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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110174/murine-myoblast-migration-influence-of-replicative-ageing-and-nutrition
#1
Alexander D Brown, Graeme L Close, Adam P Sharples, Claire E Stewart
Cell migration is central to skeletal muscle repair following damage. Leucine and β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) are supplements consumed for recovery from muscle damaging exercise in humans, however, their impact on muscle cell migration with age is not yet understood. We hypothesised that replicatively aged ("aged"; P46-P48) myoblasts would be less efficient at basal and supplemented repair versus parental controls ("control"; P12-P16). Aged and control myoblasts were scratch-damaged and migration velocity, directionality and distance assessed over 48 h in the absence and presence of leucine (10 mM) or HMB (10 mM) ± PI3K/Akt (LY294002 10 μM), ERK (PD98059 5 μM) or mTOR (rapamycin 0...
November 7, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099523/a-potential-strategy-for-counteracting-age-related-sarcopenia-preliminary-evidence-of-combined-exercise-training-and-leucine-supplementation
#2
Z Xia, J M Cholewa, Y Zhao, Y Yang, H Shang, H Jiang, Q Su, N E Zanchi
Previous research has demonstrated the positive effects of concurrent/combined aerobic and resistance exercise or leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and hypertrophy in aging organisms. However, the effects of a multimodal intervention which combines both aerobic and resistance exercise and leucine supplementation has not been fully elucidated. Eighteen month old and 2 month old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to aging control (AC, n = 8), aging and multimodal intervention (AMI, n = 8) and young control (YC, n = 8)...
November 3, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046316/evidence-for-the-presence-in-rainbow-trout-brain-of-amino-acid-sensing-systems-involved-in-the-control-of-food-intake
#3
Sara Comesana, Cristina Velasco, Rosa M Ceinos, Marcos A Lopez-Patiño, Jesus M Miguez, Sofia Morais, Jose L Soengas
To assess the existence of central amino acid sensing systems in fish we carried out two experiments in rainbow trout. In the first one, we injected ICV two different branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine and valine, and assessed food intake up to 48 h later. Leucine decreased and valine increased food intake. In a second experiment, 6h after similar ICV treatment we determined changes in parameters related to putative amino acid sensing systems. Amino acid sensing systems respond to leucine in hypothalamus and telencephalon, and to valine in telencephalon...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963468/control-of-leucine-dependent-mtorc1-pathway-through-chemical-intervention-of-leucyl-trna-synthetase-and-ragd-interaction
#4
Jong Hyun Kim, Chulho Lee, Minji Lee, Haipeng Wang, Kibum Kim, Seung Joon Park, Ina Yoon, Jayun Jang, Hanchao Zhao, Hoi Kyoung Kim, Nam Hoon Kwon, Seung Jae Jeong, Hee Chan Yoo, Jae Hyun Kim, Jee Sun Yang, Myeong Youl Lee, Chang Woo Lee, Jieun Yun, Soo Jin Oh, Jong Soon Kang, Susan A Martinis, Kwang Yeon Hwang, Min Guo, Gyoonhee Han, Jung Min Han, Sunghoon Kim
Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LRS) is known to function as leucine sensor in the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. However, the pathophysiological significance of its activity is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the leucine sensor function for mTORC1 activation of LRS can be decoupled from its catalytic activity. We identified compounds that inhibit the leucine-dependent mTORC1 pathway by specifically inhibiting the GTPase activating function of LRS, while not affecting the catalytic activity...
September 29, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953236/post-exercise-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-rats-after-ingestion-of-acidified-bovine-milk-compared-with-skim-milk
#5
Kyosuke Nakayama, Atsushi Kanda, Ryoichi Tagawa, Chiaki Sanbongi, Shuji Ikegami, Hiroyuki Itoh
Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS), we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards...
