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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437650/indoor-to-outdoor-relationship-of-aerosol-particles-inside-a-naturally-ventilated-apartment-a-comparison-between-single-parameter-analysis-and-indoor-aerosol-model-simulation
#1
Tareq Hussein
The indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles is affected by several mechanisms including penetration, ventilation rate, dry deposition rate and sources. Understanding the effect of these factors is essential for a deeper knowledge of the indoor-to-outdoor relationship. In real-life conditions, it is difficult to analyze these factors in a naturally ventilated environment. In this study, a naturally ventilated and an occupied apartment was used to investigate the indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles by applying two different techniques; single-parameter analysis and indoor aerosol model simulation...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431389/prediction-of-size-fractionated-airborne-particle-bound-metals-using-mlr-bp-ann-and-svm-analyses
#2
Xiang'zi Leng, Jinhua Wang, Haibo Ji, Qin'geng Wang, Huiming Li, Xin Qian, Fengying Li, Meng Yang
Size-fractionated heavy metal concentrations were observed in airborne particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 2014 to 2015 (spanning all four seasons) from suburban (Xianlin) and industrial (Pukou) areas in Nanjing, a megacity of southeast China. Rapid prediction models of size-fractionated metals were established based on multiple linear regression (MLR), back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) by using meteorological factors and PM concentrations as input parameters...
April 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420118/ambient-air-pollution-and-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-in-beijing-china
#3
Ruixue Xia, Guopeng Zhou, Tong Zhu, Xueying Li, Guangfa Wang
Air pollutants are associated with cardiovascular death; however, there is limited evidence of the effects of different pollutants on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in Beijing, China. We aimed to investigate the associations of OHCAs with the air pollutants PM2.5-10 (coarse particulate matter), PM2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O₃) between 2013 and 2015 using a time-stratified case-crossover study design...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376835/indoor-air-pollution-and-its-association-with-poor-lung-function-microalbuminuria-and-variations-in-blood-pressure-among-kitchen-workers-in-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Amarnath Singh, Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran, Ritul Kamal, Vipin Bihari, Afzal Ansari, Parappurath Abdul Azeez, Prem Narain Saxena, Anil Kumar Ks, Altaf Hussain Khan
BACKGROUND: The present study is an attempt to explore the association between kitchen indoor air pollutants and physiological profiles in kitchen workers with microalbuminuria (MAU) in north India (Lucknow) and south India (Coimbatore). METHODS: The subjects comprised 145 control subjects, 233 kitchen workers from north India and 186 kitchen workers from south India. Information related to the personal and occupational history and health of the subjects at both locations were collected using a custom-made questionnaire...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372736/hydrocarbons-in-particulate-samples-from-wildfire-events-in-central-portugal-in-summer-2010
#5
Ana Vicente, Ana Calvo, Ana P Fernandes, Teresa Nunes, Cristina Monteiro, Casimiro Pio, Célia Alves
In summer 2010, twenty eight (14 PM2.5 samples plus 14 samples PM2.5-10) smoke samples were collected during wildfires that occurred in central Portugal. A portable high-volume sampler was used to perform the sampling, on quartz fibre filters of coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) smoke samples. The carbonaceous content (elemental and organic carbon) of particulate matter was analysed by a thermal-optical technique. Subsequently, the particulate samples were solvent extracted and fractionated by vacuum flash chromatography into three different classes of organic compounds (aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbonyl compounds)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350624/application-of-scanning-electron-microscopy-with-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectroscopy-for-analyzing-ocular-surface-particles-on-schirmer-strips
#6
Anuroop Avula, Anat Galor, Patricia Blackwelder, Melissa Carballosa-Gautam, Abigail S Hackam, Bennie Jeng, Naresh Kumar
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the application of scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) for analyzing Schirmer strips for particle concentration, size, morphology, and type distribution. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used. Patients were prospectively recruited from the Miami Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System eye clinic, and they underwent a complete ocular surface examination. The size, type, and chemical composition of particulate matter on Schirmer strips (from the left eye) were analyzed using SEM/EDS...
March 21, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341207/transcriptome-analysis-of-airborne-pm2-5-induced-detrimental-effects-on-human-keratinocytes
#7
Hyoung-June Kim, Il-Hong Bae, Eui Dong Son, Juyearl Park, Nari Cha, Hye-Won Na, Changjo Jung, You-Seak Go, Dae-Yong Kim, Tae Ryong Lee, Dong Wook Shin
Ambient air pollution is becoming more severe worldwide, posing a serious threat to human health. Fine airborne particles of particulate matter (PM2.5) show higher cytotoxicity than other coarse fractions. Indeed, PM2.5 induces cardiovascular or respiratory damage; however, few studies have evaluated the detrimental effect of PM2.5 to normal human skin. We used a next-generation sequencing-based (RNA-Seq) method with transcriptome and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis to determine the harmful influences of PM2...
