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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319817/indoor-air-quality-of-low-and-middle-income-urban-households-in-durban-south-africa
#1
Nkosana Jafta, Lars Barregard, Prakash M Jeena, Rajen N Naidoo
INTRODUCTION: Elevated levels of indoor air pollutants may cause cardiopulmonary disease such as lower respiratory infection, chronic obstructive lung disease and lung cancer, but the association with tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. So far the risk estimates of TB infection or/and disease due to indoor air pollution (IAP) exposure are based on self-reported exposures rather than direct measurements of IAP, and these exposures have not been validated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to characterize and develop predictive models for concentrations of three air pollutants (PM10, NO2 and SO2) in homes of children participating in a childhood TB study...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319717/land-use-regression-modelling-of-air-pollution-in-high-density-high-rise-cities-a-case-study-in-hong-kong
#2
Martha Lee, Michael Brauer, Paulina Wong, Robert Tang, Tsz Him Tsui, Crystal Choi, Wei Cheng, Poh-Chin Lai, Linwei Tian, Thuan-Quoc Thach, Ryan Allen, Benjamin Barratt
Land use regression (LUR) is a common method of predicting spatial variability of air pollution to estimate exposure. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during two sampling campaigns (April-May and November-January) in Hong Kong (a prototypical high-density high-rise city). Along with 365 potential geospatial predictor variables, these concentrations were used to build two-dimensional land use regression (LUR) models for the territory...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319705/contributions-of-vehicular-emissions-and-secondary-formation-to-nitrous-acid-concentrations-in-ambient-urban-air-in-tokyo-in-the-winter
#3
Yoshihiro Nakashima, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Shinji Saito, Junya Hoshi, Hiroyuki Ueno
Nitrous acid (HONO) plays an important role in the formation of OH radicals, which are involved in photochemical oxidation. HONO concentrations in ambient air at urban sites have previously been measured, but very few studies have been performed in central Tokyo. In this study, HONO concentrations in ambient air in southeast central Tokyo (near Tokyo Bay) in winter were determined by incoherent cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. The O3, NO, NO2, and SO2 concentrations were simultaneously determined. The NO concentrations were used to classify the parts of the study period into types I (high pollution), II (medium pollution), and III (low pollution)...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319180/effect-of-outdoor-air-pollution-on-asthma-exacerbations-in-children-and-adults-systematic-review-and-multilevel-meta-analysis
#4
Pablo Orellano, Nancy Quaranta, Julieta Reynoso, Brenda Balbi, Julia Vasquez
BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have suggested that outdoor air pollution may induce or aggravate asthma. However, epidemiological results are inconclusive due to the presence of numerous moderators which influence this association. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollutants and moderate or severe asthma exacerbations in children and adults through a systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched studies published in English on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar between January 2000 and October 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300224/short-term-air-pollution-exposure-aggravates-parkinson-s-disease-in-a-population-based-cohort
#5
Hyewon Lee, Woojae Myung, Doh Kwan Kim, Satbyul Estella Kim, Clara Tammy Kim, Ho Kim
Increasing experimental evidence has suggested air pollution as new risk factor for neurological disease. Although long-term exposure is reportedly related to neurological disease, information on association with short-term exposure is scarce. We examined the association of short-term exposure to particles <2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) with PD aggravation in Seoul from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, Korea during 2002-2013...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290139/the-spatial-variation-of-o3-no-no2-and-no-x-and-the-relation-between-them-in-two-swedish-cities
#6
Annika Hagenbjörk, E Malmqvist, K Mattisson, Nilsson J Sommar, L Modig
Ozone and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are air pollutants with known associations to adverse health effects on humans. Few studies have simultaneously measured ozone and nitrogen oxides with high spatial resolution. The main aim of this paper was to assess the levels and variation of ground-level ozone, NO2 and NO x in two Swedish cities. An additional aim was to describe the levels of these pollutants within and between three different types of measurement sites (regional background, urban background and traffic sites) and within and between different measurement periods of the year...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289048/health-risk-of-inhalation-exposure-to-sub-10%C3%A2-%C3%A2%C2%B5m-particulate-matter-and-gaseous-pollutants-in-an-urban-industrial-area-in-south-africa-an-ecological-study
#7
Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo, Ayo Stephen Adebowale, Matlou Ingrid Mokgobu, Murembiwa Stanley Mukhola
OBJECTIVE: To assess the health risks associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). DESIGN: The study is an ecological study that used the year 2014 hourly ambient pollution data. SETTING: The study was conducted in an industrial area located in Pretoria West, South Africa. The area accommodates a coal-fired power station, metallurgical industries such as a coke plant and a manganese smelter...
