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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320525/reducing-indoor-air-pollutants-with-air-filtration-units-in-wood-stove-homes
#1
Marcy L McNamara, Jonathon Thornburg, Erin O Semmens, Tony J Ward, Curtis W Noonan
BACKGROUND: Biomass burning has been shown to be a major source of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in developing and higher income countries across the world. Specifically, wood burning for cooking and heating contributes to high indoor concentrations of fine (particles with aerodynamic diameters<2.5μm; PM2.5) and coarse (particles with aerodynamic diameters <10μm and >2.5μm; PMc) particulate matter. Endotoxin, predominantly found within the coarse fraction of airborne particulate matter, is associated with proinflammatory effects and adverse outcomes among susceptible populations...
March 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314608/trophic-availability-buffers-the-detrimental-effects-of-clogging-in-an-alpine-stream
#2
Alberto Doretto, Francesca Bona, Elena Piano, Ilaria Zanin, Anna Chiara Eandi, Stefano Fenoglio
Clogging, the streambed colmation by fine sediments, is an important widespread source of impact affecting freshwaters. Alterations in stream morphology and hydrology, added to the effects of global climate change, are responsible for this phenomenon, that is particularly pernicious in mountainous lotic systems naturally characterized by coarse substrates. Among the studies investigating this issue some were descriptive, while others used artificial substrates to compare ongoing fine sediment accumulation and macroinvertebrate assemblage recruitment...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285887/characteristics-and-source-distribution-of-air-pollution-in-winter-in-qingdao-eastern-china
#3
Lingyu Li, Dongyun Yan, Shaohui Xu, Mingli Huang, Xiaoxia Wang, Shaodong Xie
To characterize air pollution and determine its source distribution in Qingdao, Shandong Province, we analyzed hourly national air quality monitoring network data of normal pollutants at nine sites from 1 November 2015 to 31 January 2016. The average hourly concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10), SO2, NO2, 8-h O3, and CO in Qingdao were 83, 129, 39, 41, and 41 μg m(-3), and 1.243 mg m(-3), respectively. During the polluted period, 19-26 December 2015, 29 December 2015 to 4 January 2016, and 14-17 January 2016, the mean 24-h PM2...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285859/health-risk-associated-with-airborne-particulate-matter-and-its-components-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#4
Roy M Harrison, Dimitrios Bousiotis, A M Mohorjy, A K Alkhalaf, M Shamy, M Alghamdi, M Khoder, M Costa
Samples of PM2.5 and PM10 have been collected in all of four seasons at seven sites within the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The samples have been analysed for a range of trace elements. There is a large loading of wind-blown dust and the majority of elements are predominantly associated with coarse particles. Enrichment factors, however, show that some elements are markedly enriched above crustal abundance. Using mean data for the PM2.5 and PM10 fractions from each of the seven sampling sites, health risks have been estimated for particulate matter mass, the elements Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, As, Cd and V measured in this study, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using data from an earlier study within Jeddah...
March 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276550/particle-size-specific-distribution-of-perfluoro-alkyl-substances-in-atmospheric-particulate-matter-in-asian-cities
#5
H Ge, E Yamazaki, N Yamashita, S Taniyasu, A Ogata, M Furuuchi
Seasonal and local characteristics of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) were examined using size-segregated particles including an ultrafine range. The examination included sampling and analysis of ambient particles collected at four sites located in different environments in three different countries, Japan (Kanazawa and Okinawa), Hong Kong and India. To minimize the evaporation artefacts derived from PFASs during the sampling, an air sampler that permitted particles smaller than 0.1 μm (PM0.1) to be separated at a moderate pressure drop (<5-15 kPa), was used for all of the air sampling procedures...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273798/investigation-into-the-effect-of-atmospheric-particulate-matter-pm2-5-and-pm10-concentrations-on-gps-signals
#6
Lawrence Lau, Jun He
The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in navigation, surveying, geophysical and geodynamic studies, machine guidance, etc. High-precision GPS applications such as geodetic surveying need millimeter and centimeter level accuracy. Since GPS signals are affected by atmospheric effects, methods of correcting or eliminating ionospheric and tropospheric bias are needed in GPS data processing. Relative positioning can be used to mitigate the atmospheric effect, but its efficiency depends on the baseline lengths...
March 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161889/airborne-endotoxin-concentrations-in-indoor-and-outdoor-particulate-matter-and-their-predictors-in-an-urban-city
#7
Y Yoda, K Tamura, M Shima
Endotoxins are an important biological component of particulate matter and have been associated with adverse effects on human health. There have been some recent studies on airborne endotoxin concentrations. We collected fine (PM2.5 ) and coarse (PM10-2.5 ) particulate matter twice on weekdays and weekends each for 48 hour, inside and outside 55 homes in an urban city in Japan. Endotoxin concentrations in both fractions were measured using the kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay. The relationships between endotoxin concentrations and household characteristics were evaluated for each fraction...
