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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442773/efficacy-of-recent-emissions-controls-on-road-vehicles-in-europe-and-implications-for-public-health
#1
Roy M Harrison, David C Beddows
Road traffic is a major source of urban air pollution responsible for substantial premature mortality. Until recently, attention has focussed primarily on exhaust emissions of particulate matter from traffic as a causal factor. From analysis of air quality measurement data from the UK and France, we demonstrate that road traffic exhaust has a far greater impact on concentrations of nitrogen dioxide than of PM2.5. PM2.5 and carbonaceous particle concentrations have been declining appreciably since 2010/11 due to the use of diesel particle filters, but little change is seen in nitrogen dioxide over the period from 1995 to 2015...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441488/formaldehyde-hcho-as-a-hazardous-air-pollutant-mapping-surface-air-concentrations-from-satellite-and-inferring-cancer-risks-in-the-united-states
#2
Lei Zhu, Daniel J Jacob, Frank N Keutsch, Loretta J Mickley, Richard D Scheffe, Madeleine Strum, Gonzalo González Abad, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, Bernhard Rappenglueck, Dylan B Millet, Munkhbayar Baasandorj, Lyatt Jaeglé, Viral Pinakin Shah
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most important carcinogen in outdoor air among the 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), not including ozone and particulate matter. However, surface observations of HCHO are sparse and the EPA monitoring network could be prone to positive interferences. Here we use 2005-2016 summertime HCHO column data from the OMI satellite instrument, validated with high-quality aircraft data and oversampled on a 5 × 5 km(2) grid, to map surface air HCHO concentrations across the contiguous US...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440282/understanding-the-rising-phase-of-the-pm2-5-concentration-evolution-in-large-china-cities
#3
Baolei Lv, Jun Cai, Bing Xu, Yuqi Bai
Long-term air quality observations are seldom analyzed from a dynamic view. This study analyzed fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution processes using long-term PM2.5 observations in three Chinese cities. Pollution processes were defined as linearly growing PM2.5 concentrations following the criteria of coefficient of determination R(2) > 0.8 and duration time T ≥ 18 hrs. The linear slopes quantitatively measured pollution levels by PM2.5 concentrations rising rates (PMRR, μg/(m(3)·hr))...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439091/abdominal-adiposity-intensifies-the-negative-effects-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-lung-function-in-korean-men
#4
H-J Kim, J-H Park, J-Y Min, K-B Min, Y-S Seo, J M Yun, H Kwon, J-I Kim, B Cho
BACKGROUND: Some studies have provided the possibility that adipose tissue may mediate air pollution-induced lung dysfunction. Studies using quantified fat mass data are needed to understand the biological mechanisms between adipocyte and air pollution in lung function. We aimed to investigate whether abdominal adiposity measured by computed tomography (CT) modifies the effects of air pollution on lung function in Korean men. METHODS: A total of 1876 men who visited one of two health checkup centers were recruited for this study...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434030/spatial-and-temporal-distributions-of-air-pollutants-and-size-distribution-of-aerosols-over-central-and-eastern-china
#5
Honglei Wang, Lijuan Shen, Bin Zhu, Hanqing Kang, Xuewei Hou, Qing Miao, Yang Yang, Shuangshuang Shi
The origins and spatial and temporal distributions of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2 and O3) during May to June of 2015 were investigated using data from 1490 monitoring sites in China. Aerosol number concentrations and meteorological data from Shijiazhuang, Nanjing, and Suzhou were combined with the MIX Asian emission data and the HYSPLIT model. Furthermore, the diurnal variation, size distribution, and main sources of air pollutants and aerosols were selectively characterized in the North China Plain (NCP) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD)...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429404/air-pollution-weight-loss-and-metabolic-benefits-of-bariatric-surgery-a-potential-model-for-study-of-metabolic-effects-of-environmental-exposures
#6
R Ghosh, W J Gauderman, H Minor, H A Youn, F Lurmann, K R Cromar, L Chatzi, B Belcher, C R Fielding, R McConnell
BACKGROUND: Emerging experimental evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to development of obesity and diabetes, but studies of children are limited. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that pollution effects would be magnified after bariatric surgery for treatment of obesity, reducing benefits of surgery. METHODS: In 75 obese adolescents, excess weight loss (EWL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) were measured prospectively at baseline and following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)...
