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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635552/temporal-variation-of-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-sources-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#1
Chris C Lim, George D Thurston, Magdy Shamy, Mansour Alghamdi, Mamdouh Khoder, Abdullah M Mohorjy, Abdulrahman K Alkhalaf, Jason Brocato, Lung Chi Chen, Max Costa
This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variations and weekday/weekend differences in fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter mass concentrations, elemental constituents, and potential source origins in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Air quality samples were collected over one year, from June 2011 to May 2012 at a frequency of three times per week, and analyzed. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 (21.9 μg/m(3)) and PM10 (107.8 μg/m(3)) during the sampling period exceeded the recommended annual average levels by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631154/soil-derived-organic-particles-and-their-effects-on-the-community-of-culturable-microorganisms
#2
Lukáš Bystrianský, Marcel Štofik, Milan Gryndler
Soil microbial community interacts with a range of particulate material in the soil, consisting of both inorganic and organic compounds with different levels of water solubility. Though sparingly water-soluble and insoluble organic compounds in the soil may affect living organisms, they are difficult to introduce into microbiological media. Their biological activity (i.e., their effect on soil microorganisms) thus has been almost neglected in most of the cultivation assays. To fill this gap, we propose the use of fine organic particles prepared from soil organic matter that are introduced into a laboratory medium where microbial community is cultivated...
June 19, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628818/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-toxicity-of-bushfire-emissions-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Trang T T Dong, Andrea L Hinwood, Anna C Callan, Graeme Zosky, William D Stock
Bushfires produce many toxic pollutants and the smoke has been shown to have negative effects on human health, especially to the respiratory system. Bushfires are predicted to increase in size and frequency, leading to a greater incidence of smoke and impacts. While there are many epidemiological studies of the potential impact on populations, there are few studies using in vitro methods to investigate the biological effects of bushfire emissions to better understand its toxicity and significance. This review focused on the literature pertaining to in vitro toxicity testing to determine the state of knowledge on current methods and findings on the impacts of bushfire smoke...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548846/ambient-size-distributions-and-lung-deposition-of-aerosol-dithiothreitol-measured-oxidative-potential-contrast-between-soluble-and-insoluble-particles
#4
Ting Fang, Linghan Zeng, Dong Gao, Vishal Verma, Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Rodney J Weber
Ambient particulate matter may upset redox homeostasis, leading to oxidative stress and adverse health effects. Size distributions of water-insoluble and water-soluble OP(DTT) (dithiothreitol assay, measure of oxidative potential per air volume) are reported for a roadside site and an urban site. The average water-insoluble fractions were 23% and 51%, and 37% and 39%, for fine and coarse modes at the roadside and urban sites, respectively, measured during different periods. Water-soluble OP(DTT) was unimodal, peaked near 1-2...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521192/long-term-exposure-to-residential-ambient-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-and-incident-hypertension-in-post-menopausal-women
#5
Trenton Honda, Melissa N Eliot, Charles B Eaton, Eric Whitsel, James D Stewart, Lina Mu, Helen Suh, Adam Szpiro, Joel D Kaufman, Sverre Vedal, Gregory A Wellenius
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been previously linked with higher risk of cardiovascular events. This association may be mediated, at least partly, by increasing the risk of incident hypertension, a key determinant of cardiovascular risk. However, whether long-term exposure to PM is associated with incident hypertension remains unclear. METHODS: Using national geostatistical models incorporating geographic covariates and spatial smoothing, we estimated annual average concentrations of residential fine (PM2...
May 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498778/seasonal-ambient-particulate-matter-and-population-health-outcomes-among-communities-impacted-by-road-dust-in-british-columbia-canada
#6
Kris Y Hong, Gavin H King, Arvind Saraswat, Sarah B Henderson
In recent years, many air quality monitoring programs have favoured measurement of particles less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) over particles less than 10 microns (PM10) in light of evidence that health impacts are mostly from the fine fraction. However, the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) may have independent health impacts that support continued measurement of PM10 in some areas, such as those affected by road dust. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between different measures of daily PM exposure and two daily indicators of population health in seven communities in British Columbia, Canada, where road dust is an ongoing concern...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437650/indoor-to-outdoor-relationship-of-aerosol-particles-inside-a-naturally-ventilated-apartment-a-comparison-between-single-parameter-analysis-and-indoor-aerosol-model-simulation
#7
Tareq Hussein
The indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles is affected by several mechanisms including penetration, ventilation rate, dry deposition rate and sources. Understanding the effect of these factors is essential for a deeper knowledge of the indoor-to-outdoor relationship. In real-life conditions, it is difficult to analyze these factors in a naturally ventilated environment. In this study, a naturally ventilated and an occupied apartment was used to investigate the indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles by applying two different techniques; single-parameter analysis and indoor aerosol model simulation...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431389/prediction-of-size-fractionated-airborne-particle-bound-metals-using-mlr-bp-ann-and-svm-analyses
#8
Xiang'zi Leng, Jinhua Wang, Haibo Ji, Qin'geng Wang, Huiming Li, Xin Qian, Fengying Li, Meng Yang
Size-fractionated heavy metal concentrations were observed in airborne particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 2014 to 2015 (spanning all four seasons) from suburban (Xianlin) and industrial (Pukou) areas in Nanjing, a megacity of southeast China. Rapid prediction models of size-fractionated metals were established based on multiple linear regression (MLR), back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) by using meteorological factors and PM concentrations as input parameters...