September 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864421/twinfilin-1-enhances-milk-bio-synthesis-and-proliferation-of-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-via-the-mtor-signaling-pathway
#6
Lu Li, Lijie Liu, Bo Qu, Xueying Li, Xuejun Gao, Minghui Zhang
Twinfilin1 (TWF1) is an actin monomer-binding protein, which biological function has not yet been fully uncovered. In our previous study, we found by mass spectrometry analysis that TWF1 might be one of the major proteins responsible for milk bio-synthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). The purpose of this study was to explore the possible mechanism by which TWF1 regulates signaling pathways that enhance milk bio-synthesis and proliferation of BMECs. We first explored the effects of TWF1 on milk bio-synthesis and cell proliferation, and analyzed the role of TWF1 on the protein levels of signaling molecules (mTOR, SREBP-1c and Cyclin D1) related to milk bio-synthesis and cell proliferation...
October 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860165/influence-of-nutrient-ingestion-on-amino-acid-transporters-and-protein-synthesis-in-human-skeletal-muscle-after-sprint-exercise
#7
Håkan Claes Rundqvist, Mona Esbjörnsson, Olav Rooyackers, Ted Osterlund, Marcus Moberg, William Apró, Eva Blomstrand, Eva Jansson
Nutrient ingestion is known to increase the exercise-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. Less is known about the effect of nutrients on muscle protein synthesis following sprint exercise. At two occasions separated by one month, twelve healthy subjects performed three 30-s sprints with 20-min rest between bouts. In randomized order, they consumed a drink with essential amino acids and maltodextrin (nutrient) or flavored water (placebo). Muscle biopsies were obtained 80 and 200 min after the last sprint and blood samples were taken repeatedly during the experiment...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856713/leucine-supplementation-after-mechanical-stimulation-activates-protein-synthesis-via-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-in-vitro
#8
Naoya Nakai, Fuminori Kawano, Taro Murakami, Ken Nakata, Kazuhiko Higashida
Branched-chain amino acid supplements consumed following exercise are widely used to increase muscle mass. Although both exercise (ie, mechanical stimulation) and branched-chain amino acid leucine supplementation have been reported to stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway independently, the mechanisms underlying their synergistic effects are largely unknown. Utilizing cultured differentiated C2C12 myotubes, we established a combination treatment model in which the cells were subjected to cyclic uniaxial mechanical stretching (4 h, 15%, 1 Hz) followed by stimulation with 2 mM leucine for 45 min...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842848/dead-box-helicase-6-ddx6-is-a-new-negative-regulator-for-milk-synthesis-and-proliferation-of-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#9
Zhen Zhen, Minghui Zhang, Xiaohan Yuan, Bo Qu, Yanbo Yu, Xuejun Gao, Youwen Qiu
Milk synthesis of bovine mammary gland is a complex biological process that is regulated by hormones and nutrients, but the mechanism of these regulations still needs further research. DEAD-box helicase 6 (DDX6) is an important member of the RNA helicase family, involved in the regulation of mRNA storage and translation in different systems, but its physiological role and mechanism are largely unclear. In this study, we describe DDX6 as a potentially novel negative regulator for milk synthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs)...