March 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285887/characteristics-and-source-distribution-of-air-pollution-in-winter-in-qingdao-eastern-china
#8
Lingyu Li, Dongyun Yan, Shaohui Xu, Mingli Huang, Xiaoxia Wang, Shaodong Xie
To characterize air pollution and determine its source distribution in Qingdao, Shandong Province, we analyzed hourly national air quality monitoring network data of normal pollutants at nine sites from 1 November 2015 to 31 January 2016. The average hourly concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10), SO2, NO2, 8-h O3, and CO in Qingdao were 83, 129, 39, 41, and 41 μg m(-3), and 1.243 mg m(-3), respectively. During the polluted period, 19-26 December 2015, 29 December 2015 to 4 January 2016, and 14-17 January 2016, the mean 24-h PM2...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284553/urban-air-pollution-and-meteorological-factors-affect-emergency-department-visits-of-elderly-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-taiwan
#9
Pei-Hsiou Ding, Gen-Shuh Wang, Yue-Leon Guo, Shuenn-Chin Chang, Gwo-Hwa Wan
Both air pollution and meteorological factors in metropolitan areas increased emergency department (ED) visits from people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Few studies investigated the associations between air pollution, meteorological factors, and COPD-related health disorders in Asian countries. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the environmental factors and COPD-associated ED visits of susceptible elderly population in the largest Taiwanese metropolitan area (Taipei area, including Taipei city and New Taipei city) between 2000 and 2013...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284545/pollen-of-common-ragweed-ambrosia-artemisiifolia-l-illumina-based-de-novo-sequencing-and-differential-transcript-expression-upon-elevated-no2-o3
#10
Feng Zhao, Jörg Durner, J Barbro Winkler, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Tim-Matthias Strom, Dieter Ernst, Ulrike Frank
Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic annual ruderal plant and native to Northern America, but now also spreading across Europe. Air pollution and climate change will not only affect plant growth, pollen production and duration of the whole pollen season, but also the amount of allergenic encoding transcripts and proteins of the pollen. The objective of this study was to get a better understanding of transcriptional changes in ragweed pollen upon NO2 and O3 fumigation. This will also contribute to a systems biology approach to understand the reaction of the allergenic pollen to air pollution and climate change...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282048/hydrolytic-cleavage-of-both-cs2-carbon-sulfur-bonds-by-multinuclear-pd-ii-complexes-at-room-temperature
#11
Xuan-Feng Jiang, Hui Huang, Yun-Feng Chai, Tracy Lynn Lohr, Shu-Yan Yu, Wenzhen Lai, Yuan-Jiang Pan, Massimiliano Delferro, Tobin J Marks
Developing homogeneous catalysts that convert CS2 and COS pollutants into environmentally benign products is important for both fundamental catalytic research and applied environmental science. Here we report a series of air-stable dimeric Pd complexes that mediate the facile hydrolytic cleavage of both CS2 carbon-sulfur bonds at 25 °C to produce CO2 and trimeric Pd complexes. Oxidation of the trimeric complexes with HNO3 regenerates the dimeric starting complexes with the release of SO2 and NO2. Isotopic labelling confirms that the carbon and oxygen atoms of CO2 originate from CS2 and H2O, respectively, and reaction intermediates were observed by gas-phase and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, as well as by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
February 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278037/revisiting-nitrous-acid-hono-emission-from-on-road-vehicles-a-tunnel-study-with-a-mixed-fleet
#12
Yutong Liang, Qiaozhi Zha, Weihao Wang, Long Cui, Ka Hei Lui, Kin Fai Ho, Zhe Wang, Shun-Cheng Lee, Tao Wang
Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important precursor of OH radicals in the atmosphere. In urban areas, emissions from vehicles are the main source of air pollutants including reactive nitrogen. Previously reported emission ratios of HONO (HONO/NOx) from vehicles were measured in the late 1990s which needs to be updated due to the significant changes in emission control technologies. We measured the emission ratio of a fleet of vehicles (38% diesel on average) from 11 to 21 March, 2015 in a road tunnel in Hong Kong...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273230/effects-of-air-pollution-caused-by-sugarcane-burning-in-western-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#13
Paula Roberta da Silva Pestana, Alfésio Luís Ferreira Braga, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, Ariadna Ferraz de Oliveira, Christian Robert Osadnik, Aline Duarte Ferreira, Dionei Ramos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of acute exposure to air pollutants (NO2 and PM10) on hospitalization of adults and older people with cardiovascular diseases in Western São Paulo. METHODS: Daily cardiovascular-related hospitalization data (CID10 - I00 to I99) were acquired by the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (DATASUS) from January 2009 to December 2012. Daily levels of NO2 and PM10 and weather data were obtained from Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB - São Paulo State Environmental Agency)...
