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Sensors, wearables

Xiaomin Xu, Kenjiro Fukuda, Akchheta Karki, Sungjun Park, Hiroki Kimura, Hiroaki Jinno, Nobuhiro Watanabe, Shuhei Yamamoto, Satoru Shimomura, Daisuke Kitazawa, Tomoyuki Yokota, Shinjiro Umezu, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen, Takao Someya
Flexible photovoltaics with extreme mechanical compliance present appealing possibilities to power Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and wearable electronic devices. Although improvement in thermal stability is essential, simultaneous achievement of high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and thermal stability in flexible organic photovoltaics (OPVs) remains challenging due to the difficulties in maintaining an optimal microstructure of the active layer under thermal stress. The insufficient thermal capability of a plastic substrate and the environmental influences cannot be fully expelled by ultrathin barrier coatings...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gengrui Zhao, Xiaodi Zhang, Xin Cui, Shu Wang, Zhirong Liu, Lin Deng, Anhui Qi, Xiran Qiao, Lijie Li, Caofeng Pan, Yan Zhang, Linlin Li
To meet the growing demands in flexible and wearable electronics, various sensors have been designed for detecting and monitoring the physical quantity changes. However, most of these sensors can only detect one certain kind of physical quantity based on a single mechanism. In this paper, we have fabricated a multifunctional sensor made from carbonized electrospun polyacrylonitrile/barium titanate (PAN-C/BTO) nanofiber film. It can detect two physical quantities (pressure and curvature), independently and simultaneously, by integrating piezoresistive, piezoelectric and triboelectric effect...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Li-Chia Tai, Wei Gao, Minghan Chao, Mallika Bariya, Quynh P Ngo, Ziba Shahpar, Hnin Y Y Nyein, Hyejin Park, Junfeng Sun, Younsu Jung, Eric Wu, Hossain M Fahad, Der-Hsien Lien, Hiroki Ota, Gyoujin Cho, Ali Javey
Drug monitoring plays crucial roles in doping control and precision medicine. It helps physicians tailor drug dosage for optimal benefits, track patients' compliance to prescriptions, and understand the complex pharmacokinetics of drugs. Conventional drug tests rely on invasive blood draws. While urine and sweat are attractive alternative biofluids, the state-of-the-art methods require separate sample collection and processing steps and fail to provide real-time information. Here, a wearable platform equipped with an electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry sensing module for drug monitoring is presented...
April 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
Mohammad Mehedi Hassan, Shamsul Huda, Md Zia Uddin, Ahmad Almogren, Majed Alrubaian
In recent years, human activity recognition from body sensor data or wearable sensor data has become a considerable research attention from academia and health industry. This research can be useful for various e-health applications such as monitoring elderly and physical impaired people at Smart home to improve their rehabilitation processes. However, it is not easy to accurately and automatically recognize physical human activity through wearable sensors due to the complexity and variety of body activities...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Reham Badawy, Yordan P Raykov, Luc J W Evers, Bastiaan R Bloem, Marjan J Faber, Andong Zhan, Kasper Claes, Max A Little
The use of wearable sensing technology for objective, non-invasive and remote clinimetric testing of symptoms has considerable potential. However, the accuracy achievable with such technology is highly reliant on separating the useful from irrelevant sensor data. Monitoring patient symptoms using digital sensors outside of controlled, clinical lab settings creates a variety of practical challenges, such as recording unexpected user behaviors. These behaviors often violate the assumptions of clinimetric testing protocols, where these protocols are designed to probe for specific symptoms...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
Haiwu Zheng, Yunlong Zi, Xu He, Hengyu Guo, Ying-Chih Lai, Jie Wang, Steven L Zhang, Changsheng Wu, Gang Cheng, Zhong Lin Wang
Harvesting energy available from ambient environment is highly desirable for powering personal electronics and health applications. Due to natural process and human activities, steam can be produced by boilers, human perspiration and the wind exists ubiquitously. In the outdoor environment, these two phenomena usually exist at the same place, which contain heat and mechanical energies simultaneously. However, previous studies have isolated them as separate sources of energy to harvest and hence failed to utilize them effectively...
