (Pseudo Amino Acid Composition) has been extracted from PSSM(Position-Specific Scoring Matrix) as a feature vector, and then be selected by principal component analysis (PCA)...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059604/the-imbalance-between-c-and-n-metabolism-during-high-nitrate-supply-inhibits-photosynthesis-and-overall-growth-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#6
Iñigo Saiz-Fernández, Nuria De Diego, Břetislav Brzobohatý, Alberto Muñoz-Rueda, Maite Lacuesta
Nitrogen (N) is an important regulator of photosynthetic carbon (C) flow in plants, and an adequate balance between N and C metabolism is needed for correct plant development. However, an excessive N supply can alter this balance and cause changes in specific organic compounds associated with primary and secondary metabolism, including plant growth regulators. In previous work, we observed that high nitrate supply (15 mM) to maize plants led to a decrease in leaf expansion and overall biomass production, when compared with low nitrate supply (5 mM)...
October 12, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987273/tranexamic-acid-impairs-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-mediated-by-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-receptor-type-a
#7
Hedwig Irl, Stephan Kratzer, Stefan Schwerin, Eberhard Kochs, Manfred Blobner, Gerhard Schneider, Gerhard Rammes, Rainer Haseneder
High-dose application of tranexamic acid (TXA), a widely used antifibrinolytic drug, can cause seizures in patients undergoing surgery. Mechanistically, seizures are considered to arise from an imbalance between inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission, whose main transmitters are gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TXA on neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, a structure that plays a pivotal role in human epilepsy...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951189/cofactor-self-sufficient-whole-cell-biocatalysts-for-the-production-of-2-phenylethanol
#8
Pengchao Wang, Xinwei Yang, Baixue Lin, Jianzhong Huang, Yong Tao
The efficiency of biocatalysis is often affected by an insufficient supply and regeneration of cofactors and redox equivalents. To alleviate this shortcoming, a cofactor self-sufficient system was developed for enhanced production of 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) in E. coli. A "bridge" between the amino acid and its corresponding alcohol was designed in the system using glutamate dehydrogenase. By coupling glutamate dehydrogenase with transaminase and alcohol dehydrogenase, the cosubstrate (2-oxoglutarate) and redox equivalents (NAD(P)H) were regenerated simultaneously, so that no external cofactor or redox source was required...
September 22, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932183/plant-polyphenols-and-exendin-4-prevent-hyperactivity-and-tnf-%C3%AE-release-in-lps-treated-in-vitro-neuron-astrocyte-microglial-networks
#9
Francesca Gullo, Michela Ceriani, Alessia D'Aloia, Enzo Wanke, Andrew Constanti, Barbara Costa, Marzia Lecchi
Increasing evidence supports a decisive role for neuroinflammation in the neurodegenerative process of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Microglia are essential mediators of neuroinflammation and can regulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines. We have recently shown that also in ex-vivo cortical networks of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, an increased level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was detected a few hours after exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926741/cellular-glutathione-levels-in-hl-60-cells-during-respiratory-burst-are-not-correlated-with-ultra-weak-photon-emission
#10
Rosilene Cristina Rossetto Burgos, Wei Zhang, Eduard P A van Wijk, Thomas Hankemeier, Rawi Ramautar, Jan van der Greef
Recently, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was developed as a novel tool for measuring oxidative metabolic processes, as its generation is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both an imbalance in ROS or the uncontrolled production of ROS can lead to oxidative stress, which is commonly associated with many diseases. In addition to playing several biological functions, the thiol amino acid glutathione has an important antioxidant function in the body's defense against ROS. Specifically, glutathione is an important endogenous antioxidant that helps maintain oxidant levels...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920103/existence-of-brain-5-ht1a-5-ht2a-isoreceptor-complexes-with-antagonistic-allosteric-receptor-receptor-interactions-regulating-5-ht1a-receptor-recognition
