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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644724/modeling-long-term-effects-attributed-to-nitrogen-dioxide-no2-and-sulfur-dioxide-so2-exposure-on-asthma-morbidity-in-a-nationwide-cohort-in-israel
#1
N Greenberg, R S Carel, E Derazne, A Tiktinsky, D Tzur, B A Portnov
Studies have provided extensive documentation that acutely elevated environmental exposures contribute to chronic health problems. However, only attention has been paid to the effects of modificate of exposure assessment methods in environmental health investigations, leading to uncertainty and gaps in our understanding of exposure- and dose-response relationships. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether average or peak concentration exerts a greater influence on asthma outcome, and which of the exposure models may better explain various physiological responses generated by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollutants...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629640/is-physical-activity-a-modifier-of-the-association-between-air-pollution-and-arterial-stiffness-in-older-adults-the-sapaldia-cohort-study
#2
Simon Endes, Emmanuel Schaffner, Seraina Caviezel, Julia Dratva, Daiana Stolz, Christian Schindler, Nino Künzli, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Nicole Probst-Hensch
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Air pollution and insufficient physical activity have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, molecular mechanisms linked to arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease. There are no studies on how physical activity modifies the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness. We examined whether the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution were modified by individual physical activity levels in 2823 adults aged 50-81 years from the well-characterized Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases (SAPALDIA)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629362/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-ultrafine-particles-and-respiratory-disease-incidence-in-in-toronto-canada-a-cohort-study
#3
Scott Weichenthal, Li Bai, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Keith Van Ryswyk, Jeffrey C Kwong, Michael Jerrett, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin, Richard T Burnett, Hong Lu, Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (<0.1 μm) (UFPs) including their association with respiratory disease incidence. In this study, we examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient UFPs and the incidence of lung cancer, adult-onset asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Our study cohort included approximately 1.1 million adults who resided in Toronto, Canada and who were followed for disease incidence between 1996 and 2012...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628865/urban-emissions-hotspots-quantifying-vehicle-congestion-and-air-pollution-using-mobile-phone-gps-data
#4
Conor K Gately, Lucy R Hutyra, Scott Peterson, Ian Sue Wing
On-road emissions vary widely on time scales as short as minutes and length scales as short as tens of meters. Detailed data on emissions at these scales are a prerequisite to accurately quantifying ambient pollution concentrations and identifying hotspots of human exposure within urban areas. We construct a highly resolved inventory of hourly fluxes of CO, NO2, NOx, PM2.5 and CO2 from road vehicles on 280,000 road segments in eastern Massachusetts for the year 2012. Our inventory integrates a large database of hourly vehicle speeds derived from mobile phone and vehicle GPS data with multiple regional datasets of vehicle flows, fleet characteristics, and local meteorology...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625881/effects-of-exposure-to-biomass-burning-on-pulmonary-inflammatory-markers-and-pulmonary-function-in-individuals-with-copd
#5
D Ramos, M Proença, M R Leite, A D Ferreira, I B Trevisan, G F S Brígida, G Y Tacao, E M C Ramos
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has many benefits for individuals with COPD. However, it is not clear whether PR could prevent the hazards of air pollution exposure. This study aimed to analyze the effects of biomass burning exposure on pulmonary inflammatory markers and pulmonary function in individuals with COPD, participants and non-participants of PR. METHODS: 35 subjects were divided into three groups: individuals with COPD who received PR (G1, n=15), those who did not (G2, n=10), and a control group composed of healthy individuals without COPD (CG, n=10)...
