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no2 air pollution

Rebecca DeVries, David Kriebel, Susan Sama
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute greatly to increased morbidity, mortality and diminished quality of life. Recent studies report moderately strong positive associations between exposures to several air pollutants and COPD-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions (HA). Studies that use clinically defined exacerbations rather than counting ED visits and HA may be more sensitive to environmental triggers like air pollution, but very few such studies exist...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Chen Xu, Hai-Dong Kan, Yan-Ni Fan, Ren-Jie Chen, Jiang-Hong Liu, Ya-Fei Li, Yao Zhang, Ai-Ling Ji, Tong-Jian Cai
The correlation between enteritis, a common digestive disease, and exposure to ambient air pollutants has not been examined in a comprehensive manner. The aim of this study was to determine whether an association between short-term air pollution exposure and outpatient visits for enteritis in Xi'an, China, occurred using a time-series investigation. Daily baseline data from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015, were obtained. The overdispersed Poisson generalized additive model was used to analyze the association between air pollutant levels and frequency of enteritis...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Bin Zhang, Jinzhu Zhao, Rong Yang, Zhengmin Qian, Shengwen Liang, Bryan A Bassig, Yiming Zhang, Ke Hu, Shunqing Xu, Guanghui Dong, Tongzhang Zheng, Shaoping Yang
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether high levels of maternal exposure to O3, SO2, NO2, CO are related to increased risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) in Wuhan, China. The study included mothers living in the central districts of Wuhan during pregnancy over the two-year period from June 10, 2011 to June 9, 2013. For each study participant, we assigned 1-month averages of O3, SO2, NO2 and CO exposure based on measurements obtained from the nearest exposure monitor to the living residence of mothers during their early pregnancy period...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhenyi Chen, Cheng Liu, Wenqing Liu, Tianshu Zhang, Jin Xu
Despite extensive efforts into the characterization of air pollution during the past decade, concurrent real-time characterization of aerosol and NO2 as well as satellite observation above the urban canopy in the megacity of Beijing has sparsely been performed to date. We conducted a simultaneous real-time measurement of aerosol and NO2 in urban Beijing in a pollution episode from November 25, 2015 to December 2, 2015. The aerosol extinction coefficient was measured by a 532 Mie lidar and the NO2 concentration by a Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sanja Pintarić, Ivan Zeljković, Gordana Pehnec, Višnja Nesek, Mislav Vrsalović, Hrvoje Pintarić
The aim of this study was to investigate whether nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and certain meteorological conditions had an impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related emergency department (ED) visits in the metropolitan area of Zagreb. This retrospective, ecological study included 20,228 patients with a cardiovascular disease as their primary diagnosis who were examined in the EDs of two Croatian University Hospitals, Sisters of Charity and Holy Spirit, in the study period July 2008-June 2010. The median of daily CVD-related ED visits during the study period was 28 and was the highest during winter...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Hui-Chen Cheng, Ren-Hao Pan, Huan-Jui Yeh, K Robert Lai, May-Yung Yen, Chien-Lung Chan, An-Guor Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate whether daily changes in ambient air pollution were associated with an increased risk of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). DESIGN: Retrospective population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: We identified patients newly diagnosed with CRAO between 2001 and 2013 in a representative database of 1 000 000 patients that were randomly selected from all registered beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan...
October 13, 2016: Ophthalmology
Juhwan Noh, Jungwoo Sohn, Jaelim Cho, Seong-Kyung Cho, Yoon Jung Choi, Changsoo Kim, Dong Chun Shin
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients' prior history of allergic diseases. METHODS: Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM10]), a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days) were also explored...
September 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Anke Hüls, Ursula Krämer, Christian Herder, Karin Fehsel, Christian Luckhaus, Sabine Stolz, Andrea Vierkötter, Tamara Schikowski
BACKGROUND: Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with chronic inflammation providing a link to the development of chronic health effects. Furthermore, there is evidence that pathways activated by endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress induce airway inflammation and thereby play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of genetic variation of the ER stress pathway on air pollution-induced inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Research
Yun Zhou, Yuewei Liu, Yuanchao Song, Jungang Xie, Xiuqing Cui, Bing Zhang, Tingming Shi, Jing Yuan, Weihong Chen
Short-term exposures to outdoor air pollutants have been associated with lower lung function, but the results are inconsistence. The effects of different pollutant levels on lung function changes are still unclear. We quantified the effects of outdoor air pollution exposure (NO2, PM10, O3, and PM2.5) on lung function among 1,694 female non-smokers from the Wuhan-Zhuhai Cohort in China by using linear mixed model. We further investigated the associations in the two cities with different air quality levels separately to quantify the effects of different pollutant level exposure on lung function...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amine Farias Costa, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef, Antônio Cm Ponce de Leon
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of short-term mortality displacement is essential to accurately estimate the impact of short-term air pollution exposure on public health. OBJECTIVES: To quantify mortality displacement by estimating single-day lag effects and cumulative effects of air pollutants on mortality using distributed lag models. METHODS: We performed a daily time series of non-accidental and cause-specific mortality among elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2011...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Xing Li, Jianpeng Xiao, Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Zhengmin Qian, Weilin Zeng, Lingchuan Guo, Wenjun Ma
The current air quality indices have been criticized for not capturing combined health effects of multiple air pollutants. We proposed an Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) based on the air pollution-mortality associations for communicating health risks of air pollution. Time-series studies were conducted to estimate the associations between air pollutants including sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), suspended particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and mortality in Guangzhou from 2012 to 2015...
