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no2 air pollution

Lei Huang, Can Zhang, Jun Bi
Ambient air pollution has been a global problem, especially in China. Comparing with other methods, Land Use Regression (LUR) models can obtain air pollutant concentration distribution at finer scale without the air pollution source data based on a few monitoring sites and predictors. However, limited LUR studies have been conducted on the basis of regular monitoring networks. Thus, we explored the applicability of conducting LUR models for four key air pollutants: PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and O3, on the basis of national monitoring networks which have good representation of areas with different characteristics in Nanjing, China...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
Trenton Honda, Vivian C Pun, Justin Manjourides, Helen Suh
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposures have been shown to adversely impact health through a number of biological pathways associated with glucose metabolism. However, few studies have evaluated the associations between air pollution and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Further, no studies have evaluated these associations in US populations or investigated whether associations differ in diabetic as compared to non-diabetic populations. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Bo-Yi Yang, Zhengmin Min Qian, Michael G Vaughn, Erik J Nelson, Shyamali C Dharmage, Joachim Heinrich, Shao Lin, Wayne R Lawrence, Huimin Ma, Duo-Hong Chen, Li-Wen Hu, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Shu-Li Xu, Chuan Zhang, Guang-Hui Dong
Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18-74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated using data from monitoring stations...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Simone Vidale, Marco Arnaboldi, Vittorio Bosio, Giovanni Corrado, Mario Guidotti, Roberto Sterzi, Carlo Campana
BACKGROUND: In the last years several studies have investigated the effects of some air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the results are not conclusive. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and CVD events in a long-term observational period. METHODS: All CVD events (myocardial infarction - MI and ischemic stroke - IS) which occurred in residents of Como between January 2005 and December 2014 were included...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Cristina Vert, Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, David Martínez, Xavier Gotsens, Nina Gramunt, Marta Cirach, José Luis Molinuevo, Jordi Sunyer, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Marta Crous-Bou, Mireia Gascon
BACKGROUND: The association between exposure to air pollutants and mental disorders among adults has been suggested, although results are not consistent. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and history of anxiety and depression disorders and of medication use (benzodiazepines and antidepressants) in adults living in Barcelona. METHODS: A total of 958 adults (45-74 years old) residents in Barcelona, most of them having at least one of their parents diagnosed with dementia (86%), and participating in the ALFA (Alzheimer and Families) study, were included...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Yinsheng Guo, Yue Ma, Yanwei Zhang, Suli Huang, Yongsheng Wu, Shuyuan Yu, Fei Zou, Jinquan Cheng
Although the growths of ambient pollutants have been attracting public concern, the characteristic of the associations between air pollutants and mortality remains elusive. Time series analysis with a generalized additive model was performed to estimate the associations between ambient air pollutants and mortality outcomes in Shenzhen City for the period of 2012-2014. The results showed that nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-induced excess risks (ER) of total non-accidental mortality and cardiovascular mortality were significantly increased (6...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Paola G Conde, Luis C Farhat, Alfésio L F Braga, Adriana E M Sallum, Sylvia C L Farhat, Clovis A Silva
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of exposure to air pollutants and inhalable environmental elements during pregnancy and after birth until childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus(cSLE) diagnosis. METHODS: This case-control study comprised 30 cSLE patients and 86 healthy controls living in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. A structured and reliable questionnaire (kappa index for test-retest was 0.78) assessed demographic data, gestational and perinatal-related-factors, and exposure to inhalable elements during pregnancy and after birth (occupational exposure to inhalable particles and/or volatile vapor, and/or tobacco, as well as, the presence of industrial activities or gas stations near the home/work/daycare/school)...
July 11, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
Yihong Xiao, Chufan Zhang, Xu Zhang, Guohui Cai, Yong Zheng, Ying Zheng, Fulan Zhong, Lilong Jiang
NOx is one of dangerous air pollutants, and the demands for reliable sensors to detect NOx are extremely urgent recently. Conventional fluorite-phase YSZ used for NOx sensor requires higher operating temperature to obtain desirable oxygen ion conductivity. In this work, perovskite-phase Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) oxygen conductor was chosen as the solid electrolyte to fabricate a novel highly sensitive NO2 sensor with CuO as the sensing electrode and Pt as reference electrode. Na dopped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 greatly improved the sensing performance of this sensor...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alexis Sentís, Jordi Sunyer, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Ainara Andiarena, Ferran Ballester, Marta Cirach, Marisa Estarlich, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Jesús Ibarluzea, Carmen Íñiguez, Aitana Lertxundi, Adonina Tardón, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Martine Vrijheid, Mònica Guxens
BACKGROUND: Prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution has been linked to cognitive impairment in children, but very few studies have assessed its association with attentional function. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and attentional function in children at 4-5years of age. METHODS: We used data from four regions of the Spanish INMA-Environment and Childhood-Project, a population-based birth cohort...
