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Vitamin d depletion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721511/vitamin-d-status-and-its-influence-on-outcomes-following-major-burn-injury-and-critical-illness
#1
REVIEW
Khaled Al-Tarrah, Martin Hewison, Naiem Moiemen, Janet M Lord
Vitamin D deficiency is common among the general population. It is also observed in up to 76% of critically ill patients. Despite the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in critical illness, vitamin D is often overlooked by medical staff as the clinical implications and consequences of vitamin D deficiency in acute contexts remain to be fully understood. Vitamin D has a broad range of pleotropic effects on various processes and systems including the immune-inflammatory response. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D), has been shown to promote a tolerogenic immune response limiting deleterious inflammatory effects, modulation of the innate immune system, and enhancement of anti-microbial peptides...
2018: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661746/effects-of-oral-vitamin-d-3-supplementation-in-stage-3-chronic-kidney-disease-subjects-insulin-resistance-syndrome-and-hormonal-disturb-interactions
#2
Amina Tahar, Faiza Zerdoumi, Messaoud Saidani, Lakhdar Griene, Elhadj-Ahmed Koceir
The 1-25-hydroxyvitamine D (1-25OHD) or calcitriol deficiency in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients was associated with increases vascular calcification risk, nephrons reduction, bone deficit and cardiovascular mortality by atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 200.000 IU (D200 group) every 3 months versus 30.000 IU (D30 group) every month dose vitamin D supplementation in stage 3 CKD patients. A cohort of 132 adult subjects was randomized into 2 groups according to dose vitamin D supplementation in deficient subjects (25OHD <50 nmol/L or <20 ng/mL)...
April 16, 2018: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655594/no-effect-of-prenatal-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-autism-relevant-behaviours-in-multiple-inbred-strains-of-mice
#3
M Langguth, M Fassin, S Alexander, K M Turner, T H J Burne
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders commonly characterised by verbal and non-verbal communication deficits, impaired social interaction and repetitive, stereotypic behaviours. The aetiology of ASD is most likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Epidemiological evidence suggests that prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence of ASD. The overall aim of this study was to investigate prenatal vitamin D deficiency on ASD-related behavioural phenotypes in multiple inbred strains of mice...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611325/modulation-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-youngsters-by-vitamin-d-supplementation
#4
Rune Tønnesen, Peter Schwarz, Peter Hovind, Lars Thorbjørn Jensen
The level of circulating vitamin D is known to be associated with the ejection fraction in heart failure patients and studies in rats have shown that vitamin D depletion leads to increased levels of circulating norepinephrine and decreased atrial contractility. We elucidated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the autonomous nervous system in healthy youngsters. Thirty healthy subjects aged 18-25 years were recruited based on their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D): 15 vitamin D insufficient (25[OH]D < 50 nmol/L) and 15 vitamin D sufficient (25[OH]D > 80 nmol/L) subjects...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581858/depleting-ovarian-cancer-stem-cells-with-calcitriol
#5
Amit Kumar Srivastava, Asim Rizvi, Tiantian Cui, Chunhua Han, Ananya Banerjee, Imrana Naseem, Yanfang Zheng, Altaf A Wani, Qi-En Wang
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent the root of many solid tumors including ovarian cancer. Eradication of CSCs represents a novel cancer therapeutic strategy. Calcitriol, also known as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ], is an active metabolite of vitamin D, functioning as a potent steroid hormone. Calcitriol has shown anti-tumor effects in various cancers by regulating multiple signaling pathways. It has been reported that calcitriol can regulate the properties of normal and CSCs. However, the effect of calcitriol on the ovarian cancer growth and ovarian CSCs is still unclear...
March 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561174/effect-of-vitamin-d-treatments-on-plasma-metabolism-and-immune-parameters-of-healthy-dairy-cows
#6
Yuan Yue, Lone Hymøller, Søren Krogh Jensen, Charlotte Lauridsen
The objective of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effect of vitamin D repletion on certain immune parameters of vitamin D insufficient dairy cows. Twenty dairy cows in late lactation were treated daily with vitamin D in five different ways: sunlight exposure (SUN), D2 supplementation combined with sunlight exposure (D2SUN), D2 supplementation (D2), D3 supplementation (D3), and D2 and D3 supplementation combined (D2D3). The cows had very low vitamin D levels at d 0 because of the vitamin D deprivation before the study...
June 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500722/vitamin-k2-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#7
Reza Lasemi, Michael Kundi, Nahid Beladi Moghadam, Hanns Moshammer, Johannes A Hainfellner
BACKGROUND: Vitamin K2 (VK2) belongs to the vitamin K family and comprises a number of subtypes differing in length of side chains consisting of isoprenoid groups (menaquinone-n, MK-n). It is essential for a number of physiological functions although the full spectrum of activity has not yet been elucidated. Due to its role in protection of mitochondrial damage, VK2 could be relevant in preventing disease progress in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We measured VK2 serum levels by the double antibody sandwich Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique in MS patients and age and sex matched controls, both under vitamin D supplementation, and related it to disease characteristics and treatment...