October 2, 2016: Environmental Pollution
James David Smith, Christina Mitsakou, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Ben M Barratt, Heather A Walton, Jonathon G Taylor, Hugh Ross Anderson, Frank J Kelly, Sean D Beevers
Here we describe the development of the London Hybrid Exposure Model (LHEM), which calculates exposure of the Greater London population to outdoor air pollution sources, in-buildings, in-vehicles and outdoors, using survey data of when and where people spend their time. For comparison and to estimate exposure misclassification we compared Londoners LHEM exposure with exposure at the residential address, a commonly used exposure metric in epidemiological research. In 2011, the mean annual LHEM exposure to outdoor sources was estimated to be 37÷ lower for PM2...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Wilma Zijlema, Yutong Cai, Dany Doiron, Stéphane Mbatchou, Isabel Fortier, John Gulliver, Kees de Hoogh, David Morley, Susan Hodgson, Paul Elliott, Timothy Key, Havard Kongsgard, Kristian Hveem, Amadou Gaye, Paul Burton, Anna Hansell, Ronald Stolk, Judith Rosmalen
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to road traffic noise may increase blood pressure and heart rate. It is unclear to what extent exposure to air pollution may influence this relationship. We investigated associations between noise, blood pressure and heart rate, with harmonized data from three European cohorts, while taking into account exposure to air pollution. METHODS: Road traffic noise exposure was assessed using a European noise model based on the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe framework (CNOSSOS-EU)...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Research
C Q Peng, J F Cai, S Y Yu, Z J Cao, Y X Liao, N Liu, L He, L Zhang, J Zheng, X M Shi, J Q Cheng
Objective: To assess the association between the concentration of the air pollutant PM2.5 and daily outpatient visits for respiratory disease. Methods: All records of daily outpatient visits to three hospitals in Shenzhen from January 1 to December 31, 2013 were collected. Daily air pollution monitoring and meteorology data from the same period were also collected in Shenzhen. The data were analyzed using a semiparametric generalized additive model with Poisson distribution of time series analysis controlling for long-term and seasonal trends, flu, DOW, public holidays, and meteorological factors...
October 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Si Wang, Shaocai Yu, Renchang Yan, Qingyu Zhang, Pengfei Li, Liqiang Wang, Weiping Liu, Xianjue Zheng
To identify the characteristics of air pollutants and factors attributing to the formation of haze in Wuhan, this study analyzed the hourly observations of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, O3 and CO) from March 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014 and used hybrid receptor models for a case study. The results showed that the annual average concentrations for PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, O3 and CO during the whole period were 89.6 μg m(-3), 134.9 μg m(-3), 54.9 μg m(-3), 32.4 μg m(-3), 62.3 μg m(-3) and 1.1 mg m(-3), respectively...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
P Thunis, B Degraeuwe, E Pisoni, F Ferrari, A Clappier
Although significant progress has been made in Europe regarding air quality, problems still remain acute for some pollutants, notably NO2 and Particulate Matter (fine and coarse fractions) in specific regions/cities. One issue regarding air quality management is governance, i.e. the selection of appropriate and cost effective strategies over the area controlled by policy makers. In this work we present a new approach to integrated assessment modelling focusing on regional and urban aspects. One of the key added values is spatial flexibility, namely the possibility to assess the contributions from different regions to air quality at any given location...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Haoran Liu, Cheng Liu, Zhouqing Xie, Ying Li, Xin Huang, Shanshan Wang, Jin Xu, Pinhua Xie
A series of strict emission control measures were implemented in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit and 2015 Grand Military Parade (Parade), which led to blue sky days during these two events commonly referred to as "APEC Blue" and "Parade Blue". Here we calculated Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 and HCHO results based on well known DOAS trace gas fitting algorithm and WRF-Chem model (with measured climatology parameter and newest emission inventor) simulated trace gases profiles...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Cordioli, C Pironi, E De Munari, N Marmiroli, P Lauriola, A Ranzi
The epidemiological research benefits from an accurate characterization of both spatial and temporal variability of exposure to air pollution. This work aims at proposing a method to combine the high spatial resolution of Land Use Regression (LUR) models with the high temporal resolution of fixed site monitoring data, to model spatiotemporal variability of NO2 over a wide geographical area in Northern Italy. We developed seasonal LUR models to reconstruct the spatial distribution of a scaling factor that relates local concentrations to those measured at two reference central sites, one for the northern flat area and one for the southern mountain area...
September 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Luke F Gamon, Uta Wille
Air pollution is responsible for the premature death of about 7 million people every year. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2(•)) are the key gaseous pollutants in the troposphere, which predominantly result from combustion processes. Their inhalation leads to reactions with constituents in the airway surface fluids (ASF) of the respiratory tract and/or lungs. ASF contain small molecular-weight antioxidants, which protect the underlying epithelial cells against oxidative damage. When this defense system is overwhelmed, proteins and lipids present on cell surfaces or within the ASF become vulnerable to attack...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
O O Olujimi, G R E E Ana, O O Ogunseye, V T Fabunmi
Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria...
2016: SpringerPlus
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