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particulate matter coarse

Tao Xue, Tong Zhu, Weiwei Lin, Evelyn O Talbott
Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy harm both maternal and infant health and have been linked to ambient particulate matter. However, existing studies are restricted to a local scale and remain inconsistent. A large-scale study is required to enrich the epidemiological evidence and explore the potential sources of the inconsistency. Making use of US birth certificates (1999-2004), and monitoring data from the environmental protection agency air quality networks, we associated hypertensive disorders in pregnancy with maternal exposure to fine particles or coarse particles using logistic regression analysis after adjusting for many covariates among >5 million subjects in the contiguous United States...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
Jelena Đuričić-Milanković, Ivan Anđelković, Ana Pantelić, Srđan Petrović, Andrea Gambaro, Dušan Antonović, Dragana Đorđević
The results presented in this work demonstrate for the first time a distribution of elements in the spectral analysis of aerosols in the suburban continental Balkan Peninsula. Samples were collected in the suburban area of Belgrade (Serbia) in the period from March 2012 till December 2013. Results presented here are from long-term measurements of masses of size-segregated aerosols and macro- and microelements in the range of PM0.27-16 . The following elements were analyzed: Al, Ag, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, Tl, V, and Zn; levels of Be, Hg, and Se were under the detection limits in all samples...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M Masson, H Angot, C Le Bescond, M Launay, A Dabrin, C Miège, J Le Coz, M Coquery
Monitoring hydrophobic contaminants in surface freshwaters requires measuring contaminant concentrations in the particulate fraction (sediment or suspended particulate matter, SPM) of the water column. Particle traps (PTs) have been recently developed to sample SPM as cost-efficient, easy to operate and time-integrative tools. But the representativeness of SPM collected with PTs is not fully understood, notably in terms of grain size distribution and particulate organic carbon (POC) content, which could both skew particulate contaminant concentrations...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Himanshi Rohra, Rahul Tiwari, Puja Khare, Ajay Taneja
Attempts have been made to comprehend size distribution pattern of Particulate Matter (PM) and associated elemental concentration within coarse (2.5-10μm), quasi-accumulation (q-Acc) (0.25-2.5μm) and quasi-ultrafine (q-UF) (<0.25μm) ranges at indoors and outdoors of residential homes of Agra. Overall, the average mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in indoors were found to be 263.24±59.24 and 212.01±38.06μgm-3 while in outdoors the concentrations accounted to 194.28±15.25 and 152.88±16.31μgm-3 respectively; exceeding WHO standards...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lijian Han, Weiqi Zhou, Steward Ta Pickett, Weifeng Li, Yuguo Qian
Objective: To investigate multicontaminant air pollution in Chinese cities, to quantify the urban population affected and to explore the relationship between air pollution and urban population size. Methods: We obtained data for 155 cities with 276 million inhabitants for 2014 from China's air quality monitoring network on concentrations of fine particulate matter measuring under 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ), coarse particulate matter measuring 2.5 to 10 μm (PM10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) and ozone (O3 )...
April 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Luiz Diego Silva Rocha, Sergio Machado Corrêa
This study was based on the determination of metals in particulate matter emitted by a typical diesel engine used by busses and trucks in Brazil. Emissions were sampled using a cascade impactor, and the engine was operated using diesel with 5% (B5), 10% (B10), 15% (B15), and 20% (B20) of biodiesel. The particulate matter was stratified in different sizes, i.e., 18, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.560, 0.320, 0.180, 0.100, and 0.056 μm. Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn with concentrations within 10 to 1000 ng m-3 were determined...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xu-Dong Zheng, Xue-Yan Liu, Wei Song, Xin-Chao Sun, Cong-Qiang Liu
Enhanced ammonia (NH3 ) emissions and deposition caused negative effects on air quality and ecosystems. Precipitation is an efficient pathway to remove NH3 and particulate ammonium (p-NH4 + ) from the atmosphere into ecosystems. However, precipitation scavenging of p-NH4 + in chemical transport models has often considered fine p-NH4 + , with inadequate constraints on NH3 and coarse p-NH4 + . Based on distinct δ15 N values between NH3 and NH4 + in PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Zhouyang Li, Yinfang Wu, Hai-Pin Chen, Chen Zhu, Lingling Dong, Yong Wang, Huiwen Liu, Xuchen Xu, Jiesen Zhou, Yanping Wu, Wen Li, Songmin Ying, Huahao Shen, Zhi-Hua Chen
Increasing toxicological and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that ambient particulate matter (PM) could cause adverse health effects including inflammation in the lung. Alveolar macrophages represent a major type of innate immune responses to foreign substances. However, the detailed mechanisms of inflammatory responses induced by PM exposure in macrophages are still unclear. We observed that coarse PM treatment rapidly activated mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) in mouse alveolar macrophages in vivo, and in cultured mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, mouse peritoneal macrophages, and RAW264...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Sheryl Magzamen, Assaf P Oron, Emily R Locke, Vincent S Fan
BACKGROUND: Studies have linked ambient air pollution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) healthcare encounters. However, the association between air quality and rescue medication use is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the role of air pollution exposure for increased short-acting beta-2-agonist (SABA) use in patients with COPD through use of remote monitoring technology. METHODS: Participants received a portable electronic inhaler sensor to record the date, time and location for SABA use over a 3-month period...