April 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alar Ainla, Maral P S Mousavi, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Julia Redston, Jeffrey G Bell, M Teresa Fernández-Abedul, George M Whitesides
This paper describes the design and characterization of an open-source universal wireless electrochemical detector (UWED). This detector interfaces with a smartphone (or a tablet) using Bluetooth Low Energy protocol; the smartphone provides (i) a user interface for receiving the experimental parameters from the user and visualizing the result in real-time, and (ii) a proxy for storing, processing, and transmitting the data and experimental protocols. This approach simplifies the design, and decreases both the size and the cost of the hardware; it also makes UWED adaptable to different types of analyses by simple modification of the software...
April 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yonglin He, Qinyuan Gui, Yuxuan Wang, Zhen Wang, Shenglong Liao, Yapei Wang
For the purpose of stretchable electronics, broad interests have been paid to elastic conductors by which high tensile strain over 100% can be readily achieved. Here, a scalable-processing, dyeing-like strategy for highly stretchable polypyrrole elastomer (1450% in strain) is conceived without particular topological design. This approach effectively improves the mechanical properties of the classic insoluble polypyrrole by confined polymerization within an elastic polymer network. In terms of the easy processing, it is technically possible to prepare stretchable electronics with arbitrary shape and size for wearable electronics with low cost...
April 15, 2018: Small
Francisco Pizarro, Piero Villavicencio, Daniel Yunge, Mauricio Rodríguez, Gabriel Hermosilla, Ariel Leiva
This article presents the design, construction, and evaluation of an easy-to-build textile pressure resistive sensor created from low-cost conventional anti-static sheets and conductive woven fabrics. The sensor can be built quickly using standard household tools, and its thinness makes it especially suitable for wearable applications. Five sensors constructed under such conditions were evaluated, presenting a stable and linear characteristic in the range 1 to 70 kPa. The linear response was modeled and fitted for each sensor individually for comparison purposes, confirming a low variability due to the simple manufacturing process...
April 13, 2018: Sensors
Yichun Ding, Jack Yang, Charles Tolle, Zhengtao Zhu
Flexible and wearable pressure sensor may offer convenient, timely, and portable solutions to human motion detection, yet it is a challenge to develop cost-effective materials for pressure sensor with high compressibility and sensitivity. Herein, a cost-efficient and scalable approach is reported to prepare highly flexible and compressible conductive sponge for piezoresistive pressure sensor. The conductive sponge, PEDOT:PSS@MS, is prepared by one-step dip coating the commercial melamine sponge (MS) in an aqueous dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rachel Butler, Mauricio Monsalve, Geb W Thomas, Ted Herman, Alberto M Segre, Philip M Polgreen, Manish Suneja
BACKGROUND: Time and motion studies have been used to investigate how much time various healthcare professionals spend with patients as opposed to performing other tasks. However, the majority of such studies are done in outpatient settings, and rely on surveys (which are subject to recall bias) or human observers (which are subject to observation bias). Our goal was to accurately measure the time physicians, nurses, and critical support staff in a medical intensive care unit spend in direct patient contact using a novel method that does not rely on self-report or human observers...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Seong Kyung Hong, Seongjin Yang, Seong J Cho, Hyungkook Jeon, Geunbae Lim
This paper details the design of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-shielded waterproof crack-based stretchable strain sensor, in which the electrical characteristics and sensing performance are not influenced by changes in humidity. This results in a higher number of potential applications for the sensor. A previously developed omni-purpose stretchable strain (OPSS) sensor was used as the basis for this work, which utilizes a metal cracking structure and provides a wide sensing range and high sensitivity. Changes in the conductivity of the OPSS sensor, based on humidity conditions, were investigated along with the potential possibility of using the design as a humidity sensor...
April 12, 2018: Sensors
Youngoh Lee, Jonghwa Park, Soowon Cho, Young-Eun Shin, Hochan Lee, Jinyoung Kim, Jinyoung Myoung, Seungse Cho, Saewon Kang, Chunggi Baig, Hyunhyub Ko
Flexible pressure sensors with a high sensitivity over a broad linear range can simplify wearable sensing systems without additional signal processing for the linear output, enabling device miniaturization and low power consumption. Here, we demonstrate a flexible ferroelectric sensor with ultrahigh pressure sensitivity and linear response over an exceptionally broad pressure range based on the material and structural design of ferroelectric composites with a multilayer interlocked microdome geometry. Due to the stress concentration between interlocked microdome arrays and increased contact area in the multilayer design, the flexible ferroelectric sensors could perceive static/dynamic pressure with high sensitivity (47...