April 21, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419921/development-of-pm2-5-and-no2-models-in-a-lur-framework-incorporating-satellite-remote-sensing-and-air-quality-model-data-in-pearl-river-delta-region-china
#7
Xiaofan Yang, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Huan Liu, Hanyang Man, Zhaofeng Lv, Kebin He, Kees de Hoogh
High resolution pollution maps are critical to understand the exposure and health effect of local residents to air pollution. Currently, none of the single technologies used to measure or estimate concentrations of pollutants can provide sufficient resolved exposure data. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed to combine ground-based measurements, satellite remote sensing (SRS) and air quality model (AQM), together with geographic and local source related spatial inputs, to generate high resolution pollution maps for both PM2...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411064/health-benefits-of-a-reduction-of-pm10-and-no2-exposure-after-implementing-a-clean-air-plan-in-the-agglomeration-lausanne-morges
#8
Alberto Castro, Nino Künzli, Thomas Götschi
Exposure to urban air pollution has been associated with adverse effects on cardio-vascular and respiratory health, both short and long term. Consequently, governments have applied policies to reduce air pollution. Quantitative health impact assessments of hypothetic changes in air pollution have been conducted at national and global level, but assessments of observed air pollution changes associated with specific clean air policies at a local or regional scale remain scarce. This study estimates health impacts attributable to a decrease in PM10 and NO2 exposure in the Agglomeration of Lausanne-Morges (ALM), Switzerland, between 2005 and 2015, corresponding to the implementation period of a supra-municipal plan of measures to reduce air pollution in different sectors such as transport, energy, and industry (called Plan OPair 05)...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410518/interactive-effects-of-specific-fine-particulate-matter-compositions-and-airborne-pollen-on-frequency-of-clinic-visits-for-pollinosis-in-fukuoka-japan
#9
Arthit Phosri, Kayo Ueda, Saira Tasmin, Reiko Kishikawa, Masahiko Hayashi, Keiichiro Hara, Yamato Uehara, Vera Ling Hui Phung, Shusuke Yasukouchi, Shoko Konishi, Akiko Honda, Hirohisa Takano
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed the interactive effects of airborne pollen and particulate matter on the daily consultations for pollinosis, but it is uncertain which compositions are responsible. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effects of specific PM2.5 compositions and airborne pollen on the daily number of clinic visits for pollinosis in Fukuoka. METHODS: We obtained daily data on pollen concentrations, PM2.5 compositions, PM2.5 mass, gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, and O3), and weather variables monitored in Fukuoka between February and April, 2002-2012...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409432/short-term-effects-of-air-pollution-on-daily-hospital-admissions-for-cardiovascular-diseases-in-western-china
#10
Yuxia Ma, Haipeng Zhang, Yuxin Zhao, Jianding Zhou, Sixu Yang, Xiaodong Zheng, Shigong Wang
Controlling the confounding factors on cardiovascular diseases, such as long-time trend, calendar effect, and meteorological factors, a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to investigate the short-term effects of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, and NO2) on daily cardiovascular admissions from March 1st to May 31st during 2007 to 2011 in Lanzhou, a heavily polluted city in western China. The influences of air pollutants were examined with different lag structures, and the potential effect modification by dust storm in spring was also investigated...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408613/air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-ischaemic-and-haemorrhagic-stroke-in-the-south-london-stroke-register-a-case-cross-over-analysis
#11
B K Butland, R W Atkinson, S Crichton, B Barratt, S Beevers, A Spiridou, U Hoang, F J Kelly, C D Wolfe
BACKGROUND: Few European studies investigating associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and incident stroke have considered stroke subtypes. Using information from the South London Stroke Register for 2005-2012, we investigated associations between daily concentrations of gaseous and particulate air pollutants and incident stroke subtypes in an ethnically diverse area of London, UK. METHODS: Modelled daily pollutant concentrations based on a combination of measurements and dispersion modelling were linked at postcode level to incident stroke events stratified by haemorrhagic and ischaemic subtypes...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399503/national-scale-exposure-prediction-for-long-term-concentrations-of-particulate-matter-and-nitrogen-dioxide-in-south-korea
#12
Sun-Young Kim, Insang Song
The limited spatial coverage of the air pollution data available from regulatory air quality monitoring networks hampers national-scale epidemiological studies of air pollution. The present study aimed to develop a national-scale exposure prediction model for estimating annual average concentrations of PM10 and NO2 at residences in South Korea using regulatory monitoring data for 2010. Using hourly measurements of PM10 and NO2 at 277 regulatory monitoring sites, we calculated the annual average concentrations at each site...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397785/unexpected-increase-in-the-oxidation-capacity-of-the-urban-atmosphere-of-madrid-spain
#13
A Saiz-Lopez, R Borge, A Notario, J A Adame, D de la Paz, X Querol, B Artíñano, F J Gómez-Moreno, C A Cuevas
Atmospheric oxidants such as ozone (O3), hydroxyl and nitrate radicals (OH and NO3) determine the ability of the urban atmosphere to process organic and inorganic pollutants, which have an impact on air quality, environmental health and climate. Madrid city has experienced an increase of 30-40% in ambient air O3 levels, along with a decrease of 20-40% in NO2, from 2007 to 2014. Using air pollution observations and a high-resolution air quality model, we find a large concentration increase of up to 70% and 90% in OH and NO3, respectively, in downtown Madrid (domain-wide average increase of 10% and 32% for OH and NO3, respectively)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397122/optimal-air-quality-policies-and-health-a-multi-objective-nonlinear-approach