May 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Michael Hemkemeyer, Anja B Dohrmann, Bent T Christensen, Christoph C Tebbe
Genetic fingerprinting demonstrated in previous studies that differently sized soil particle fractions (PSFs; clay, silt, and sand with particulate organic matter (POM)) harbor microbial communities that differ in structure, functional potentials and sensitivity to environmental conditions. To elucidate whether specific bacterial or archaeal taxa exhibit preference for specific PSFs, we examined the diversity of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes by high-throughput sequencing using total DNA extracted from three long-term fertilization variants (unfertilized, fertilized with minerals, and fertilized with animal manure) of an agricultural loamy sand soil and their PSFs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yansen Xu, Wen Xu, Li Mo, Mathew R Heal, Xiaowu Xu, Xinxiao Yu
Airborne particulate matter (PM) has become a serious environmental problem and harms human health worldwide. Trees can effectively remove particles from the atmosphere and improve the air quality. In this study, a washing and weighing method was used to quantify accumulation of water-soluble ions and insoluble PM on the leaf surfaces and within the wax of the leaves for 17 urban plant species (including 4 shrubs and 13 trees). The deposited PM was determined in three size fractions: fine (0.2-2.5 μm), coarse (2...
May 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qingqing He, Bo Huang
Ground fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations at high spatial resolution are substantially required for determining the population exposure to PM2.5 over densely populated urban areas. However, most studies for China have generated PM2.5 estimations at a coarse resolution (≥10 km) due to the limitation of satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) product in spatial resolution. In this study, the 3 km AOD data fused using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 AOD products were employed to estimate the ground PM2...
May 2018: Environmental Pollution
Luke Conibear, Edward W Butt, Christoph Knote, Stephen R Arnold, Dominick V Spracklen
Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is a leading contributor to diseases in India. Previous studies analysing emission source attributions were restricted by coarse model resolution and limited PM2.5 observations. We use a regional model informed by new observations to make the first high-resolution study of the sector-specific disease burden from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. Observed annual mean PM2.5 concentrations exceed 100 μg m-3 and are well simulated by the model. We calculate that the emissions from residential energy use dominate (52%) population-weighted annual mean PM2...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
N S Ngo, N Zhong, X Bao
Transboundary air pollution is a global environmental and public health problem including in the U.S., where pollution emissions from China, the largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollution in the world, can travel across the Pacific Ocean and reach places like California and Oregon. We examine the effects of transboundary air pollution following major events in China, specifically sandstorms, a natural-occurring source of air pollution, and Chinese New Year, a major 7-day holiday, on background air quality in the U...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ian W H Jarvis, Zachary Enlo-Scott, Eszter Nagy, Ian S Mudway, Teresa D Tetley, Volker M Arlt, David H Phillips
Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, including lung cancer. Ambient PM represents a heterogeneous mixture of chemical classes including transition metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives such as nitro-PAHs, many of which are classified as putative carcinogens. As the primary site of human exposure to PM is the lungs, we investigated the response of two alveolar epithelial cell lines, the tumour-derived A549 and newly described TT1 cells, to fine and coarse PM collected from background and roadside locations...
January 25, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Yanan Wu, Wenmei Ma, Jiakai Liu, Lijuan Zhu, Ling Cong, Jiexiu Zhai, Yu Wang, Zhenming Zhang
Urban forests have been shown to be efficient for reducing air pollutants especially for particulate matters (PMs). This study aims to reveal the PM blocking capacity of two common artificial landscape species, Sabina chinensis and Liriodendron chinense and to investigate spatial-temporal heterogeneities by estimating the vegetation collection velocity of coarse (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5) during different seasons and heights. PM concentration and meteorological data were collected on both leeward and windward sides of trees during the daytime in both summers and winters from 2013 to 2015...
2018: PloS One
Xiaotong Ji, Yingying Zhang, Guangke Li, Nan Sang
Recently, numerous studies have found that particulate matter (PM) exposure is correlated with increased hospitalization and mortality from heart failure (HF). In addition to problems with circulation, HF patients often display high expression of cytokines in the failing heart. Thus, as a recurring heart problem, HF is thought to be a disorder characterized in part by the inflammatory response. In this review, we intend to discuss the relationship between PM exposure and HF that is based on inflammatory mechanism and to provide a comprehensive, updated evaluation of the related studies...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ying Liu, Guofeng Cao, Naizhuo Zhao, Kevin Mulligan, Xinyue Ye
Accurate measurements of ground-level PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters equal to or less than 2.5 μm) concentrations are critically important to human and environmental health studies. In this regard, satellite-derived gridded PM2.5 datasets, particularly those datasets derived from chemical transport models (CTM), have demonstrated unique attractiveness in terms of their geographic and temporal coverage. The CTM-based approaches, however, often yield results with a coarse spatial resolution (typically at 0...
April 2018: Environmental Pollution
Saisattha Noomnual, Derek G Shendell
Air pollutants of concern include traffic-related air pollution, including particulate matter in respirable coarse and fine size fractions. There are no critical studies to date into associations between knowledge, awareness, and attitudes in using proper respiratory masks and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among urban street vendors in Thailand. In this study, we estimated adverse respiratory health outcomes among street vendors, in particular young adults, in Bangkok, Thailand, using a self-report questionnaire...
December 2017: Safety and Health At Work
Corinne A Keet, Joshua P Keller, Roger D Peng
RATIONALE: Short- and long-term fine particulate matter (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter [PM2.5 ]) pollution is associated with asthma development and morbidity, but there are few data on the effects of long-term exposure to coarse PM (PM10-2.5 ) on respiratory health. OBJECTIVES: To understand the relationship between long-term fine and coarse PM exposure and asthma prevalence and morbidity among children. METHODS: A semiparametric regression model that incorporated PM2...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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