April 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420118/ambient-air-pollution-and-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-in-beijing-china
#9
Ruixue Xia, Guopeng Zhou, Tong Zhu, Xueying Li, Guangfa Wang
Air pollutants are associated with cardiovascular death; however, there is limited evidence of the effects of different pollutants on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in Beijing, China. We aimed to investigate the associations of OHCAs with the air pollutants PM2.5-10 (coarse particulate matter), PM2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O₃) between 2013 and 2015 using a time-stratified case-crossover study design...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376835/indoor-air-pollution-and-its-association-with-poor-lung-function-microalbuminuria-and-variations-in-blood-pressure-among-kitchen-workers-in-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Amarnath Singh, Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran, Ritul Kamal, Vipin Bihari, Afzal Ansari, Parappurath Abdul Azeez, Prem Narain Saxena, Anil Kumar Ks, Altaf Hussain Khan
BACKGROUND: The present study is an attempt to explore the association between kitchen indoor air pollutants and physiological profiles in kitchen workers with microalbuminuria (MAU) in north India (Lucknow) and south India (Coimbatore). METHODS: The subjects comprised 145 control subjects, 233 kitchen workers from north India and 186 kitchen workers from south India. Information related to the personal and occupational history and health of the subjects at both locations were collected using a custom-made questionnaire...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372736/hydrocarbons-in-particulate-samples-from-wildfire-events-in-central-portugal-in-summer-2010
#11
Ana Vicente, Ana Calvo, Ana P Fernandes, Teresa Nunes, Cristina Monteiro, Casimiro Pio, Célia Alves
In summer 2010, twenty eight (14 PM2.5 samples plus 14 samples PM2.5-10) smoke samples were collected during wildfires that occurred in central Portugal. A portable high-volume sampler was used to perform the sampling, on quartz fibre filters of coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) smoke samples. The carbonaceous content (elemental and organic carbon) of particulate matter was analysed by a thermal-optical technique. Subsequently, the particulate samples were solvent extracted and fractionated by vacuum flash chromatography into three different classes of organic compounds (aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbonyl compounds)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350624/application-of-scanning-electron-microscopy-with-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectroscopy-for-analyzing-ocular-surface-particles-on-schirmer-strips
#12
Anuroop Avula, Anat Galor, Patricia Blackwelder, Melissa Carballosa-Gautam, Abigail S Hackam, Bennie Jeng, Naresh Kumar
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the application of scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) for analyzing Schirmer strips for particle concentration, size, morphology, and type distribution. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used. Patients were prospectively recruited from the Miami Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System eye clinic, and they underwent a complete ocular surface examination. The size, type, and chemical composition of particulate matter on Schirmer strips (from the left eye) were analyzed using SEM/EDS...
June 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341207/transcriptome-analysis-of-airborne-pm2-5-induced-detrimental-effects-on-human-keratinocytes
#13
Hyoung-June Kim, Il-Hong Bae, Eui Dong Son, Juyearl Park, Nari Cha, Hye-Won Na, Changjo Jung, You-Seak Go, Dae-Yong Kim, Tae Ryong Lee, Dong Wook Shin
Ambient air pollution is becoming more severe worldwide, posing a serious threat to human health. Fine airborne particles of particulate matter (PM2.5) show higher cytotoxicity than other coarse fractions. Indeed, PM2.5 induces cardiovascular or respiratory damage; however, few studies have evaluated the detrimental effect of PM2.5 to normal human skin. We used a next-generation sequencing-based (RNA-Seq) method with transcriptome and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis to determine the harmful influences of PM2...
