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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922535/association-between-short-term-exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-and-mortality-in-eight-european-urban-areas
#1
Massimo Stafoggia, Alexandra Schneider, Josef Cyrys, Evangelia Samoli, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Getahun Bero Bedada, Tom Bellander, Giorgio Cattani, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Annunziata Faustini, Barbara Hoffmann, Bénédicte Jacquemin, Klea Katsouyanni, Andreas Massling, Juha Pekkanen, Noemi Perez, Annette Peters, Ulrich Quass, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Francesco Forastiere
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence on the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and mortality is weak, due to the lack of routine measurements of these particles and standardized multi-center studies. We investigated the relationship between ultrafine particles and particulate matter (PM) and daily mortality in eight European urban areas. METHODS: We collected daily data on non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality, particle number concentrations (as proxy for ultrafine particle number concentration), fine and coarse PM, gases and meteorologic parameters in eight urban areas of Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Greece, between 1999 and 2013...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921226/the-relationship-between-aerosol-particles-chemical-composition-and-optical-properties-to-identify-the-biomass-burning-contribution-to-fine-particles-concentration-a-case-study-for-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-city-brazil
#2
Regina Maura de Miranda, Fabio Lopes, Nilton Évora do Rosário, Marcia Akemi Yamasoe, Eduardo Landulfo, Maria de Fatima Andrade
The air quality in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is primarily determined by the local pollution source contribution, mainly the vehicular fleet, but there is a concern about the role of remote sources to the fine mode particles (PM2.5) concentration and composition. One of the most important remote sources of atmospheric aerosol is the biomass burning emissions from São Paulo state's inland and from the central and north portions of Brazil. This study presents a synergy of different measurements of atmospheric aerosol chemistry and optical properties in the MASP in order to show how they can be used as a tool to identify particles from local and remote sources...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919164/differences-in-allergic-inflammatory-responses-in-murine-lungs-comparison-of-pm2-5-and-coarse-pm-collected-during-the-hazy-events-in-a-chinese-city
#3
Miao He, Takamichi Ichinose, Seiichi Yoshida, Fumiko Shiba, Keiichi Arashidani, Hirohisa Takano, Guifan Sun, Takayuki Shibamoto
Urban particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increase in asthma. PM2.5 (<PM2.5 μm) and coarse PM (CPM: PM2.5-PM10 μm) were collected from the air in a Chinese city during haze events. The amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in PM2.5 than in CPM. Conversely, microbial elements LPS and β-glucan were much higher in CPM than in PM2.5. Concentrations of Si, Al, Fe, and Ti in CPM were greater than in PM2.5, while Pb, Cu and As concentrations were lower than in PM2.5. When RAW264...
December 5, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913015/the-association-between-ambient-air-pollution-and-selected-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-china-a-systematic-review
#4
Milena Jacobs, Guicheng Zhang, Shu Chen, Ben Mullins, Michelle Bell, Lan Jin, Yuming Guo, Rachel Huxley, Gavin Pereira
The association between exposure to ambient air pollution and respiratory or cardiovascular endpoints is well-established. An increasing number of studies have shown that this exposure is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the majority of research has been undertaken in high-income western countries, with relatively lower levels of exposure. There is now a sufficient number of studies to warrant an assessment of effects in China, a relatively higher exposure setting. We conducted a systematic review of 25 studies examining the association between ambient air pollution exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes (lower birth weight, preterm birth, mortality, and congenital anomaly) in China, published between 1980 and 2015...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906031/contrasting-biological-potency-of-particulate-matter-collected-at-sites-impacted-by-distinct-industrial-sources
#5
Errol M Thomson, Dalibor Breznan, Subramanian Karthikeyan, Christine MacKinnon-Roy, Ngoc Q Vuong, Ewa Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Valbona Celo, Jean-Pierre Charland, Prem Kumarathasan, Jeffrey R Brook, Renaud Vincent
BACKGROUND: Industrial sources contribute a significant proportion of anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions, producing particles of varying composition that may differentially impact health. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient PM collected near industrial sites in relation to particle size and composition. METHODS: Size-fractionated particles (ultrafine, PM0.1-2.5, PM2.5-10, PM>10) were collected in the vicinity of steel, copper, aluminium, and petrochemical industrial sites...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889850/chemical-fractionation-and-health-risk-assessment-of-particulate-matter-bound-metals-in-pune-india
#6
Rohi Jan, Ritwika Roy, Suman Yadav, P Gursumeeran Satsangi
The present study deals with the assessment of sequential extraction of particulate matter (PM)-bound metals and the potential health risks associated with them in a growing metropolitan city (Pune) of India. The average mass concentration of both PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Significant seasonal variation in mass concentration was found for both size fractions of PM with higher values in winter season and lower in monsoon. Chemical species of the studied trace metals in PM exhibited significant differences, due to difference in sources of pollution...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884527/source-apportionment-of-size-fractionated-particles-during-the-2013-asian-youth-games-and-the-2014-youth-olympic-games-in-nanjing-china
#7
Pulong Chen, Tijian Wang, Xiaobo Lu, Yiyong Yu, Matthew Kasoar, Min Xie, Bingliang Zhuang
In this study, samples of size-fractionated particulate matter were collected continuously using a 9-size interval cascade impactor at an urban site in Nanjing, before, during and after the Asian Youth Games (AYG), from July to September of 2013, and the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), from July to September of 2014. First, elemental concentrations, water-soluble ions including Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), NH4(+), K(+), Na(+) and Ca(2+), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were analysed. Then, the source apportionment of the fine and coarse particulate matter was carried out using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model...