July 6, 2017: Environment International
Vitezslav Jirik, Barbara Brezna, Ondrej Machaczka, Sabina Honkysova, Hana Miturova, Vladimir Janout
Selecting the locations and numbers of air quality monitoring stations is challenging as these are expensive to operate. Representative concentrations of pollutants in certain areas are usually determined by measuring. If there are significant correlations with concentrations of other pollutants or with other monitoring sites, however, concentrations could also be computed, partly reducing the costs. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of such possible relationships using data on concentrations of ambient air pollutants obtained in different areas of a larger city...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Frederick W Lipfert
I searched the NIH Medline database through January 2017 for long-term studies of morbidity and air pollution and cataloged them with respect to cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer, diabetes, hospitalization, neurological, and pregnancy-birth endpoints. The catalogue is presented as an online appendix. Associations with PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were evaluated most frequently among the 417 ambient air quality studies identified. Associations with TSP, carbon, ozone, sulfur, vehicular traffic, radon, and indoor air quality were also reported...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Michael Jerrett, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Olalekan Popoola, Roderic Jones, Ronald C Cohen, Estela Almanza, Audrey de Nazelle, Iq Mead, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Tom Cole-Hunter, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Edmund Seto, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen
Low cost, personal air pollution sensors may reduce exposure measurement errors in epidemiological investigations and contribute to citizen science initiatives. Here we assess the validity of a low cost personal air pollution sensor. Study participants were drawn from two ongoing epidemiological projects in Barcelona, Spain. Participants repeatedly wore the pollution sensor - which measured carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We also compared personal sensor measurements to those from more expensive instruments...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Research
Liyang Zhu, Xuhua Ge, Yaoyao Chen, Xinying Zeng, Wang Pan, Xu Zhang, Shuai Ben, Qi Yuan, Junyi Xin, Wei Shao, Yuqiu Ge, Dongmei Wu, Zhong Han, Zhengdong Zhang, Haiyan Chu, Meilin Wang
The association between air pollution and childhood respiratory disease is inconsistent. In the present study, we investigated a short-term effect of ambient air pollutants and daily childhood lower respiratory diseases (CLRD). Daily air pollutants, weather data, and CLRD data were collected from January 2014 to April 2015 (452 days) in Nanjing, China. Time-series regression and generalized additive models were used to assess the effects of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, O3, and CO) on CLRD. We observed that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in concentrations of PM10, NO2, and SO2 significantly increased the daily CLRD with 6 days cumulative effects (difference of estimates: 2...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
L Minet, R Gehr, M Hatzopoulou
The development of reliable measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution is crucial for the evaluation of the health effects of transportation. Land-use regression (LUR) techniques have been widely used for the development of exposure surfaces, however these surfaces are often highly sensitive to the data collected. With the rise of inexpensive air pollution sensors paired with GPS devices, we witness the emergence of mobile data collection protocols. For the same urban area, can we achieve a 'universal' model irrespective of the number of locations and sampling visits? Can we trade the temporal representation of fixed-point sampling for a larger spatial extent afforded by mobile monitoring? This study highlights the challenges of short-term mobile sampling campaigns in terms of the resulting exposure surfaces...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Michelle A North, David Kinniburgh, Judit E G Smits
Urban, traffic-related air pollution remains a concern to health-care and environmental professionals, with mounting evidence connecting diverse disease conditions with exposure. Wildlife species such as European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) cohabit urban neighbourhoods and may serve as sentinels for these contaminants. In this novel approach, we use passive, personal-type air samplers to provide site-specific measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, or BTEX), and account for the effects of confounding environmental factors when teasing out the responses to exposure...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Pei-Wen Zheng, Jian-Bing Wang, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Peng Shen, Peng-Fei Chai, Die Li, Ming-Juan Jin, Meng-Ling Tang, Huai-Chu Lu, Hong-Bo Lin, Kun Chen
Acute upper and lower respiratory infections are main causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Air pollution has been recognized as an important contributor to development and exacerbation of respiratory infections. However, few studies are available in China. In this study, we investigated the short-term effect of air pollution on hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children under 15 years in Ningbo, China. Poisson generalized models were used to estimate the associations between air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections adjusted for temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xionghui Qiu, Lei Duan, Siyi Cai, Qian Yu, Shuxiao Wang, Fahe Chai, Jian Gao, Yanping Li, Zhaoming Xu
The national Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan required significant decreases in PM2.5 levels over China. To explore more effective emission abatement strategies in industrial cities, a case study was conducted in Baotou to evaluate the current national control measures. The total emissions of SO2, NOX, PM2.5 and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in Baotou were 211.2Gg, 156.1Gg, 28.8Gg, and 48.5Gg, respectively in 2013, and they would experience a reduction of 30.4%, 26.6%, 15.1%, and 8...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
N Greenberg, R S Carel, E Derazne, A Tiktinsky, D Tzur, B A Portnov
Studies have provided extensive documentation that acutely elevated environmental exposures contribute to chronic health problems. However, only attention has been paid to the effects of modificate of exposure assessment methods in environmental health investigations, leading to uncertainty and gaps in our understanding of exposure- and dose-response relationships. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether average or peak concentration exerts a greater influence on asthma outcome, and which of the exposure models may better explain various physiological responses generated by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollutants...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Simon Endes, Emmanuel Schaffner, Seraina Caviezel, Julia Dratva, Daiana Stolz, Christian Schindler, Nino Künzli, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Nicole Probst-Hensch
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Air pollution and insufficient physical activity have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, molecular mechanisms linked to arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease. There are no studies on how physical activity modifies the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness. We examined whether the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution were modified by individual physical activity levels in 2823 adults aged 50-81 years from the well-characterized Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases (SAPALDIA)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Scott Weichenthal, Li Bai, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Keith Van Ryswyk, Jeffrey C Kwong, Michael Jerrett, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin, Richard T Burnett, Hong Lu, Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (<0.1 μm) (UFPs) including their association with respiratory disease incidence. In this study, we examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient UFPs and the incidence of lung cancer, adult-onset asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Our study cohort included approximately 1.1 million adults who resided in Toronto, Canada and who were followed for disease incidence between 1996 and 2012...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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