March 2, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262368/role-of-chinese-cooking-emissions-on-ambient-air-quality-and-human-health
#14
Lina Wang, Zhiyuan Xiang, Svetlana Stevanovic, Zoran Ristovski, Farhad Salimi, Jun Gao, Hongli Wang, Li Li
Chinese-style cooking often involves volatilization of oils which can potentially produce a large number of pollutants, which have adverse impact on environment and human health. Therefore, we have reviewed 75 published studies associated with research topic among Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, involving studies on the roles of food ingredients and oil type, cooking style impacting on generated pollutants, and human health. The highest concentration occurred including: 1) when peat, wood, and raw coal were used in stoves; 2) olive oil was adopted; 3) cooking with high temperatures; and 4) without cleaning technology...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259583/positive-association-between-short-term-ambient-air-pollution-exposure-and-children-blood-pressure-in-china-result-from-the-seven-northeast-cities-snec-study
#15
Xiao-Wen Zeng, Zhengmin Min Qian, Michael G Vaughn, Erik J Nelson, Shyamali C Dharmage, Gayan Bowatte, Jennifer Perret, Duo-Hong Chen, Huimin Ma, Shao Lin, Benjamin de Foy, Li-Wen Hu, Bo-Yi Yang, Shu-Li Xu, Chuan Zhang, Yan-Peng Tian, Min Nian, Jia Wang, Xiang Xiao, Wen-Wen Bao, Ya-Zhi Zhang, Guang-Hui Dong
The impact of ambient air pollution on health causes concerns in China. However, little is known about the association of short-term air pollution exposure with blood pressure (BP) in children. The goal of present study was to assess the association between short-term air pollution and BP in children from a highly polluted area in China. This study enrolled 9354 children in 24 elementary and middle schools (aged 5-17 years) from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study, respectively, during the period of 2012-2013...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258859/the-burden-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-years-of-life-lost-in-wuxi-china-2012-2015-a-time-series-study-using-a-distributed-lag-non-linear-model
#16
Jingying Zhu, Xuhui Zhang, Xi Zhang, Mei Dong, Jiamei Wu, Yunqiu Dong, Rong Chen, Xinliang Ding, Chunhua Huang, Qi Zhang, Weijie Zhou
Ambient air pollution ranks high among the risk factors that increase the global burden of disease. Previous studies focused on assessing mortality risk and were sparsely performed in populous developing countries with deteriorating environments. We conducted a time-series study to evaluate the air pollution-associated years of life lost (YLL) and mortality risk and to identify potential modifiers relating to the season and demographic characteristics. Using linear (for YLL) and Poisson (for mortality) regression models and controlling for time-varying factors, we found that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in a three-day average cumulative (lag 0-2 day) concentrations of PM2...
February 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250866/analyzing-the-efficiency-of-short-term-air-quality-plans-in-european-cities-using-the-chimere-air-quality-model
#17
P Thunis, B Degraeuwe, E Pisoni, F Meleux, A Clappier
Regional and local authorities have the obligation to design air quality plans and assess their impacts when concentration levels exceed the limit values. Because these limit values cover both short- (day) and long-term (year) effects, air quality plans also follow these two formats. In this work, we propose a methodology to analyze modeled air quality forecast results, looking at emission reduction for different sectors (residential, transport, agriculture, etc.) with the aim of supporting policy makers in assessing the impact of short-term action plans...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243681/time-to-harmonize-national-ambient-air-quality-standards
#18
Meltem Kutlar Joss, Marloes Eeftens, Emily Gintowt, Ron Kappeler, Nino Künzli
OBJECTIVES: The World Health Organization has developed ambient air quality guidelines at levels considered to be safe or of acceptable risk for human health. These guidelines are meant to support governments in defining national standards. It is unclear how they are followed. METHODS: We compiled an inventory of ambient air quality standards for 194 countries worldwide for six air pollutants: PM2.5, PM10, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241115/robustness-of-land-use-regression-models-developed-from-mobile-air-pollutant-measurements
#19
Marianne Hatzopoulou, Marie France Valois, Ilan Levy, Cristian Mihele, Gang Lu, Scott Bagg, Laura Minet, Jeffrey Brook
Land-use regression (LUR) models are useful for resolving fine scale spatial variations in average air pollutant concentrations across urban areas. With the rise of mobile air pollution campaigns, characterized by short-term monitoring and large spatial extents, it is important to investigate the effects of sampling protocols on the resulting LUR. In this study a mobile lab was used to repeatedly visit a large number of locations (∼1800), defined by road segments, to derive average concentrations across the city of Montreal, Canada...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239256/outdoor-environment-and-pediatric-asthma-an-update-on-the-evidence-from-north-america
#20
REVIEW
Jenna Pollock, Lu Shi, Ronald W Gimbel
Introduction. The evidence about the association between asthma and outdoor environmental factors has been inadequate for certain allergens. Even less is known about how these associations vary across seasons and climate regions. We reviewed recent literature from North America for research related to outdoor environmental factors and pediatric asthma, with attention to spatial-temporal variations of these associations. Method. We included indexed literature between years 2010 and 2015 on outdoor environmental factors and pediatric asthma, by searching PubMed...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
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