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no2 air pollution

Jeanette A Stingone, Thomas J Luben, Suzan L Carmichael, Arthur S Aylsworth, Lorenzo D Botto, Adolfo Correa, Suzanne M Gilboa, Peter H Langlois, Wendy N Nembhard, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant, Gary M Shaw, Andrew F Olshan
Nutrients that regulate methylation processes may modify susceptibility to the effects of air pollutants. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2006, were used to estimate associations between maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), dietary intake of methyl nutrients and the odds of congenital heart defects in offspring. NO2 concentrations, a marker of traffic-related air pollution, averaged across post-conception weeks 2-8, were assigned to 6160 non-diabetic mothers of cases and controls using inverse distance-squared weighting of air monitors within 50 km of maternal residence...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Andrew Larkin, Jeffrey A Geddes, Randall V Martin, Qingyang Xiao, Yang Liu, Julian D Marshall, Michael Brauer, Perry Hystad
Nitrogen dioxide is a common air pollutant with growing evidence of health impacts independent of other common pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. However, the global distribution of NO2 exposure and associated impacts on global health is still largely uncertain. To advance global exposure estimates we created a global nitrogen dioxide (NO2) land use regression model for 2011 using annual measurements from 5,220 air monitors in 58 countries. The model captured 54% of global NO2 variation, with a mean absolute error of 3...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Zheng Zong, Xiaoping Wang, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Yunting Fang, Fan Zhang, Cheng Li, Jianzhong Sun, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Nitrogen oxides (NOx, including NO and NO2) play an important role in the formation of atmospheric particles. Thus, NOx emission reduction is critical for improving air quality, especially in severely air-polluted regions (e.g., North China). In this study, the source of NOx was investigated by the isotopic composition (δ15N) of particulate nitrate (p-NO3-) at Beihuangcheng Island (BH), a regional background site in North China. It was found that the δ15N-NO3- (n = 120) values varied between -1.7 and +24...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Gongbo Chen, Yongming Zhang, Wenyi Zhang, Shanshan Li, Gail Williams, Guy B Marks, Bin Jalaludin, Michael J Abramson, Fengming Luo, Dong Yang, Xin Su, Qichang Lin, Laiyu Liu, Jiangtao Lin, Yuming Guo
Air pollution is associated with risks of mortality in China, but the evidence is still limited for morbidity. This study aims to examine overall effects of ambient air pollutants on emergency hospital visits (EHVs) at the national level in China and calculate corresponding attributable risks. We collected daily data for EHVs from 33 largest hospitals in China between Oct 2013 and Dec 2014, as well as daily measurements of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5: particles with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm and 2...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yuan Shi, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Edward Ng
Urban air quality serves as an important function of the quality of urban life. Land use regression (LUR) modelling of air quality is essential for conducting health impacts assessment but more challenging in mountainous high-density urban scenario due to the complexities of the urban environment. In this study, a total of 21 LUR models are developed for seven kinds of air pollutants (gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, NOx, O3, SO2 and particulate air pollutants PM2.5, PM10) with reference to three different time periods (summertime, wintertime and annual average of 5-year long-term hourly monitoring data from local air quality monitoring network) in Hong Kong...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Research
Xiaochen Huang, Shanghui Guan, Jiangfeng Wang, Linli Zhao, Yibin Jia, Zilong Lu, Cuiping Yin, Shengsi Yang, Qingxu Song, Lihui Han, Cong Wang, Jingyi Li, Wei Zhou, Xiaolei Guo, Yufeng Cheng
This study aimed to estimate the associations between air pollution and esophageal cancer. In the ecologic cross-sectional study, correlation analyses were made between city-level mean concentrations of particulate matter less than 10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), SO2, NO2 and city-level age-standardized mortality rates of esophageal cancer in Shandong Province, China. PM10 (p=0.046) and NO2 (p=0.03) both had significant linear correlations with esophageal cancer mortality rates. After introducing smoking as a risk factor in models of multiple linear regression analyses, PM10 was still an independent risk factor that increased esophageal cancer mortality rates...
