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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780815/-evaluation-of-the-viability-of-beas-2b-cells-exposed-to-gasoline-engine-exhaust-with-different-particle-sizes-by-air-liquid-interface
#1
T Yu, X Y Zhang, Z X Wang, B Li, Y X Zheng, P Bin
Objective: To evaluate the viability of gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) with different particle sizes on human lung cell line BEAS-2B in vitro by air-liquid interface (ALI) . Methods: GEE were collected with a Tedlar bag and their particulate matter (PM) number, surface and mass concentration in three kind of GEE (filtered automobile exhaust, non-filtered automobile exhaust and motorcycle exhaust without three-way catalytic converter) were measured by two type of particle size spectrometer including TSI-3321 and SMPS-3938...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760719/ambient-coarse-particulate-matter-and-the-right-ventricle-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#2
Jennifer C D'Souza, Steven M Kawut, Laura R Elkayam, Lianne Sheppard, Peter S Thorne, David R Jacobs, David A Bluemke, Joao A C Lima, Joel D Kaufman, Timothy V Larson, Sara D Adar
BACKGROUND: Coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) is primarily mechanically generated and includes crustal material, brake and tire wear, and biological particles. PM10-2.5 is associated with pulmonary disease, which can lead to right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Although RV characteristics have been associated with combustion-related pollutants, relationships with PM10-2.5 remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To quantify cross-sectional associations between RV dysfunction and PM10-2...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735838/cardiovascular-effects-of-air-pollution
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Bourdrel, Marie-Abèle Bind, Yannick Béjot, Olivier Morel, Jean-François Argacha
Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM10), fine particles (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m(3) increase in long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735151/do-air-pollution-and-neighborhood-greenness-exposures-improve-the-predicted-cardiovascular-risk
#4
Maayan Yitshak-Sade, Itai Kloog, Victor Novack
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies show associations between exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current cardiovascular equations incorporate the major risk factors for CVD. The patients' environment, however, is not incorporated in these equations. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, we assessed the contribution of neighborhood greenness and particulate matter (coarse-PM and PM<2.5μm-PM2.5) to the development of CVD by analyzing the change in prediction abilities...
July 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699010/chemical-characterization-of-size-segregated-pm-from-different-public-transport-modes-and-implications-of-source-specific-contribution-to-public-exposure
#5
Sabrina Yanan Jiang, Nirmal Kumar Gali, Fenhuan Yang, Junke Zhang, Zhi Ning
To investigate the chemical properties of particulate matter (PM) in different public transport microenvironments in Hong Kong, the coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (<2.5 μm) PM samples were collected in three different types of transport modes including Mass Transit Railway (MTR)-Aboveground (AG), MTR Underground (UG), and Bus routes from October 2013 to April 2014. Average PM2.5 concentrations through UG, AG, and Bus routes were 47.9, 86.8, and 43.8 μg m(-3), respectively, whereas the coarse PM concentrations were 4-5 folds less...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689210/residential-air-pollution-road-traffic-greenness-and-maternal-hypertension-results-from-giniplus-and-lisaplus
#6
Mario Jendrossek, Marie Standl, Sibylle Koletzko, Irina Lehmann, Carl-Peter Bauer, Tamara Schikowski, Andrea von Berg, Dietrich Berdel, Joachim Heinrich, Iana Markevych
BACKGROUND: The public health burden of hypertension is high, but its relationship with long-term residential air pollution, road traffic, and greenness remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between residential air pollution, traffic, greenness, and hypertension among mothers. METHODS: Information on doctor-diagnosed maternal hypertension was collected at the 15-year follow-up of two large population-based multicenter German birth cohorts-GINIplus and LISAplus (n=3063)...