February 4, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147291/source-apportionment-of-ambient-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-at-the-fort-mckay-community-site-in-the-athabasca-oil-sands-region-alberta-canada
#8
Matthew S Landis, J Patrick Pancras, Joseph R Graney, Emily M White, Eric S Edgerton, Allan Legge, Kevin E Percy
An ambient air particulate matter sampling study was conducted at the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) AMS-1 Fort McKay monitoring station in the Athabasca Oil Sand Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada from February 2010 to July 2011. Daily 24h integrated fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate matter was collected using a sequential dichotomous sampler. Over the duration of the study, 392 valid daily dichotomous PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 sample pairs were collected with concentrations of 6.8±12.9μgm(-3) (mean±standard deviation) and 6...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141928/highly-acidic-ambient-particles-soluble-metals-and-oxidative-potential-a-link-between-sulfate-and-aerosol-toxicity
#9
Ting Fang, Hongyu Guo, Linghan Zeng, Vishal Verma, Athanasios Nenes, Rodney J Weber
Soluble transition metals in particulate matter (PM) can generate reactive oxygen species in vivo by redox cycling, leading to oxidative stress and adverse health effects. Most metals, such as those from roadway traffic, are emitted in an insoluble form, but must be soluble for redox cycling. Here we present the mechanism of metals dissolution by highly acidic sulfate aerosol and the effect on particle oxidative potential (OP) through analysis of size distributions. Size-segregated ambient PM were collected from a road-side and representative urban site in Atlanta, GA...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126388/impact-of-coal-carrying-trains-on-particulate-matter-concentrations-in-south-delta-british-columbia-canada
#10
K Akaoka, I McKendry, J Saxton, P W Cottle
Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117141/influence-of-exposure-to-coarse-fine-and-ultrafine-urban-particulate-matter-and-their-biological-constituents-on-neural-biomarkers-in-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-study
#11
Ling Liu, Bruce Urch, Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz, Mary Speck, Karen Leingartner, Robin Shutt, Guillaume Pelletier, Diane R Gold, James A Scott, Jeffrey R Brook, Peter S Thorne, Frances S Silverman
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution and neuro-psychological conditions. Biological mechanisms behind these findings are still not clear. OBJECTIVES: We examined changes in blood and urinary neural biomarkers following exposure to concentrated ambient coarse, fine and ultrafine particles. METHODS: Fifty healthy non-smoking volunteers, mean age 28years, were exposed to coarse (2.5-10μm, mean 213μg/m(3)) and fine (0...
April 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110452/comparison-of-trace-elements-in-size-fractionated-particles-in-two-communities-with-contrasting-socioeconomic-status-in-houston-tx
#12
Inkyu Han, Yuncan Guo, Masoud Afshar, Thomas H Stock, Elaine Symanski
Levels of ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), are often higher in low-socioeconomic status (SES) communities than in high-SES communities. Houston is the fourth largest city in the USA and is home to a large petrochemical industry, an active port, and congested roadways, which represent significant emission sources of air pollution in the region. To compare levels of air pollution between a low-SES and a high-SES community, we simultaneously collected a 7-day integrated size-fractionated PM between June 2013 and November 2013...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041838/ambient-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-pollution-and-respiratory-morbidity-in-dongguan-china
#13
Yiju Zhao, Shengyong Wang, Lingling Lang, Caiyan Huang, Wenjun Ma, Hualiang Lin
We estimated the short-term effects of particulate matter (PM) pollution with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMc) on hospital outpatient visits due to overall and specific respiratory diseases, as well as the associated morbidity burden in Dongguan, a subtropical city in South China. A time-series model with quasi-Poisson link was used to examine the association between PM pollution and morbidities from respiratory diseases, COPD, asthma and pneumonia in Dongguan during 2013-2015...
March 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009455/emission-rates-and-the-personal-cloud-effect-associated-with-particle-release-from-the-perihuman-environment
#14
Dusan Licina, Yilin Tian, William W Nazaroff
Inhalation exposure to elevated particulate matter levels is correlated with deleterious health and well-being outcomes. Despite growing evidence that identifies humans as sources of coarse airborne particles, the extent to which personal exposures are influenced by particle releases near occupants is unknown. In a controlled chamber, we monitored airborne total particle levels with high temporal and particle-size resolution for a range of simulated occupant activities. We also sampled directly from the subject's breathing zone to characterize exposures...