April 20, 2017: Oncotarget
Li-Wei Lai, Wan-Li Cheng
Daily time air quality indices, which can reflect air quality in 1 day, are suitable for identifying daily exposure during conditions of poor air quality. The aim of this study is to compare the main effectiveness of four daily time indices in representing variation in the number of disease admissions. These indices include pollution standard index (PSI), air quality index (AQI) and their respective indices derived from mean and entropy functions: MEPSI and MEAQI. The hourly concentrations of fine particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), PM2...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Congbo Song, Lin Wu, Yaochen Xie, Jianjun He, Xi Chen, Ting Wang, Yingchao Lin, Taosheng Jin, Anxu Wang, Yan Liu, Qili Dai, Baoshuang Liu, Ya-Nan Wang, Hongjun Mao
In recent years, China has experienced severe and persistent air pollution associated with rapid urbanization and climate change. Three years' time series (January 2014 to December 2016) concentrations data of air pollutants including particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) from over 1300 national air quality monitoring sites were studied to understand the severity of China's air pollution. In 2014 (2015, 2016), annual population-weighted-average (PWA) values in China were 65...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Efthimios Tagaris, Ioannis Stergiou, Rafaella-Eleni P Sotiropoulou
The impact of shipping emissions on ozone mixing ratio over Europe is assessed for July 2006 using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research anthropogenic emission inventory. Results suggest that ship-induced ozone contribution to the total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline, while an increase up to 5% is simulated over a large portion of the European land. The largest impact (i.e., an increase up to 30%) is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuval, Ilan Levy, David M Broday
Models that are used to map air pollutant concentrations are not free of errors. A possible approach for improving the final concentration map is to interpolate the residuals of the initial model concentration estimates. Due to the possible spatial autocorrelation of the residuals of the initial model estimates, Bayesian inference schemes were suggested for this task, since they can correctly adjust the level of fitting of the residuals to the random measurement errors. However, the complexity of Bayesian methods often discourages their use...
April 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Massimo Gestro, Vincenzo Condemi, Luisella Bardi, Claudio Fantino, Umberto Solimene
AbstractOtitis media (OM) is a very common disease in children, which results in a significant economic burden to the healthcare system for hospital-based outpatient departments, emergency departments (EDs), unscheduled medical examinations, and antibiotic prescriptions. The aim of this retrospective observational study is to investigate the association between climate variables, air pollutants, and OM visits observed in the 2007-2010 period at the ED of Cuneo, Italy. Measures of meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind) and outdoor air pollutants (particulate matter, ozone, nitrous dioxide) were analyzed at two statistical stages and in several specific steps (crude and adjusted models) according to Poisson's regression...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Özkan Çapraz, Ali Deniz, Nida Doğan
We examined the associations between the daily variations of air pollutants and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in İstanbul, the largest city of Turkey. A time series analysis of counts of daily hospital admissions and outdoor air pollutants was performed using single-pollutant Poisson generalized linear model (GLM) while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors over a 3-year period (2013-2015) at different time lags (0-9 days). Effects of the pollutants (Excess Risk, ER) on current-day (lag 0) hospital admissions to the first ten days (lag 9) were determined...