March 21, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320525/reducing-indoor-air-pollutants-with-air-filtration-units-in-wood-stove-homes
#8
Marcy L McNamara, Jonathon Thornburg, Erin O Semmens, Tony J Ward, Curtis W Noonan
BACKGROUND: Biomass burning has been shown to be a major source of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in developing and higher income countries across the world. Specifically, wood burning for cooking and heating contributes to high indoor concentrations of fine (particles with aerodynamic diameters<2.5μm; PM2.5) and coarse (particles with aerodynamic diameters <10μm and >2.5μm; PMc) particulate matter. Endotoxin, predominantly found within the coarse fraction of airborne particulate matter, is associated with proinflammatory effects and adverse outcomes among susceptible populations...
March 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314608/trophic-availability-buffers-the-detrimental-effects-of-clogging-in-an-alpine-stream
#9
Alberto Doretto, Francesca Bona, Elena Piano, Ilaria Zanin, Anna Chiara Eandi, Stefano Fenoglio
Clogging, the streambed colmation by fine sediments, is an important widespread source of impact affecting freshwaters. Alterations in stream morphology and hydrology, added to the effects of global climate change, are responsible for this phenomenon, that is particularly pernicious in mountainous lotic systems naturally characterized by coarse substrates. Among the studies investigating this issue some were descriptive, while others used artificial substrates to compare ongoing fine sediment accumulation and macroinvertebrate assemblage recruitment...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285887/characteristics-and-source-distribution-of-air-pollution-in-winter-in-qingdao-eastern-china
#10
Lingyu Li, Dongyun Yan, Shaohui Xu, Mingli Huang, Xiaoxia Wang, Shaodong Xie
To characterize air pollution and determine its source distribution in Qingdao, Shandong Province, we analyzed hourly national air quality monitoring network data of normal pollutants at nine sites from 1 November 2015 to 31 January 2016. The average hourly concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10), SO2, NO2, 8-h O3, and CO in Qingdao were 83, 129, 39, 41, and 41 μg m(-3), and 1.243 mg m(-3), respectively. During the polluted period, 19-26 December 2015, 29 December 2015 to 4 January 2016, and 14-17 January 2016, the mean 24-h PM2...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285859/health-risk-associated-with-airborne-particulate-matter-and-its-components-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#11
Roy M Harrison, Dimitrios Bousiotis, A M Mohorjy, A K Alkhalaf, M Shamy, M Alghamdi, M Khoder, M Costa
Samples of PM2.5 and PM10 have been collected in all of four seasons at seven sites within the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The samples have been analysed for a range of trace elements. There is a large loading of wind-blown dust and the majority of elements are predominantly associated with coarse particles. Enrichment factors, however, show that some elements are markedly enriched above crustal abundance. Using mean data for the PM2.5 and PM10 fractions from each of the seven sampling sites, health risks have been estimated for particulate matter mass, the elements Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, As, Cd and V measured in this study, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using data from an earlier study within Jeddah...
March 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276550/particle-size-specific-distribution-of-perfluoro-alkyl-substances-in-atmospheric-particulate-matter-in-asian-cities
#12
H Ge, E Yamazaki, N Yamashita, S Taniyasu, A Ogata, M Furuuchi
Seasonal and local characteristics of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) were examined using size-segregated particles including an ultrafine range. The examination included sampling and analysis of ambient particles collected at four sites located in different environments in three different countries, Japan (Kanazawa and Okinawa), Hong Kong and India. To minimize the evaporation artefacts derived from PFASs during the sampling, an air sampler that permitted particles smaller than 0.1 μm (PM0.1) to be separated at a moderate pressure drop (<5-15 kPa), was used for all of the air sampling procedures...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273798/investigation-into-the-effect-of-atmospheric-particulate-matter-pm2-5-and-pm10-concentrations-on-gps-signals
#13
Lawrence Lau, Jun He
The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in navigation, surveying, geophysical and geodynamic studies, machine guidance, etc. High-precision GPS applications such as geodetic surveying need millimeter and centimeter level accuracy. Since GPS signals are affected by atmospheric effects, methods of correcting or eliminating ionospheric and tropospheric bias are needed in GPS data processing. Relative positioning can be used to mitigate the atmospheric effect, but its efficiency depends on the baseline lengths...