March 2, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402395/intestinal-worms-eating-neuropsychiatric-disorders-apparently-so
#8
Henry H Kou, William Parker
A number of factors in Western society, including inflammatory diets, sedentary lifestyles, vitamin D deficiency and chronic psychological stress, are known to induce inflammation and to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. One factor that is emerging as a potential inflammation inducing factor is biota depletion, or loss of biodiversity from the ecosystem of the human body as a result of industrialization. Originally known as the "hygiene hypothesis", biota alteration theory describes the effects of biota alteration on the human immune system...
February 2, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385471/forms-of-selenium-in-vitamin-mineral-mixes-differentially-affect-serum-prolactin-concentration-and-hepatic-glutamine-synthetase-activity-of-steers-grazing-endophyte-infected-tall-fescue
#9
Yang Jia, Qing Li, W R Burris, Glenn E Aiken, Phillip J Bridges, James C Matthews
The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that sodium selenite (ISe), SEL-PLEX (OSe), vs. an 1:1 blend (MIX) of ISe and OSe in a basal vitamin-mineral (VM) mix would differentially affect metabolic parameters and performance of growing steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue mixed forage (E+) pasture. Predominately-Angus steers (BW = 183 ± 34 kg) were randomly selected from herds of fall-calving cows grazing E+ pasture and consuming VM mixes that contained 35 ppm Se as ISe, OSe, and MIX forms...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370213/early-life-vitamin-d-depletion-alters-the-postnatal-response-to-skeletal-loading-in-growing-and-mature-bone
#10
Stephanie A Borg, Harriet Buckley, Robert Owen, Ana Campos Marin, Yongtau Lu, Darryl Eyles, Damien Lacroix, Gwendolen C Reilly, Tim M Skerry, Nick J Bishop
There is increasing evidence of persistent effects of early life vitamin D exposure on later skeletal health; linking low levels in early life to smaller bone size in childhood as well as increased fracture risk later in adulthood, independently of later vitamin D status. A major determinant of bone mass acquisition across all ages is mechanical loading. We tested the hypothesis in an animal model system that early life vitamin D depletion results in abrogation of the response to mechanical loading, with consequent reduction in bone size, mass and strength during both childhood and adulthood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288249/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-the-prevention-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-after-bariatric-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Zhifei Li, Xin Zhou, Wei Fu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on the prevention of postoperative vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library were searched. Prospective studies evaluating the effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients who had undergone bariatric surgery were included. Meta-regression was performed to explore heterogeneity, and assess the relationship between dosage of vitamin D supplementation, study design, and prevalence of vitamin D depletion...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275468/targeting-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-cancer
#12
Waseem Anani, Michael R Shurin
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) represent only a minor fraction of circulating blood cells but play an important role in tumor formation and progression. They are a heterogeneous group of cells that influence the tumor microenvironment by depletion of amino acids, oxidative stress, decreased trafficking of antitumor effector cells, and increased regulatory T and regulatory dendritic cell responses. Investigational treatment strategies targeting MDSCs have attempted to inhibit MDSC development and expansion (stem cell factor blockade, modulate of cell signaling, and target MDSC migration and recruitment), inhibit MDSC function (nitric oxide inhibition and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inhibition), differentiate MDSCs into more mature cells (Vitamins A and D, all-trans retinoic acid, interleukin-2, toll-like receptor 9 inhibitors, taxanes, beta-glucan particles, tumor-derived exosome inhibition, and very small size proteoliposomes), and destroy MDSCs (cytotoxic agents, ephrin A2 degradation, anti-interleukin 13, and histamine blockers)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228951/hypovitaminosis-c-and-vitamin-c-deficiency-in-critically-ill-patients-despite-recommended-enteral-and-parenteral-intakes
#13
Anitra C Carr, Patrice C Rosengrave, Simone Bayer, Steve Chambers, Jan Mehrtens, Geoff M Shaw
BACKGROUND: Vitamin C is an essential water-soluble nutrient which cannot be synthesised or stored by humans. It is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immune-supportive roles. Previous research has indicated that vitamin C levels are depleted in critically ill patients. In this study we have assessed plasma vitamin C concentrations in critically ill patients relative to infection status (septic shock or non-septic) and level of inflammation (C-reactive protein concentrations)...
December 11, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228157/gut-epithelial-vitamin-d-receptor-regulates-microbiota-dependent-mucosal-inflammation-by-suppressing-intestinal-epithelial-cell-apoptosis
#14
Lei He, Tianjing Liu, Yongyan Shi, Feng Tian, Huiyuan Hu, Dilip K Deb, Yinyin Chen, Marc Bissonnette, Yan Chun Li
Recent studies show that colonic vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling protects the mucosal epithelial barrier and suppresses colonic inflammation, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be fully understood. To investigate the implication of colonic VDR downregulation seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed the effect of gut epithelial VDR deletion on colonic inflammatory responses in an experimental colitis model. In a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis model, mice carrying VDR deletion in gut epithelial cells [VDRflox/flox (VDRf/f);Villin-Cre or VDRΔIEC] or in colonic epithelial cells (VDRf/f;CDX2-Cre or VDRΔCEC) developed more severe clinical colitis than VDRf/f control mice, characterized by more robust T-helper (TH)1 and TH17 responses, with greater increases in mucosal interferon (IFN)-γ+, interleukin (IL)-17+, and IFN-γ+IL-17+ T cells...