June 15, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617090/left-ventricular-function-in-relation-to-chronic-residential-air-pollution-in-a-general-population
#6
Wen-Yi Yang, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Lutgarde Thijs, Esmée M Bijnens, Bram G Janssen, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Nicholas Cauwenberghs, Fang-Fei Wei, Aernout Luttun, Peter Verhamme, Etienne Van Hecke, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Jan D'hooge, Tim S Nawrot, Jan A Staessen
Background In view of the increasing heart failure epidemic and awareness of the adverse impact of environmental pollution on human health, we investigated the association of left ventricular structure and function with air pollutants in a general population. Methods In 671 randomly recruited Flemish (51.7% women; mean age, 50.4 years) we echocardiographically assessed left ventricular systolic strain and strain rate and the early and late peak velocities of transmitral blood flow and mitral annular movement (2005-2009)...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615020/short-term-air-pollution-exposure-decreases-lung-function-a-repeated-measures-study-in-healthy-adults
#7
Luc Int Panis, Eline B Provost, Bianca Cox, Tijs Louwies, Michelle Laeremans, Arnout Standaert, Evi Dons, Luc Holmstock, Tim Nawrot, Patrick De Boever
BACKGROUND: Daily changes in ambient concentrations of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides and ozone are associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, with the lungs and their function being a vulnerable target. METHODS: To evaluate the association between daily changes in air pollution and lung function in healthy adults we obtained annual lung function measurements from a routine worker health surveillance program not designed for research purposes...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598272/short-term-effects-of-fine-particulate-air-pollution-on-hospital-admissions-for-hypertension-a-time-stratified-case-crossover-study-in-taipei
#8
Hui-Fen Chiu, Shang-Shyue Tsai, Chun-Yuh Yang
This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between fine particle (PM2.5) levels and hospital admissions for hypertension in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for hypertension and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2009 to 2013. The relative risk of hospital admissions was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), the risk of hospital admissions for hypertension was estimated to increase by 12% on warm days (>23°C) and 2% on cool days (<23°C), respectively...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598271/short-term-effects-of-ozone-air-pollution-on-hospital-admissions-for-myocardial-infarction-a-time-stratified-case-crossover-study-in-taipei
#9
Hui-Fen Chiu, Yi-Hao Weng, Ya-Wen Chiu, Chun-Yuh Yang
This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between ambient ozone (O3) levels and number of hospital admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for MI and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk (RR) of hospital admissions for MI was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595043/the-association-between-the-incidence-of-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-and-concentrations-at-street-level-of-nitrogen-dioxide-and-ultrafine-particles
#10
Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Scott Weichenthal, Eric Lavigne, Marie-France Valois, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Keith Van Ryswyk, Maryam Shekarrizfard, Paul J Villeneuve, Daniel Crouse, Marie-Élise Parent
BACKGROUND: There is scant information as to whether traffic-related air pollution is associated with the incidence of breast cancer. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ultrafine particles (UFPs, <0.1µm), are two pollutants that capture intra-urban variations in traffic-related air pollution and may also be associated with incidence. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study of street-level concentrations of NO2 and UFPs and incident postmenopausal breast cancer in Montreal, Canada...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582929/relationships-between-lung-cancer-incidences-and-air-pollutants
#11
Shihong Yue, Yaru Wang, Jianpei Wang, Jun Chen
BACKGROUND: Statistics on lung cancer incidences and air pollutants show a strong correlation between air pollutant concentrations and pulmonary diseases. And environmental effects on lung cancer incidences remain highly unknown and uncertain in China. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to measure the relationships between different air pollutants and lung cancer incidences in Tianjin. METHODS: One thusand five hundred patients across 27 districts in Tianjin were studied for lung cancer incidences...
May 26, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581828/biomarkers-used-in-studying-air-pollution-exposure-during-pregnancy-and-perinatal-outcomes-a-review
#12
Gauri Desai, Li Chu, Yanjun Guo, Ajay A Myneni, Lina Mu
PURPOSE: This review focuses on studies among pregnant women that used biomarkers to assess air pollution exposure, or to understand the mechanisms by which it affects perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google scholar databases to find articles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We found 29 articles, mostly consisting of cohort studies. Interpolation models were most frequently used to assess exposure. The most consistent positive association was between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure during entire pregnancy and cord blood PAH DNA adducts...
June 21, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578585/high-resolution-air-pollution-mapping-with-google-street-view-cars-exploiting-big-data
#13
Joshua S Apte, Kyle P Messier, Shahzad Gani, Michael Brauer, Thomas W Kirchstetter, Melissa M Lunden, Julian D Marshall, Christopher J Portier, Roel C H Vermeulen, Steven P Hamburg
Air pollution affects billions of people worldwide, yet ambient pollution measurements are limited for much of the world. Urban air pollution concentrations vary sharply over short distances (≪1 km) owing to unevenly distributed emission sources, dilution, and physicochemical transformations. Accordingly, even where present, conventional fixed-site pollution monitoring methods lack the spatial resolution needed to characterize heterogeneous human exposures and localized pollution hotspots. Here, we demonstrate a measurement approach to reveal urban air pollution patterns at 4-5 orders of magnitude greater spatial precision than possible with current central-site ambient monitoring...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577490/quantitative-biomonitoring-of-nitrogen-deposition-with-tonis-total-n-input-biomonitoring-system
#14
Karsten Mohr, Jerzy Suda
Monitoring of air pollutants is an important instrument to detect threats and to observe temporal trends of emissions. Determining the spatial distribution of oxidized and reduced N species via modelling requires sufficient knowledge about innumerous small sources from traffic, settlements and agriculture. Empirical studies are required to validate the model data but measurements of the total N deposition (e.g. micrometeorological measurements) are very expensive. Against this background, the TONIS, a new suitable technique which combines a biomonitoring with plants and technical measurements was developed...