November 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796981/seasonal-characteristics-of-water-soluble-inorganic-ions-and-carbonaceous-aerosols-in-total-suspended-particulate-matter-at-a-rural-semi-arid-site-kadapa-india
#8
G Reshma Begam, C Viswanatha Vachaspati, Y Nazeer Ahammed, K Raghavendra Kumar, R R Reddy, S K Sharma, Mohit Saxena, T K Mandal
To better understand the sources as well as characterization of regional aerosols at a rural semi-arid region Kadapa (India), size-resolved composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations was sampled and analysed. This was carried out by using the Anderson low-pressure impactor for a period of 2 years during March 2013-February 2015. Also, the variations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble inorganic ion components (WSICs) present in total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were studied over the measurement site...
October 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751634/size-distributions-of-n-alkanes-fatty-acids-and-fatty-alcohols-in-springtime-aerosols-from-new-delhi-india
#9
Mingjie Kang, Pingqing Fu, Shankar G Aggarwal, Sudhanshu Kumar, Ye Zhao, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang
Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in New Delhi, India from March 6 to April 6, 2012. Homologous series of n-alkanes (C19C33), n-fatty acids (C12C30) and n-alcohols (C16C32) were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed a high-variation in the concentrations and size distributions of these chemicals during non-haze, haze, and dust storm days. In general, n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and n-alcohols presented a bimodal distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm for fine modes and coarse modes, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732909/effect-of-a-fuel-activation-device-fad-on-particulate-matter-and-black-carbon-emissions-from-a-diesel-locomotive-engine
#10
Duckshin Park, Taejeong Lee, Yongil Lee, Wonseog Jeong, Soon-Bark Kwon, Dongsool Kim, Kiyoung Lee
Emission reduction is one of the most efficient control measures in fuel-powered locomotives. The purpose of this study was to determine the reduction in particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) emissions following the installation of a fuel activation device (FAD). The FAD was developed to enhance fuel combustion by atomizing fuel and to increase the surface area per unit volume of injected fuel. Emission reduction by the FAD was evaluated by installing a FAD in an operating diesel locomotive in Mongolia...
October 9, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722488/source-contributions-and-potential-source-regions-of-size-resolved-water-soluble-organic-carbon-measured-at-an-urban-site-over-one-year
#11
Geun-Hye Yu, Seungshik Park, Kwon-Ho Lee
In this study, 24 h size-segregated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected between September 2012 and August 2013 at an urban site in Korea to investigate seasonal mass size distributions of PM and its water-soluble components as well as to infer the possible sources of size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) was also computed to identify the possible source regions of size-resolved WSOC. The seasonal average contribution of water-soluble organic matter to PM1...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716476/temporal-variation-of-post-accident-atmospheric-137-cs-in-an-evacuated-area-of-fukushima-prefecture-size-dependent-behaviors-of-137-cs-bearing-particles
#12
Shinya Ochiai, Hidenao Hasegawa, Hideki Kakiuchi, Naofumi Akata, Shinji Ueda, Shinji Tokonami, Shun'ichi Hisamatsu
The concentrations of (137)Cs in the air, which were divided into coarse (>1.1 μm ϕ) and fine (<1.1 μm ϕ) fractions of particulate matter (PM), were measured from October 2012 to December 2014 in an area evacuated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Total atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with high concentrations during summer and autumn related to the dominant easterly wind blowing from the highly radioactivity contaminated area...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713105/associations-between-long-term-particulate-matter-exposure-and-adult-renal-function-in-the-taipei-metropolis
#13
Ya-Ru Yang, Yung-Ming Chen, Szu-Ying Chen, Chang-Chuan Chan
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the associations between particulate matter (PM) exposures and renal function among adults. METHODS: We recruited 21,656 adults as subjects from 2007-2009. The Taiwanese Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation was used to derive the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Subjects with an eGFR lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were defined as having chronic kidney disease (CKD). Land use regression (LUR) models were used to estimate individual exposures to PM with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), coarse particles (PMCoarse), fine particles (PM2...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709902/enrichment-of-saccharides-and-divalent-cations-in-sea-spray-aerosol-during-two-phytoplankton-blooms
#14
Thilina Jayarathne, Camille M Sultana, Christopher Lee, Francesca Malfatti, Joshua L Cox, Matthew A Pendergraft, Kathryn A Moore, Farooq Azam, Alexei V Tivanski, Christopher David Cappa, Timothy H Bertram, Vicki H Grassian, Kimberly Ann Prather, Elizabeth A Stone