August 25, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791373/downregulation-of-bzw2-inhibits-osteosarcoma-cell-growth-by-inactivating-the-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#10
Dong-Dong Cheng, Shi-Jie Li, Bin Zhu, Ting Yuan, Qing-Cheng Yang, Cun-Yi Fan
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in adolescents. The function of basic leucine zipper and W2 domains 2 (BZW2) in tumor progression has been reported. However, the role and mechanisms of BZW2 in osteosarcoma remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to reveal the expression and biological functions of BZW2 in osteosarcoma and to elucidate the proximal mechanisms underlying these functions. The expression of BZW2 in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines was assessed by qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
October 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771726/annexin-a2-positively-regulates-milk-synthesis-and-proliferation-of-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-through-the-mtor-signaling-pathway
#11
Minghui Zhang, Dongying Chen, Zhen Zhen, Jinxia Ao, Xiaohan Yuan, Xuejun Gao
Annexin A2 (AnxA2) has been shown to play multiple roles in growth, development and metabolism, but the functions of AnxA2 and the signaling pathways associated with AnxA2 are still not fully understood. In this study, we aim to reveal whether and how AnxA2 could be involved in milk synthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Using gene function study approaches, we found that AnxA2 positively regulates PIP3 level, phosphorylation of mTOR and protein levels of SREBP-1c and Cyclin D1 leading to milk synthesis and cell proliferation...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758352/fast-digestive-leucine-rich-soluble-milk-proteins-improve-muscle-protein-anabolism-and-mitochondrial-function-in-undernourished-old-rats
#12
Jérôme Salles, Audrey Chanet, Alexandre Berry, Christophe Giraudet, Véronique Patrac, Carla Domingues-Faria, Christophe Rocher, Christelle Guillet, Philippe Denis, Corinne Pouyet, Cécile Bonhomme, Pascale Le Ruyet, Yves Rolland, Yves Boirie, Stéphane Walrand
SCOPE: One strategy to manage malnutrition in older patients is to increase protein and energy intake. Here, we evaluate the influence of protein quality during refeeding on improvement in muscle protein and energy metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-month-old male rats (n = 40) were fed 50% of their spontaneous intake for 12 weeks to induce malnutrition, then refed ad libitum with a standard diet enriched with casein or soluble milk proteins (22%) for 4 weeks...
July 31, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731988/roles-of-mitogen-activating-protein-kinase-kinase-kinase-kinase-3-map4k3-in-preterm-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cell-myogenesis-and-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-mtorc1-activation-regulation
#13
Chu-Yi Guo, Mu-Xue Yu, Jie-Min Dai, Si-Nian Pan, Zhen-Tong Lu, Xiao-Shan Qiu, Si-Qi Zhuang
BACKGROUND Preterm skeletal muscle genesis is a paradigm for myogenesis. The role of mitogen-activating protein kinase kinase kinase kinase-3 (MAP4K3) in preterm skeletal muscle satellite cells myogenesis or its relationship to mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity have not been previously elaborated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference technology was used to inhibit MAP4K3 expression. Leucine stimulation experiments were performed following MAP4K3-siRNA interference...
July 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647331/combination-of-histidine-lysine-methionine-and-leucine-promotes-%C3%AE-casein-synthesis-via-the-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#14
H N Gao, S G Zhao, N Zheng, Y D Zhang, S S Wang, X Q Zhou, J Q Wang
The ratio of different AA in the diets of cows is vital to improve milk protein yield. β-Casein is one of the important milk proteins with high nutritive value. However, the suitable ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) for the expression of β-casein in the immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line is not fully characterized. This study employed response surface methodology to determine the optimal ratio of His, Lys, Met, and Leu on β-casein expression level in vitro and clarified the effect of the 4 EAA on β-casein via the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway...
September 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646031/metabolism-and-acetylation-contribute-to-leucine-mediated-inhibition-of-cardiac-glucose-uptake
#15
Edith Renguet, Audrey Ginion, Roselle Gélinas, Laurent Bultot, Julien Auquier, Isabelle Robillard Frayne, Caroline Daneault, Jean-Louis Vanoverschelde, Christine Des Rosiers, Louis Hue, Sandrine Horman, Christophe Beauloye, Luc Bertrand
High plasma leucine levels strongly correlate with type 2 diabetes. Studies of muscle cells have suggested that leucine alters the insulin response for glucose transport by activating an insulin-negative feedback loop driven by the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (mTOR/p70S6K) pathway. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism involved in leucine's action on cardiac glucose uptake. Leucine was indeed able to curb glucose uptake after insulin stimulation in both cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused hearts...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598238/nlrc3-regulates-cellular-proliferation-and-apoptosis-to-attenuate-the-development-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
Rajendra Karki, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Qifan Zhu, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) are intracellular innate immune sensors of pathogen-associated and damage-associated molecular patterns. NLRs regulate diverse biologic processes such as inflammatory responses, cell proliferation and death, and gut microbiota to attenuate tumorigenesis. In a recent publication in Nature, we identified NLRC3 as a negative regulator of PI3K-mTOR signaling and characterized its potential tumor suppressor function. Enterocytes lacking NLRC3 cannot control cellular proliferation because they are unable to suppress activation of PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways...