April 24, 2017: Chemosphere
Yuewei Liu, Shuguang Xie, Qing Yu, Xixiang Huo, Xiaoyan Ming, Jing Wang, Yun Zhou, Zhe Peng, Hai Zhang, Xiuqing Cui, Hua Xiang, Xiji Huang, Ting Zhou, Weihong Chen, Tingming Shi
Previous studies have suggested that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with pediatric hospital admissions and emergency room visits for certain respiratory diseases; however, there is limited evidence on the association between short-term air pollution exposure and pediatric outpatient visits. Our aim was to quantitatively assess the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases. We conducted a time-series study in Yichang city, China between Jan 1, 2014 and Dec 31, 2015...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Xu Li, Yanfeng Jiang, Ling Yin, Bo Liu, Pengfei Du, Mujtaba Hassan, Shigong Wang, Tanshi Li
To evaluate the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory emergency room visits, a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the exposure-effect relationship between air pollutants and respiratory emergency room visits. The results showed that NO2, SO2, and PM10 have positive relationships with respiratory disease. Concentration increases of 10 μg/m(3) in NO2, SO2, and PM10 corresponded to 3.90% (95%CI 3.56-4.25), 0.81% (95%CI -0.09-1.72), and 0.64% (95%CI 0.55-0.74) increases in respiratory emergency room visits...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Fuzhen Shen, Xinlei Ge, Jianlin Hu, Dongyang Nie, Li Tian, Mindong Chen
Events of severe air pollution occurred frequently in China recently, thus understanding of the air pollution characteristics and its health risks is very important. In this work, we analyzed a two-year dataset (March 2014 - February 2016) including daily concentrations of six criteria pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and O3) from 18 cities in Henan province. Results reveal the serious air pollution status in Henan province, especially the northern part, and Zhengzhou is the city with the worst air quality...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Research
Roy M Harrison, David C Beddows
Road traffic is a major source of urban air pollution responsible for substantial premature mortality. Until recently, attention has focussed primarily on exhaust emissions of particulate matter from traffic as a causal factor. From analysis of air quality measurement data from the UK and France, we demonstrate that road traffic exhaust has a far greater impact on concentrations of nitrogen dioxide than of PM2.5. PM2.5 and carbonaceous particle concentrations have been declining appreciably since 2010/11 due to the use of diesel particle filters, but little change is seen in nitrogen dioxide over the period from 1995 to 2015...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lei Zhu, Daniel J Jacob, Frank N Keutsch, Loretta J Mickley, Richard Scheffe, Madeleine Strum, Gonzalo González Abad, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, Bernhard Rappenglück, Dylan B Millet, Munkhbayar Baasandorj, Lyatt Jaeglé, Viral Shah
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most important carcinogen in outdoor air among the 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), not including ozone and particulate matter. However, surface observations of HCHO are sparse and the EPA monitoring network could be prone to positive interferences. Here we use 2005-2016 summertime HCHO column data from the OMI satellite instrument, validated with high-quality aircraft data and oversampled on a 5 × 5 km(2) grid, to map surface air HCHO concentrations across the contiguous U...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Baolei Lv, Jun Cai, Bing Xu, Yuqi Bai
Long-term air quality observations are seldom analyzed from a dynamic view. This study analyzed fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution processes using long-term PM2.5 observations in three Chinese cities. Pollution processes were defined as linearly growing PM2.5 concentrations following the criteria of coefficient of determination R(2) > 0.8 and duration time T ≥ 18 hrs. The linear slopes quantitatively measured pollution levels by PM2.5 concentrations rising rates (PMRR, μg/(m(3)·hr))...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
H-J Kim, J-H Park, J-Y Min, K-B Min, Y-S Seo, J M Yun, H Kwon, J-I Kim, B Cho
BACKGROUND: Some studies have provided the possibility that adipose tissue may mediate air pollution-induced lung dysfunction. Studies using quantified fat mass data are needed to understand the biological mechanisms between adipocyte and air pollution in lung function. We aimed to investigate whether abdominal adiposity measured by computed tomography (CT) modifies the effects of air pollution on lung function in Korean men. METHODS: A total of 1876 men who visited one of two health checkup centers were recruited for this study...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Honglei Wang, Lijuan Shen, Bin Zhu, Hanqing Kang, Xuewei Hou, Qing Miao, Yang Yang, Shuangshuang Shi
The origins and spatial and temporal distributions of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2 and O3) during May to June of 2015 were investigated using data from 1490 monitoring sites in China. Aerosol number concentrations and meteorological data from Shijiazhuang, Nanjing, and Suzhou were combined with the MIX Asian emission data and the HYSPLIT model. Furthermore, the diurnal variation, size distribution, and main sources of air pollutants and aerosols were selectively characterized in the North China Plain (NCP) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD)...
May 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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