May 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575405/long-term-exposure-to-road-traffic-noise-ambient-air-pollution-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-the-hunt-and-lifelines-cohorts
#15
Yutong Cai, Anna L Hansell, Marta Blangiardo, Paul R Burton, Kees de Hoogh, Dany Doiron, Isabel Fortier, John Gulliver, Kristian Hveem, Stéphane Mbatchou, David W Morley, Ronald P Stolk, Wilma L Zijlema, Paul Elliott, Susan Hodgson
Aims: Blood biochemistry may provide information on associations between road traffic noise, air pollution, and cardiovascular disease risk. We evaluated this in two large European cohorts (HUNT3, Lifelines). Methods and results: Road traffic noise exposure was modelled for 2009 using a simplified version of the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU). Annual ambient air pollution (PM10, NO2) at residence was estimated for 2007 using a Land Use Regression model...
May 31, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574569/atmospheric-protein-chemistry-influenced-by-anthropogenic-air-pollutants-nitration-and-oligomerization-upon-exposure-to-ozone-and-nitrogen-dioxide
#16
Fobang Liu, Pascale S J Lakey, Thomas Berkemeier, Haijie Tong, Anna Theresa Kunert, Hannah Meusel, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Senchao Lai, Michael G Weller, Manabu Shiraiwa, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher J Kampf
The allergenic potential of airborne proteins may be enhanced via post-translational modification induced by air pollutants like ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The molecular mechanisms and kinetics of the chemical modifications that enhance the allergenicity of proteins, however, are still not fully understood. Here, protein tyrosine nitration and oligomerization upon simultaneous exposure of O3 and NO2 were studied in coated-wall flow-tube and bulk solution experiments under varying atmospherically relevant conditions (5-200 ppb O3, 5-200 ppb NO2, 45-96% RH), using bovine serum albumin as a model protein...
June 2, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559587/urban-eddy-covariance-measurements-reveal-significant-missing-nox-emissions-in-central-europe
#17
T Karl, M Graus, M Striednig, C Lamprecht, A Hammerle, G Wohlfahrt, A Held, L von der Heyden, M J Deventer, A Krismer, C Haun, R Feichter, J Lee
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollution is emerging as a primary environmental concern across Europe. While some large European metropolitan areas are already in breach of EU safety limits for NO2, this phenomenon does not seem to be only restricted to large industrialized areas anymore. Many smaller scale populated agglomerations including their surrounding rural areas are seeing frequent NO2 concentration violations. The question of a quantitative understanding of different NOx emission sources is therefore of immanent relevance for climate and air chemistry models as well as air pollution management and health...
May 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554030/ambient-sulfur-dioxide-levels-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-initial-outpatient-visits-for-tuberculosis-a-population-based-time-series-analysis
#18
Erjia Ge, Min Fan, Hong Qiu, Howard Hu, Linwei Tian, Xiaomeng Wang, Guozhang Xu, Xiaolin Wei
BACKGROUND: Recent biochemical studies suggest that exogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) at low concentrations may have been beneficial in inhibiting mycobacteria tuberculosis (TB) growth. However, there is a dearth of population-based studies. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of ambient SO2 levels and initial TB outpatient visits. METHODS: In Ningbo, China, we collected all daily initial outpatient visits for TB and routinely air pollution monitoring data between January 2009 and December 2013...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552008/individual-exposure-to-nitrogen-dioxide-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-kaunas-study
#19
Audrius Dedele, Regina Grazuleviciene, Aukse Miskinyte
Several epidemiological studies have found some evidence suggesting that exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes. In this cohort study, we assessed individual maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during pregnancy and examined the association between the exposure and pregnancy outcomes, such as low birth weight (LBW), term low birth weight (TLBW), small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth (PB). 3292 women living in Kaunas city, Lithuania, data and their singleton newborns were included in the study...
May 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551885/public-engagement-on-urban-air-pollution-an-exploratory-study-of-two-interventions
#20
Christian Oltra, Roser Sala, Àlex Boso, Sergi López Asensio
The use of portable sensors to measure air quality is a promising approach for the management of urban air quality given its potential to improve public participation in environmental issues and to promote healthy behaviors. However, not all the projects that use air quality mobile sensors consider the potential effects of their use on the attitudes and behaviors of non-expert individuals. This study explores the experiences, perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of 12 participants who used a real-time NO2 sensor over a period of 7 days in the metropolitan area of Barcelona and compares them with 16 participants who did not have access to the device but rather to documentary information...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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