July 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583467/leucine-reduces-reactive-oxygen-species-levels-via-an-energy-metabolism-switch-by-activation-of-the-mtor-hif-1%C3%AE-pathway-in-porcine-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#17
Jun Hu, Yangfan Nie, Shifeng Chen, Chunlin Xie, Qiwen Fan, Zhichang Wang, Baisheng Long, Guokai Yan, Qing Zhong, Xianghua Yan
Leucine serves not only as a substrate for protein synthesis, but also as a signal molecule involved in protein metabolism. However, whether the levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have damaging effects on cellular DNA, proteins, and lipids, are regulated by leucine is still unclear. Here, we report that leucine supplementation reduces ROS levels in intestinal epithelial cells of weaned piglets. A proteomics analysis revealed that leucine supplementation induces an energy metabolism switch from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) towards glycolysis...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580286/role-of-nutrients-and-mtor-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-pancreatic-progenitors-development
#18
Lynda Elghazi, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Emilyn Alejandro, Corentin Cras-Méneur, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi
OBJECTIVE: Poor fetal nutrition increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in the offspring at least in part by reduced embryonic β-cell growth and impaired function. However, it is not entirely clear how fetal nutrients and growth factors impact β-cells during development to alter glucose homeostasis and metabolism later in life. The current experiments aimed to test the impact of fetal nutrients and growth factors on endocrine development and how these signals acting on mTOR signaling regulate β-cell mass and glucose homeostasis...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569781/mitochondrial-akap1-supports-mtor-pathway-and-tumor-growth
#19
Laura Rinaldi, Maria Sepe, Rossella Delle Donne, Kristel Conte, Antonietta Arcella, Domenica Borzacchiello, Stefano Amente, Fernanda De Vita, Monia Porpora, Corrado Garbi, Maria A Oliva, Claudio Procaccini, Deriggio Faicchia, Giuseppe Matarese, Federica Zito Marino, Gaetano Rocco, Sara Pignatiello, Renato Franco, Luigi Insabato, Barbara Majello, Antonio Feliciello
Mitochondria are the powerhouses of energy production and the sites where metabolic pathway and survival signals integrate and focus, promoting adaptive responses to hormone stimulation and nutrient availability. Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial bioenergetics, metabolism and signaling are linked to tumorigenesis. AKAP1 scaffolding protein integrates cAMP and src signaling on mitochondria, regulating organelle biogenesis, oxidative metabolism and cell survival. Here, we provide evidence that AKAP1 is a transcriptional target of Myc and supports the growth of cancer cells...
June 1, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566814/endocrine-responses-and-acute-mtor-pathway-phosphorylation-to-resistance-exercise-with-leucine-and-whey
#20
M T Lane, T J Herda, A C Fry, M A Cooper, M J Andre, P M Gallagher
Leucine ingestion reportedly activates the mTOR pathway in skeletal muscle, contributing to a hypertrophy response. The purpose of the study was to compare the post-resistance exercise effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation on endocrine responses and muscle mTOR pathway phosphorylation. On visit 1, subjects (X±SD; n=20; age=27.8±2.8yrs) provided baseline blood samples for analysis of cortisol, glucose and insulin; a muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle to assess mTOR signaling pathway phosphorylation; and were tested for maximum strength on the leg press and leg extension exercises...
June 2017: Biology of Sport
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