#11
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Xiang Li, Alexander O Tarakanov, David Savelli, Manuel Narváez, Kirill Shumilov, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Jimenez-Beristain, Bartosz Pomierny, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Riccardo Cuppini, Patrizia Ambrogini, Maria Lindskog, Kjell Fuxe
Studies on serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors have established that disturbances in the ascending 5-HT neuron systems and their 5-HT receptor subtypes and collateral networks to the forebrain contribute to the etiology of major depression and are targets for treatment. The therapeutic action of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors is of proven effectiveness, but the mechanisms underlying their effect are still unclear. There are many 5-HT subtypes involved; some need to be blocked (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7), whereas others need to be activated (e...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893333/review-use-of-human-edible-animal-feeds-by-ruminant-livestock
#12
J M Wilkinson, M R F Lee
The drive to increase the output of animal product in some sectors of ruminant livestock production has led to greater use of feeds such as cereal grains and soyabean meal that are potentially human-edible. This trend has caused concern since, by so doing, ruminants compete not only with monogastric livestock but also with the human population for a limited global area of cultivatable land on which to produce grain crops. Reasons for using potentially human-edible feeds in ruminant diets include increased total daily energy intake, greater supply of essential amino acids and improved ruminal balance between fermentable energy and degradable protein...
September 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860505/endolysin-lysef-p10-shows-potential-as-an-alternative-treatment-strategy-for-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-infections
#13
Mengjun Cheng, Yufeng Zhang, Xinwei Li, Jiaming Liang, Liyuan Hu, Pengjuan Gong, Lei Zhang, Ruopeng Cai, Hao Zhang, Jinli Ge, Yalu Ji, Zhimin Guo, Xin Feng, Changjiang Sun, Yongjun Yang, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han, Jingmin Gu
Phage-derived lysins can hydrolyse bacterial cell walls and show great potential for combating Gram-positive pathogens. In this study, the potential of LysEF-P10, a new lysin derived from a isolated Enterococcus faecalis phage EF-P10, as an alternative treatment for multidrug-resistant E. faecalis infections, was studied. LysEF-P10 shares only 61% amino acid identity with its closest homologues. Four proteins were expressed: LysEF-P10, the cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain (LysEF-P10C), the putative binding domain (LysEF-P10B), and a fusion recombination protein (LysEF-P10B-green fluorescent protein)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851448/dietary-arachidonic-acid-increases-deleterious-effects-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-on-learning-abilities-and-expression-of-ampa-receptors-putative-role-of-the-acsl4-cpla2-balance
#14
Mélanie H Thomas, Cédric Paris, Mylène Magnien, Julie Colin, Sandra Pelleïeux, Florence Coste, Marie-Christine Escanyé, Thierry Pillot, Jean-Luc Olivier
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a crucial role in neuronal function, and the modification of these compounds in the brain could have an impact on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Despite the fact that arachidonic acid is the second foremost polyunsaturated fatty acid besides docosahexaenoic acid, its role and the regulation of its transfer and mobilization in the brain are poorly known. METHODS: Two groups of 39 adult male BALB/c mice were fed with an arachidonic acid-enriched diet or an oleic acid-enriched diet, respectively, for 12 weeks...
August 29, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836260/hyperhomocysteinemia-and-vascular-injury-the-advance-of-mechanisms-and-drug-targets
#15
REVIEW
Yi Fu, Xian Wang, Wei Kong
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulphur-containing non-proteinogenic amino acid. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), the pathogenic elevation of plasma Hcy as a result of an imbalance of Hcy metabolism, is an independent risk factor for various vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, vascular calcification, and aneurysm. Hcy-lowering therapy via dietary supplementation with folic acids and vitamin B exhibits a stronger effect on vascular disease prevention in regions in which the population has a low folate consumption than in areas exposed to folate fortification...