July 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681290/physicochemical-properties-in-vitro-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-effects-of-pm1-0-and-pm2-5-from-shanghai-china
#7
Yajuan Zou, Yizhao Wu, Yali Wang, Yinsheng Li, Chengyu Jin
Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) links with a variety of respiratory diseases. However, compared with coarse particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5), submicrometer particles (PM1.0) may be a more important indicator of human health risks. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PM1.0 samples from Shanghai were examined using A549 cells, and compared with the effects of PM2.5, to better understand the health effects of PM1.0 in this area. The PM1.0 and PM2.5 samples were characterized for morphology, water-soluble inorganic ions, organic and elemental carbon, and metal elements...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662081/particulate-matter-and-heavy-metal-deposition-on-the-leaves-of-euonymus-japonicus-during-the-east-asian-monsoon-in-beijing-china
#8
Tong Zhang, Yuxuan Bai, Xiuling Hong, Liwei Sun, Yujun Liu
Plants can be effectively used as bio-monitors of environmental pollution. However, how the particulate matter (PM) and heavy metal retention ability of plants changes in different areas with human disturbance along with monsoon has not yet been investigated in urban ecosystems. In this study, we measured the amount of PM and heavy metals such as Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn accumulated by the leaves of Euonymus japonicus during the East Asian monsoon from different functional units in Beijing, China. A rinse-and-weigh method developed in our laboratory was used to determine the mass of the PM, and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used for heavy metal analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651090/spatio-temporal-variability-of-particulate-matter-in-the-key-part-of-gansu-province-western-china
#9
Qingyu Guan, Ao Cai, Feifei Wang, Liqin Yang, Chuanqi Xu, Zeyu Liu
To investigate the spatial and temporal behaviors of particulate matter in Lanzhou, Jinchang and Jiayuguan during 2014, the hourly concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected from the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) in this study. The analysis indicated that the mean annual PM10 (PM2.5) concentrations during 2014 were 115 ± 52 μg/m(3) (57 ± 28 μg/m(3)), 104 ± 75 μg/m(3) (38 ± 22 μg/m(3)) and 114 ± 72 μg/m(3) (32 ± 17 μg/m(3)) in Lanzhou, Jinchang and Jiayuguan, respectively, all of which exceeded the Chinese national ambient air quality II standards for PM...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645522/acute-effects-of-ambient-temperature-and-particulate-air-pollution-on-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-a-panel-study-among-diabetic-patients-in-shanghai-china
#10
Huichu Li, Hongjian Bai, Changyuan Yang, Renjie Chen, Cuicui Wang, Zhuohui Zhao, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown the associations of ambient temperature and particulate matter (PM) air pollution with respiratory morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of temperature and fine and coarse PM with fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker of respiratory inflammation. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal panel study involving six repeated FeNO tests among 33 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients from April to June 2013 in Shanghai, China...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635552/temporal-variation-of-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-sources-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#11
Chris C Lim, George D Thurston, Magdy Shamy, Mansour Alghamdi, Mamdouh Khoder, Abdullah M Mohorjy, Abdulrahman K Alkhalaf, Jason Brocato, Lung Chi Chen, Max Costa
This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variations and weekday/weekend differences in fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter mass concentrations, elemental constituents, and potential source origins in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Air quality samples were collected over one year, from June 2011 to May 2012 at a frequency of three times per week, and analyzed. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 (21.9 μg/m(3)) and PM10 (107.8 μg/m(3)) during the sampling period exceeded the recommended annual average levels by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631154/soil-derived-organic-particles-and-their-effects-on-the-community-of-culturable-microorganisms
#12
Lukáš Bystrianský, Marcel Štofik, Milan Gryndler
Soil microbial community interacts with a range of particulate material in the soil, consisting of both inorganic and organic compounds with different levels of water solubility. Though sparingly water-soluble and insoluble organic compounds in the soil may affect living organisms, they are difficult to introduce into microbiological media. Their biological activity (i.e., their effect on soil microorganisms) thus has been almost neglected in most of the cultivation assays. To fill this gap, we propose the use of fine organic particles prepared from soil organic matter that are introduced into a laboratory medium where microbial community is cultivated...