March 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161889/airborne-endotoxin-concentrations-in-indoor-and-outdoor-particulate-matter-and-their-predictors-in-an-urban-city
#14
Y Yoda, K Tamura, M Shima
Endotoxins are an important biological component of particulate matter and have been associated with adverse effects on human health. There have been some recent studies on airborne endotoxin concentrations. We collected fine (PM2.5 ) and coarse (PM10-2.5 ) particulate matter twice on weekdays and weekends each for 48 hour, inside and outside 55 homes in an urban city in Japan. Endotoxin concentrations in both fractions were measured using the kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay. The relationships between endotoxin concentrations and household characteristics were evaluated for each fraction...
February 4, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147291/source-apportionment-of-ambient-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-at-the-fort-mckay-community-site-in-the-athabasca-oil-sands-region-alberta-canada
#15
Matthew S Landis, J Patrick Pancras, Joseph R Graney, Emily M White, Eric S Edgerton, Allan Legge, Kevin E Percy
An ambient air particulate matter sampling study was conducted at the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) AMS-1 Fort McKay monitoring station in the Athabasca Oil Sand Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada from February 2010 to July 2011. Daily 24h integrated fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate matter was collected using a sequential dichotomous sampler. Over the duration of the study, 392 valid daily dichotomous PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 sample pairs were collected with concentrations of 6.8±12.9μgm(-3) (mean±standard deviation) and 6...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141928/highly-acidic-ambient-particles-soluble-metals-and-oxidative-potential-a-link-between-sulfate-and-aerosol-toxicity
#16
Ting Fang, Hongyu Guo, Linghan Zeng, Vishal Verma, Athanasios Nenes, Rodney J Weber
Soluble transition metals in particulate matter (PM) can generate reactive oxygen species in vivo by redox cycling, leading to oxidative stress and adverse health effects. Most metals, such as those from roadway traffic, are emitted in an insoluble form, but must be soluble for redox cycling. Here we present the mechanism of metals dissolution by highly acidic sulfate aerosol and the effect on particle oxidative potential (OP) through analysis of size distributions. Size-segregated ambient PM were collected from a road-side and representative urban site in Atlanta, GA...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126388/impact-of-coal-carrying-trains-on-particulate-matter-concentrations-in-south-delta-british-columbia-canada
#17
K Akaoka, I McKendry, J Saxton, P W Cottle
Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117141/influence-of-exposure-to-coarse-fine-and-ultrafine-urban-particulate-matter-and-their-biological-constituents-on-neural-biomarkers-in-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-study
#18
Ling Liu, Bruce Urch, Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz, Mary Speck, Karen Leingartner, Robin Shutt, Guillaume Pelletier, Diane R Gold, James A Scott, Jeffrey R Brook, Peter S Thorne, Frances S Silverman
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution and neuro-psychological conditions. Biological mechanisms behind these findings are still not clear. OBJECTIVES: We examined changes in blood and urinary neural biomarkers following exposure to concentrated ambient coarse, fine and ultrafine particles. METHODS: Fifty healthy non-smoking volunteers, mean age 28years, were exposed to coarse (2.5-10μm, mean 213μg/m(3)) and fine (0...
April 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110452/comparison-of-trace-elements-in-size-fractionated-particles-in-two-communities-with-contrasting-socioeconomic-status-in-houston-tx
#19
Inkyu Han, Yuncan Guo, Masoud Afshar, Thomas H Stock, Elaine Symanski
Levels of ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), are often higher in low-socioeconomic status (SES) communities than in high-SES communities. Houston is the fourth largest city in the USA and is home to a large petrochemical industry, an active port, and congested roadways, which represent significant emission sources of air pollution in the region. To compare levels of air pollution between a low-SES and a high-SES community, we simultaneously collected a 7-day integrated size-fractionated PM between June 2013 and November 2013...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041838/ambient-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-pollution-and-respiratory-morbidity-in-dongguan-china
#20
Yiju Zhao, Shengyong Wang, Lingling Lang, Caiyan Huang, Wenjun Ma, Hualiang Lin
We estimated the short-term effects of particulate matter (PM) pollution with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMc) on hospital outpatient visits due to overall and specific respiratory diseases, as well as the associated morbidity burden in Dongguan, a subtropical city in South China. A time-series model with quasi-Poisson link was used to examine the association between PM pollution and morbidities from respiratory diseases, COPD, asthma and pneumonia in Dongguan during 2013-2015...
March 2017: Environmental Pollution
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