August 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822339/effects-of-simulated-n-deposition-on-foliar-nutrient-status-n-metabolism-and-photosynthetic-capacity-of-three-dominant-understory-plant-species-in-a-mature-tropical-forest
#16
Qinggong Mao, Xiankai Lu, Hui Mo, Per Gundersen, Jiangming Mo
Anthropogenic increase of nitrogen (N) deposition has threatened forest ecosystem health at both regional and global scales. In N-limited ecosystems, atmospheric N input is regarded as an important nutrient source for plant growth. However, it remains an open question on how elevated N deposition affects plant growth in N-rich forest ecosystems. To address this question, we used a simulated N deposition experiment in an N-rich mature tropical forest of southern China, with N addition levels as 0kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Control), 50kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Low-N), 100kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Middle-N) and 150kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (High-N), respectively...
January 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780668/new-anabolic-therapies-for-osteoporosis
#17
REVIEW
Salvatore Minisola, Cristiana Cipriani, Marco Occhiuto, Jessica Pepe
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and qualitative structural abnormalities of bone tissue, leading to increased bone fragility that results in fractures. Pharmacological therapy is aimed at decreasing the risk of fracture, mainly correcting the imbalance between bone resorption and formation at the level of bone remodeling units. Anabolic therapy has the capability to increase bone mass to a greater extent than traditional antiresorptive agents. The only currently available drug licensed is parathyroid hormone 1-34 (teriparatide); new drugs are on the horizon, targeting the stimulation of bone formation, and therefore improving bone mass, structure and ultimately skeletal strength...
August 5, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751741/soil-microbial-community-structure-and-catabolic-activity-are-significantly-degenerated-in-successive-rotations-of-chinese-fir-plantations
#18
Zeyan Wu, Jianjuan Li, Jie Zheng, Jinfu Liu, Shuying Liu, Wenxiong Lin, Chengzhen Wu
This study examined the hypotheses that soil microbial community composition and catabolic activity would significantly degenerated by consecutive monoculture in Chinese fir plantations. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and community level physiological profiles (CLPP) methods were used to assess the variations of soil microbial community among the first rotation Chinese fir plantation (FCP), the second rotation plantation (SCP) and the third rotation plantation (TCP). The total content of PLFA biomarkers was highest in FCP, followed by SCP, and TCP was the least detected...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743999/selenocysteine-induces-apoptosis-in-human-glioma-cells-evidence-for-trxr1-targeted-inhibition-and-signaling-crosstalk
#19
Cun-Dong Fan, Xiao-Yan Fu, Zong-Yong Zhang, Ming-Zhi Cao, Jing-Yi Sun, Ming-Feng Yang, Xiao-Ting Fu, Shi-Jun Zhao, Lu-Rong Shao, Hui-Fang Zhang, Xiao-Yi Yang, Bao-Liang Sun
Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) as a selenium (Se)-containing antioxidase plays key role in regulating intracellular redox status. Selenocystine (SeC) a natural available Se-containing amino acid showed novel anticancer potential through triggering oxidative damage-mediated apoptosis. However, whether TrxR-mediated oxidative damage was involved in SeC-induced apoptosis in human glioma cells has not been elucidated yet. Herein, SeC-induced human glioma cell apoptosis was detected in vitro, accompanied by PARP cleavage, caspases activation and DNA fragmentation...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738332/neuroprogression-and-immune-activation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Jeffrey H Meyer
Traditionally, the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been largely considered from the perspective of the state of major depressive episodes (MDE) versus being in remission, but the current accumulation of disease markers, largely acquired cross-sectionally, is strongly suggestive of neuroprogressive aspects of MDD. This chapter focuses on the changes in disease markers involved in the reorganization of the nervous system in MDD, including the translocator protein (TSPO; an index of microglial activation), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; an index of astroglial activation), [11C]harmine (a marker of monoamine oxidase A; MAO-A), and several other indices (metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 [mGluR5], excitatory amino acid transporters, and magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy measurements) of glutamate dysregulation...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
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