June 19, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628818/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-toxicity-of-bushfire-emissions-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Trang T T Dong, Andrea L Hinwood, Anna C Callan, Graeme Zosky, William D Stock
Bushfires produce many toxic pollutants and the smoke has been shown to have negative effects on human health, especially to the respiratory system. Bushfires are predicted to increase in size and frequency, leading to a greater incidence of smoke and impacts. While there are many epidemiological studies of the potential impact on populations, there are few studies using in vitro methods to investigate the biological effects of bushfire emissions to better understand its toxicity and significance. This review focused on the literature pertaining to in vitro toxicity testing to determine the state of knowledge on current methods and findings on the impacts of bushfire smoke...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548846/ambient-size-distributions-and-lung-deposition-of-aerosol-dithiothreitol-measured-oxidative-potential-contrast-between-soluble-and-insoluble-particles
#14
Ting Fang, Linghan Zeng, Dong Gao, Vishal Verma, Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Rodney J Weber
Ambient particulate matter may upset redox homeostasis, leading to oxidative stress and adverse health effects. Size distributions of water-insoluble and water-soluble OP(DTT) (dithiothreitol assay, measure of oxidative potential per air volume) are reported for a roadside site and an urban site. The average water-insoluble fractions were 23% and 51%, and 37% and 39%, for fine and coarse modes at the roadside and urban sites, respectively, measured during different periods. Water-soluble OP(DTT) was unimodal, peaked near 1-2...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521192/long-term-exposure-to-residential-ambient-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-and-incident-hypertension-in-post-menopausal-women
#15
Trenton Honda, Melissa N Eliot, Charles B Eaton, Eric Whitsel, James D Stewart, Lina Mu, Helen Suh, Adam Szpiro, Joel D Kaufman, Sverre Vedal, Gregory A Wellenius
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been previously linked with higher risk of cardiovascular events. This association may be mediated, at least partly, by increasing the risk of incident hypertension, a key determinant of cardiovascular risk. However, whether long-term exposure to PM is associated with incident hypertension remains unclear. METHODS: Using national geostatistical models incorporating geographic covariates and spatial smoothing, we estimated annual average concentrations of residential fine (PM2...
August 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498778/seasonal-ambient-particulate-matter-and-population-health-outcomes-among-communities-impacted-by-road-dust-in-british-columbia-canada
#16
Kris Y Hong, Gavin H King, Arvind Saraswat, Sarah B Henderson
In recent years, many air quality monitoring programs have favored measurement of particles less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) over particles less than 10 µm (PM10) in light of evidence that health impacts are mostly from the fine fraction. However, the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) may have independent health impacts that support continued measurement of PM10 in some areas, such as those affected by road dust. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between different measures of daily PM exposure and two daily indicators of population health in seven communities in British Columbia, Canada, where road dust is an ongoing concern...
September 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437650/indoor-to-outdoor-relationship-of-aerosol-particles-inside-a-naturally-ventilated-apartment-a-comparison-between-single-parameter-analysis-and-indoor-aerosol-model-simulation
#17
Tareq Hussein
The indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles is affected by several mechanisms including penetration, ventilation rate, dry deposition rate and sources. Understanding the effect of these factors is essential for a deeper knowledge of the indoor-to-outdoor relationship. In real-life conditions, it is difficult to analyze these factors in a naturally ventilated environment. In this study, a naturally ventilated and an occupied apartment was used to investigate the indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles by applying two different techniques; single-parameter analysis and indoor aerosol model simulation...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431389/prediction-of-size-fractionated-airborne-particle-bound-metals-using-mlr-bp-ann-and-svm-analyses
#18
Xiang'zi Leng, Jinhua Wang, Haibo Ji, Qin'geng Wang, Huiming Li, Xin Qian, Fengying Li, Meng Yang
Size-fractionated heavy metal concentrations were observed in airborne particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 2014 to 2015 (spanning all four seasons) from suburban (Xianlin) and industrial (Pukou) areas in Nanjing, a megacity of southeast China. Rapid prediction models of size-fractionated metals were established based on multiple linear regression (MLR), back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) by using meteorological factors and PM concentrations as input parameters...
August 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420118/ambient-air-pollution-and-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-in-beijing-china
#19
Ruixue Xia, Guopeng Zhou, Tong Zhu, Xueying Li, Guangfa Wang
Air pollutants are associated with cardiovascular death; however, there is limited evidence of the effects of different pollutants on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in Beijing, China. We aimed to investigate the associations of OHCAs with the air pollutants PM2.5-10 (coarse particulate matter), PM2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O₃) between 2013 and 2015 using a time-stratified case-crossover study design...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376835/indoor-air-pollution-and-its-association-with-poor-lung-function-microalbuminuria-and-variations-in-blood-pressure-among-kitchen-workers-in-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Amarnath Singh, Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran, Ritul Kamal, Vipin Bihari, Afzal Ansari, Parappurath Abdul Azeez, Prem Narain Saxena, Anil Kumar Ks, Altaf Hussain Khan
BACKGROUND: The present study is an attempt to explore the association between kitchen indoor air pollutants and physiological profiles in kitchen workers with microalbuminuria (MAU) in north India (Lucknow) and south India (Coimbatore). METHODS: The subjects comprised 145 control subjects, 233 kitchen workers from north India and 186 kitchen workers from south India. Information related to the personal and occupational history and health of the subjects at both locations were collected using a custom-made questionnaire...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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