May 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320525/reducing-indoor-air-pollutants-with-air-filtration-units-in-wood-stove-homes
#14
Marcy L McNamara, Jonathon Thornburg, Erin O Semmens, Tony J Ward, Curtis W Noonan
BACKGROUND: Biomass burning has been shown to be a major source of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in developing and higher income countries across the world. Specifically, wood burning for cooking and heating contributes to high indoor concentrations of fine (particles with aerodynamic diameters<2.5μm; PM2.5) and coarse (particles with aerodynamic diameters <10μm and >2.5μm; PMc) particulate matter. Endotoxin, predominantly found within the coarse fraction of airborne particulate matter, is associated with proinflammatory effects and adverse outcomes among susceptible populations...
March 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314608/trophic-availability-buffers-the-detrimental-effects-of-clogging-in-an-alpine-stream
#15
Alberto Doretto, Francesca Bona, Elena Piano, Ilaria Zanin, Anna Chiara Eandi, Stefano Fenoglio
Clogging, the streambed colmation by fine sediments, is an important widespread source of impact affecting freshwaters. Alterations in stream morphology and hydrology, added to the effects of global climate change, are responsible for this phenomenon, that is particularly pernicious in mountainous lotic systems naturally characterized by coarse substrates. Among the studies investigating this issue some were descriptive, while others used artificial substrates to compare ongoing fine sediment accumulation and macroinvertebrate assemblage recruitment...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285887/characteristics-and-source-distribution-of-air-pollution-in-winter-in-qingdao-eastern-china
#16
Lingyu Li, Dongyun Yan, Shaohui Xu, Mingli Huang, Xiaoxia Wang, Shaodong Xie
To characterize air pollution and determine its source distribution in Qingdao, Shandong Province, we analyzed hourly national air quality monitoring network data of normal pollutants at nine sites from 1 November 2015 to 31 January 2016. The average hourly concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10), SO2, NO2, 8-h O3, and CO in Qingdao were 83, 129, 39, 41, and 41 μg m(-3), and 1.243 mg m(-3), respectively. During the polluted period, 19-26 December 2015, 29 December 2015 to 4 January 2016, and 14-17 January 2016, the mean 24-h PM2...
May 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285859/health-risk-associated-with-airborne-particulate-matter-and-its-components-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#17
Roy M Harrison, Dimitrios Bousiotis, A M Mohorjy, A K Alkhalaf, M Shamy, M Alghamdi, M Khoder, M Costa
Samples of PM2.5 and PM10 have been collected in all of four seasons at seven sites within the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The samples have been analysed for a range of trace elements. There is a large loading of wind-blown dust and the majority of elements are predominantly associated with coarse particles. Enrichment factors, however, show that some elements are markedly enriched above crustal abundance. Using mean data for the PM2.5 and PM10 fractions from each of the seven sampling sites, health risks have been estimated for particulate matter mass, the elements Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, As, Cd and V measured in this study, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using data from an earlier study within Jeddah...
March 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276550/particle-size-specific-distribution-of-perfluoro-alkyl-substances-in-atmospheric-particulate-matter-in-asian-cities
#18
H Ge, E Yamazaki, N Yamashita, S Taniyasu, A Ogata, M Furuuchi
Seasonal and local characteristics of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) were examined using size-segregated particles including an ultrafine range. The examination included sampling and analysis of ambient particles collected at four sites located in different environments in three different countries, Japan (Kanazawa and Okinawa), Hong Kong and India. To minimize the evaporation artefacts derived from PFASs during the sampling, an air sampler that permitted particles smaller than 0.1 μm (PM0.1) to be separated at a moderate pressure drop (<5-15 kPa), was used for all of the air sampling procedures...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273798/investigation-into-the-effect-of-atmospheric-particulate-matter-pm2-5-and-pm10-concentrations-on-gps-signals
#19
Lawrence Lau, Jun He
The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in navigation, surveying, geophysical and geodynamic studies, machine guidance, etc. High-precision GPS applications such as geodetic surveying need millimeter and centimeter level accuracy. Since GPS signals are affected by atmospheric effects, methods of correcting or eliminating ionospheric and tropospheric bias are needed in GPS data processing. Relative positioning can be used to mitigate the atmospheric effect, but its efficiency depends on the baseline lengths...
March 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161889/airborne-endotoxin-concentrations-in-indoor-and-outdoor-particulate-matter-and-their-predictors-in-an-urban-city
#20
Y Yoda, K Tamura, M Shima
Endotoxins are an important biological component of particulate matter and have been associated with adverse effects on human health. There have been some recent studies on airborne endotoxin concentrations. We collected fine (PM2.5 ) and coarse (PM10-2.5 ) particulate matter twice on weekdays and weekends each for 48 hour, inside and outside 55 homes in an urban city in Japan. Endotoxin concentrations in both fractions were measured using the kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay. The relationships between endotoxin concentrations and household characteristics were evaluated for each fraction...
February 4, 2017: Indoor Air
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