#14
Helder Relvas, Ana Isabel Miranda, Claudio Carnevale, Giuseppe Maffeis, Enrico Turrini, Marialuisa Volta
The use of modelling tools to support decision-makers to plan air quality policies is now quite widespread in Europe. In this paper, the Regional Integrated Assessment Tool (RIAT+), which was designed to support policy-maker decision on optimal emission reduction measures to improve air quality at minimum costs, is applied to the Porto Urban Area (Portugal). In addition to technological measures, some local measures were included in the optimization process. Case study results are presented for a multi-objective approach focused on both NO2 and PM10 control measures, assuming equivalent importance in the optimization process...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395240/associations-between-lifestyle-and-air-pollution-exposure-potential-for-confounding-in-large-administrative-data-cohorts
#15
Maciej Strak, Nicole Janssen, Rob Beelen, Oliver Schmitz, Derek Karssenberg, Danny Houthuijs, Carolien van den Brink, Martin Dijst, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard Hoek
BACKGROUND: Cohorts based on administrative data have size advantages over individual cohorts in investigating air pollution risks, but often lack in-depth information on individual risk factors related to lifestyle. If there is a correlation between lifestyle and air pollution, omitted lifestyle variables may result in biased air pollution risk estimates. Correlations between lifestyle and air pollution can be induced by socio-economic status affecting both lifestyle and air pollution exposure...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392078/association-of-air-pollution-with-increased-incidence-of-ventricular-tachyarrhythmias-recorded-by-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators-vulnerable-patients-to-air-pollution
#16
In-Soo Kim, Jungwoo Sohn, Seung-Jun Lee, Jin-Kyu Park, Jae-Sun Uhm, Hui-Nam Pak, Moon-Hyoung Lee, Chang-Soo Kim, Boyoung Joung
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the acute effects of exposure to air pollution on ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs) in an East Asian population. The association between air pollution and VTA has not yet been studied in an East Asian country affected by the Asian dust phenomenon, which worsens air quality. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 160patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) devices in the Seoul metropolitan area who were followed for 5...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392067/cognitive-impacts-of-ambient-air-pollution-in-the-national-social-health-and-aging-project-nshap-cohort
#17
Lindsay A Tallon, Justin Manjourides, Vivian C Pun, Carmel Salhi, Helen Suh
BACKGROUND: Pathways through which air pollution may impact cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly with regard to whether and how air pollution interacts with social and emotional factors to influence cognitive health. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between air pollutant exposures and cognitive outcomes among older adults participating in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort study. METHODS: Measures of cognitive function, social connectedness, and physical and mental health were obtained for each NSHAP participant starting with Wave 1 of the study in 2005...
April 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388332/long-term-trends-in-airborne-so2-in-an-air-quality-monitoring-station-in-seoul-korea-from-1987-to-2013
#18
Azmatullah Khan, Ki-Hyun Kim, Jan E Szulejko, Richard J C Brown, Eui-Chan Jeon, Jong-Min Oh, Yong Soon Shin, Adedeji A Adelodun
Atmospheric concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) was intermittently measured at an air quality monitoring (AQM) station in the Yong-san district of Seoul, Korea between 1987 and 2013. The SO2 level was compared with other important pollutants concurrently measured including methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM10). If split into three different periods (period 1 (1987-1988), period 2 (1999-2000), and period 3 (2004-2013)), the respective mean [SO2] values (6...
April 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384276/short-term-effects-of-weather-and-air-pollution-on-atopic-dermatitis-symptoms-in-children-a-panel-study-in-korea
#19
Young-Min Kim, Jihyun Kim, Youngshin Han, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Kangmo Ahn
INTRODUCTION: The effects of weather and air pollution on the severity and persistence of atopic dermatitis (AD) are important issues that have not been investigated in detail. The objective of our study was to determine the short-term effects of meteorological variables and air pollution on AD symptoms in children. METHODS: We enrolled 177 AD patients with 5 years or younger from the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and followed for 17 months between August 2013 and December 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378017/room-temperature-multiplexed-gas-sensing-using-chemical-sensitive-3-5-nm-thin-silicon-transistors
#20
Hossain Mohammad Fahad, Hiroshi Shiraki, Matin Amani, Chuchu Zhang, Vivek Srinivas Hebbar, Wei Gao, Hiroki Ota, Mark Hettick, Daisuke Kiriya, Yu-Ze Chen, Yu-Lun Chueh, Ali Javey
There is great interest in developing a low-power gas sensing technology that can sensitively and selectively quantify the chemical composition of a target atmosphere. Nanomaterials have emerged as extremely promising candidates for this technology due to their inherent low-dimensional nature and high surface-to-volume ratio. Among these, nanoscale silicon is of great interest because pristine silicon is largely inert on its own in the context of gas sensing, unless functionalized with an appropriate gas-sensitive material...
March 2017: Science Advances
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