December 23, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939080/air-quality-in-the-olona-valley-and-in-vitro-human-health-effects
#15
Federico Teoldi, Marco Lodi, Emilio Benfenati, Andrea Colombo, Diego Baderna
Air quality is a major point in current health policies in force globally to protect human health and ecosystems. Cardiovascular and lung diseases are the pathologies most commonly associated with air pollution and it has been estimated that exposure to particulate matters and ground-level ozone and nitric oxides caused >500.000 premature deaths in Europe. Although air quality was generally improved in the recent years, further efforts are required to reduce the impact of air pollution on humans. The present study applied a multidisciplinary approach to estimate the adverse effects on the health of the inhabitants of the Olona Valley in the north of Italy...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928607/muramic-and-dipicolinic-acids-in-atmospheric-particulate-matter-as-biomarkers-of-bacteria-and-bacterial-spores
#16
Patrizia Di Filippo, Donatella Pomata, Carmela Riccardi, Francesca Buiarelli, Daniela Uccelletti, Elena Zanni
Airborne bacteria are components of the atmospheric aerosol particles and can be responsible of allergic disease, regardless of their viability. In this paper, we report a method for the determination of total (viable and nonviable) bacterial content in airborne particles, using muramic and dipicolinic acids as biomarkers of bacteria and bacterial spores, respectively. The analytical procedure was optimized with bacteria and spores of Bacillus subtilis. After extraction and purification, the two biomarkers were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and their percentage was evaluated to be used as conversion factor...
December 7, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922535/association-between-short-term-exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-and-mortality-in-eight-european-urban-areas
#17
Massimo Stafoggia, Alexandra Schneider, Josef Cyrys, Evangelia Samoli, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Getahun Bero Bedada, Tom Bellander, Giorgio Cattani, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Annunziata Faustini, Barbara Hoffmann, Bénédicte Jacquemin, Klea Katsouyanni, Andreas Massling, Juha Pekkanen, Noemi Perez, Annette Peters, Ulrich Quass, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Francesco Forastiere
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence on the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and mortality is weak, due to the lack of routine measurements of these particles and standardized multicenter studies. We investigated the relationship between ultrafine particles and particulate matter (PM) and daily mortality in eight European urban areas. METHODS: We collected daily data on nonaccidental and cardiorespiratory mortality, particle number concentrations (as proxy for ultrafine particle number concentration), fine and coarse PM, gases and meteorologic parameters in eight urban areas of Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Greece, between 1999 and 2013...
March 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921226/the-relationship-between-aerosol-particles-chemical-composition-and-optical-properties-to-identify-the-biomass-burning-contribution-to-fine-particles-concentration-a-case-study-for-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-city-brazil
#18
Regina Maura de Miranda, Fabio Lopes, Nilton Évora do Rosário, Marcia Akemi Yamasoe, Eduardo Landulfo, Maria de Fatima Andrade
The air quality in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is primarily determined by the local pollution source contribution, mainly the vehicular fleet, but there is a concern about the role of remote sources to the fine mode particles (PM2.5) concentration and composition. One of the most important remote sources of atmospheric aerosol is the biomass burning emissions from São Paulo state's inland and from the central and north portions of Brazil. This study presents a synergy of different measurements of atmospheric aerosol chemistry and optical properties in the MASP in order to show how they can be used as a tool to identify particles from local and remote sources...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919164/differences-in-allergic-inflammatory-responses-in-murine-lungs-comparison-of-pm2-5-and-coarse-pm-collected-during-the-hazy-events-in-a-chinese-city
#19
Miao He, Takamichi Ichinose, Seiichi Yoshida, Fumiko Shiba, Keiichi Arashidani, Hirohisa Takano, Guifan Sun, Takayuki Shibamoto
Urban particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increase in asthma. PM2.5 (<PM2.5 μm) and coarse PM (CPM: PM2.5-PM10 μm) were collected from the air in a Chinese city during haze events. The amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in PM2.5 than in CPM. Conversely, microbial elements LPS and β-glucan were much higher in CPM than in PM2.5. Concentrations of Si, Al, Fe, and Ti in CPM were greater than in PM2.5, while Pb, Cu and As concentrations were lower than in PM2.5. When RAW264...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913015/the-association-between-ambient-air-pollution-and-selected-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-china-a-systematic-review
#20
Milena Jacobs, Guicheng Zhang, Shu Chen, Ben Mullins, Michelle Bell, Lan Jin, Yuming Guo, Rachel Huxley, Gavin Pereira
The association between exposure to ambient air pollution and respiratory or cardiovascular endpoints is well-established. An increasing number of studies have shown that this exposure is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the majority of research has been undertaken in high-income western countries, with relatively lower levels of exposure. There is now a sufficient number of studies to warrant an assessment of effects in China, a relatively higher exposure setting. We conducted a systematic review of 25 studies examining the association between ambient air pollution exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes (lower birth weight, preterm birth, mortality, and congenital anomaly) in China, published between 1980 and 2015...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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