April 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Simon M Rosalie, Weng I Tang, Andrew S McIntyre, Stacey Stockman, Craig King, Cameron Watkins, Catherine Yvette Wild, Leo Ng
Analysing player kinematics during a match using "gold-standard" 3D video-based motion analysis techniques is a difficult prospect indeed. The development of small, wireless, wearable sensors offers the potential to reduce the challenges of measuring kinematics during match-play without hindering performance. The present study examined the viability of using wireless tri-axial accelerometers to examine whether key performance measures of drag flicks executed by expert specialist drag-flickers are predicted by the kinematics of the striking phase...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
José Antonio Santoyo-Ramón, Eduardo Casilari, José Manuel Cano-García
This paper describes a wearable Fall Detection System (FDS) based on a body-area network consisting of four nodes provided with inertial sensors and Bluetooth wireless interfaces. The signals captured by the nodes are sent to a smartphone which simultaneously acts as another sensing point. In contrast to many FDSs proposed by the literature (which only consider a single sensor), the multisensory nature of the prototype is utilized to investigate the impact of the number and the positions of the sensors on the effectiveness of the production of the fall detection decision...
April 10, 2018: Sensors
Ana Lígia Silva de Lima, Luc J W Evers, Tim Hahn, Nienke M de Vries, Margaret Daeschler, Babak Boroojerdi, Dolors Terricabras, Max A Little, Bastiaan R Bloem, Marjan J Faber
BACKGROUND: People with PD (PWP) have an increased risk of becoming inactive. Wearable sensors can provide insights into daily physical activity and walking patterns. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: (1) Is the severity of motor fluctuations associated with sensor-derived average daily walking quantity? (2) Is the severity of motor fluctuations associated with the amount of change in sensor-derived walking quantity after levodopa intake? METHODS: 304 Dutch PWP from the Parkinson@Home study were included...
March 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Seung Yun Oh, Soo Yeong Hong, Yu Ra Jeong, Junyeong Yun, Heun Park, Sang Woo Jin, Geumbee Lee, Ju Hyun Oh, Hanchan Lee, Sang-Soo Lee, Jeong Sook Ha
As part of increased efforts to develop wearable healthcare devices for monitoring and managing physiological and metabolic information, stretchable electrochemical sweat sensors have been investigated. In this study, we report on the fabrication of a stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor for detecting glucose and pH in sweat. A patterned stretchable electrode was fabricated via layer-by-layer deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on top of patterned Au nanosheets (AuNS) prepared by filtration onto stretchable substrate...
April 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
E Ray Dorsey, Alistair M Glidden, Melissa R Holloway, Gretchen L Birbeck, Lee H Schwamm
Neurological disorders are the leading cause of global disability. However, for most people around the world, current neurological care is poor. In low-income countries, most individuals lack access to proper neurological care, and in high-income countries, distance and disability limit access. With the global proliferation of smartphones, teleneurology - the use of technology to provide neurological care and education remotely - has the potential to improve and increase access to care for billions of people...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Sara Taylor, Akane Sano, Craig Ferguson, Akshay Mohan, Rosalind W Picard
Smartphones and wearable sensors have enabled unprecedented data collection, with many products now providing feedback to users about recommended step counts or sleep durations. However, these recommendations do not provide personalized insights that have been shown to be best suited for a specific individual. A scientific way to find individualized recommendations and causal links is to conduct experiments using single-case experimental design; however, properly designed single-case experiments are not easy to conduct on oneself...
April 5, 2018: Sensors
Minjeong Ha, Seongdong Lim, Soowon Cho, Youngoh Lee, Sangyoon Na, Chunggi Baig, Hyunhyub Ko
The gradient stiffness between stiff epidermis and soft dermis with interlocked microridge structures in human skin induces effective stress transmission to underlying mechanoreceptors for enhanced tactile sensing. Inspired by skin structure and function, we fabricate hierarchical nanoporous and interlocked microridge-structured polymers with gradient stiffness for the spacer-free, ultrathin, and highly-sensitive triboelectric sensors (TESs). The skin-inspired hierarchical polymers with gradient elastic modulus enhance the compressibility and contact areal differences due to effective transmission of the external stress from stiff to soft layers, resulting in highly sensitive TESs capable of detecting human vital signs and voice...
April 5, 2018: ACS Nano
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