February 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212579/time-course-of-vitamin-d-depletion-and-repletion-in-reproductive-age-female-c57bl-6-mice
#15
Anthony M Belenchia, Sarah A Johnson, Alyssa C Kieschnick, Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Catherine A Peterson
The use of animal models in vitamin D deficiency (VDD) research, particularly in regard to maternal deficits, has increased dramatically, yet these studies may be confounded due to ill-conceived experimental timelines. We conducted 2 experiments to (1) characterize the time course of VDD induction and repletion and (2) explore the long-term consequences of VDD on calcium homeostasis and body composition in reproductive-age female mice. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomized to receive either a vitamin D sufficient (VDS) or VDD diet; serum was collected weekly...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183962/intestinal-lymphatic-hdl-mir-223-and-apoa-i-are-reduced-during-insulin-resistance-and-restored-with-niacin
#16
Rabban Mangat, Faye Borthwick, Tina Haase, Miriam Jacome, Randy Nelson, Anatol Kontush, Donna F Vine, Spencer D Proctor
The intestine is involved in whole-body lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and secretes lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein (Apo)B48 and discrete ApoA-I into the mesenteric lymph. The lymphatic system has been proposed to have a significant role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway associated with HDL-ApoA-I. In conditions of insulin resistance (IR), there is intestinal overproduction of chylomicrons containing ApoB48; however, there is limited data on the intestinal synthesis and secretion of HDL-ApoA-I...
March 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174154/reduced-serum-vitamin-d-concentrations-in-healthy-early-lactation-dairy-cattle
#17
S J Holcombe, L Wisnieski, J Gandy, B Norby, L M Sordillo
Cattle obtain vitamin D by ingestion or cutaneous exposure to UV light. Dairy cattle diets are frequently supplemented with vitamin D to compensate for limited sun exposure or during times of increased metabolic demands, such as the periparturient period, to maintain calcium homeostasis. Whether housing and supplemental vitamin D practices supply adequate amounts of vitamin D to optimally support the transition from gestation to lactation in dairy cattle is unknown. Our objective was to determine how serum vitamin D concentrations of dairy cows change with season, age, parity, and stage of lactation...
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115801/the-relationship-between-the-vitamin-serum-25-oh-d-and-the-b12-concentrations-in-obese-women
#18
Nikola Curic, Branislava Ilincic, Natasa Milic, Velibor Cabarkapa, Stanislava Nikolic, Milica Medic-Stojanoska, Rinaldo Pellicano, Ludovico Abenavoli
BACKGROUND: In obesity, low levels of vitamin D (VD) and vitamin B12 (VB12) may be the result of different pathophysiological mechanisms, but the possible association between them has not been defined yet. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to investigate the possible relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and VB12 levels in middle aged women. METHODS: In 80 women, we indirectly evaluated body composition and body volumes [extracellular fluid volume (ECV) and total body water (TBW)] by anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance analysis...
April 2018: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024812/inhibition-of-pyruvate-carboxylase-by-1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-promotes-oxidative-stress-in-early-breast-cancer-progression
#19
Tomasz Wilmanski, Xuanzhu Zhou, Wei Zheng, Aparna Shinde, Shawn S Donkin, Michael Wendt, John R Burgess, Dorothy Teegarden
Maintaining reductive-oxidative (redox) balance is an essential feature in breast cancer cell survival, with cellular metabolism playing an integral role in maintaining redox balance through its supply of reduced NADPH. In the present studies, the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) on redox balance was investigated in early stages of breast cancer. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2 D promoted oxidative stress in MCF10A-ras and MCF10A-ErbB2 breast epithelial cells, as measured by the decreased ratios of NADPH/NADP+ and reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG)...
December 28, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978056/vitamin-d-deficiency-causes-insulin-resistance-by-provoking-oxidative-stress-in-hepatocytes
#20
Sha Tao, Qi Yuan, Li Mao, Feng-Li Chen, Feng Ji, Zhao-Hui Cui
Vitamin D deficiency could cause insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The 1α-Hydroxylase ["1α(OH)ase"] is a key enzyme for activate vitamin D3 synthesis. Here, we show that 1α(OH)ase stable knockdown by targeted shRNA led to vitamin D3 depletion in L02 hepatocytes. 1α(OH)ase silence also inhibited insulin-induced downstream signaling (IRS-1, ERK and AKT) transduction and glucose transporter 4 expression. Further, 1α(OH)ase shRNA in L02 hepatocytes led to significant reactive oxygen species production, p53-p21 activation and DNA damages...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
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