Sea spray aerosol (SSA) is a globally important source of particulate matter. A mesocosm study was performed to determine the relative enrichment of saccharides and inorganic ions in nascent fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) SSA and sea surface microlayer (SSML) relative to bulk seawater. Saccharides comprise a significant fraction of organic matter in fine and coarse SSA (11% and 27%, respectively). Relative to sodium, individual saccharides were enriched 14-1314 times in fine SSA, 3-138 times in coarse SSA, but only up to 1...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700056/hygroscopic-properties-and-respiratory-system-deposition-behavior-of-particulate-matter-emitted-by-mining-and-smelting-operations
#15
Jong Sang Youn, Janae Csavina, Kyle P Rine, Taylor Shingler, Mark Patrick Taylor, A Eduardo Sáez, Eric A Betterton, Armin Sorooshian
This study examines size-resolved physicochemical data for particles sampled near mining and smelting operations and a background urban site in Arizona with a focus on how hygroscopic growth impacts particle deposition behavior. Particles with aerodynamic diameters between 0.056 - 18 µm were collected at three sites: (i) an active smelter operation in Hayden, AZ, (ii) a legacy mining site with extensive mine tailings in Iron King, AZ, and (iii) an urban site, inner-city Tucson, AZ. Mass size distributions of As and Pb exhibit bimodal profiles with a dominant peak between 0...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690287/feasibility-of-using-low-cost-portable-particle-monitors-for-measurement-of-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-in-urban-ambient-air
#16
Inkyu Han, Elaine Symanski, Thomas H Stock
Implications The performance of a low-cost PM sensor was evaluated in an urban residential area. Both PM2.5 and coarse PM (PM10-2.5) mass concentrations were estimated using a DC1700 PM sensor. The calculated PM mass concentrations from the number concentrations of DC 1700 were close to those measured with the Grimm 11-R when relative humidity was less than 60% for both PM2.5 and coarse PM. Particle size distribution was more important for the association of coarse PM between the DC 1700 and Grimm 11-R than it was for PM2...
September 30, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681870/on-the-design-and-assessment-of-regional-air-quality-plans-the-sherpa-approach
#17
P Thunis, B Degraeuwe, E Pisoni, F Ferrari, A Clappier
Although significant progress has been made in Europe regarding air quality, problems still remain acute for some pollutants, notably NO2 and Particulate Matter (fine and coarse fractions) in specific regions/cities. One issue regarding air quality management is governance, i.e. the selection of appropriate and cost effective strategies over the area controlled by policy makers. In this work we present a new approach to integrated assessment modelling focusing on regional and urban aspects. One of the key added values is spatial flexibility, namely the possibility to assess the contributions from different regions to air quality at any given location...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649214/the-exposure-uncertainty-analysis-the-association-between-birth-weight-and-trimester-specific-exposure-to-particulate-matter-pm2-5-vs-pm10
#18
Naresh Kumar
Often spatiotemporal resolution/scale of environmental and health data do not align. Therefore, researchers compute exposure by interpolation or by aggregating data to coarse spatiotemporal scales. The latter is often preferred because of sparse geographic coverage of environmental monitoring, as interpolation method cannot reliably compute exposure using the small sample of sparse data points. This paper presents a methodology of diagnosing the levels of uncertainty in exposure at a given distance and time interval, and examines the effects of particulate matter (PM) ≤2...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645143/source-identification-and-apportionment-of-pm2-5-and-pm2-5-10-in-iron-and-steel-scrap-smelting-factory-environment-using-pmf-pcfa-and-unmix-receptor-models
#19
Lasun T Ogundele, Oyediran K Owoade, Felix S Olise, Philip K Hopke
To identify the potential sources responsible for the particulate matter emission from secondary iron and steel smelting factory environment, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 particles were collected using the low-volume air samplers twice a week for a year. The samples were analyzed for the elemental and black carbon content using x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and optical transmissometer, respectively. The average mass concentrations were 216.26, 151.68, and 138. 62 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 331.36, 190.01, and 184.60 μg/m(3) for PM2...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639783/nitration-of-pollen-aeroallergens-by-nitrate-ion-in-conditions-simulating-the-liquid-water-phase-of-atmospheric-particles
#20
Alessandra Ghiani, Maurizio Bruschi, Sandra Citterio, Ezio Bolzacchini, Luca Ferrero, Giorgia Sangiorgi, Riccardo Asero, Maria Grazia Perrone
Pollen aeroallergens are present in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) where they can be found in coarse biological particles such as pollen grains (aerodynamic diameter dae>10μm), as well as fragments in the finest respirable particles (PM2.5; dae<2.5μm). Nitration of tyrosine residues in pollen allergenic proteins can occur in polluted air, and inhalation and deposition of these nitrated proteins in the human respiratory tract may lead to adverse health effects by enhancing the allergic response in population...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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