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particulate matter coarse

Mingjie Kang, Pingqing Fu, Shankar G Aggarwal, Sudhanshu Kumar, Ye Zhao, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang
Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in New Delhi, India from March 6 to April 6, 2012. Homologous series of n-alkanes (C19C33), n-fatty acids (C12C30) and n-alcohols (C16C32) were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed a high-variation in the concentrations and size distributions of these chemicals during non-haze, haze, and dust storm days. In general, n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and n-alcohols presented a bimodal distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm for fine modes and coarse modes, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Duckshin Park, Taejeong Lee, Yongil Lee, Wonseog Jeong, Soon-Bark Kwon, Dongsool Kim, Kiyoung Lee
Emission reduction is one of the most efficient control measures in fuel-powered locomotives. The purpose of this study was to determine the reduction in particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) emissions following the installation of a fuel activation device (FAD). The FAD was developed to enhance fuel combustion by atomizing fuel and to increase the surface area per unit volume of injected fuel. Emission reduction by the FAD was evaluated by installing a FAD in an operating diesel locomotive in Mongolia...
October 9, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Geun-Hye Yu, Seungshik Park, Kwon-Ho Lee
In this study, 24 h size-segregated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected between September 2012 and August 2013 at an urban site in Korea to investigate seasonal mass size distributions of PM and its water-soluble components as well as to infer the possible sources of size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) was also computed to identify the possible source regions of size-resolved WSOC. The seasonal average contribution of water-soluble organic matter to PM1...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Shinya Ochiai, Hidenao Hasegawa, Hideki Kakiuchi, Naofumi Akata, Shinji Ueda, Shinji Tokonami, Shun'ichi Hisamatsu
The concentrations of (137)Cs in the air, which were divided into coarse (>1.1 μm ϕ) and fine (<1.1 μm ϕ) fractions of particulate matter (PM), were measured from October 2012 to December 2014 in an area evacuated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Total atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with high concentrations during summer and autumn related to the dominant easterly wind blowing from the highly radioactivity contaminated area...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ya-Ru Yang, Yung-Ming Chen, Szu-Ying Chen, Chang-Chuan Chan
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the associations between particulate matter (PM) exposures and renal function among adults. METHODS: We recruited 21,656 adults as subjects from 2007-2009. The Taiwanese Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation was used to derive the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Subjects with an eGFR lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were defined as having chronic kidney disease (CKD). Land use regression (LUR) models were used to estimate individual exposures to PM with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), coarse particles (PMCoarse), fine particles (PM2...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Thilina Jayarathne, Camille M Sultana, Christopher Lee, Francesca Malfatti, Joshua L Cox, Matthew A Pendergraft, Kathryn A Moore, Farooq Azam, Alexei V Tivanski, Christopher David Cappa, Timothy H Bertram, Vicki H Grassian, Kimberly Ann Prather, Elizabeth A Stone
Sea spray aerosol (SSA) is a globally important source of particulate matter. A mesocosm study was performed to determine the relative enrichment of saccharides and inorganic ions in nascent fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) SSA and sea surface microlayer (SSML) relative to bulk seawater. Saccharides comprise a significant fraction of organic matter in fine and coarse SSA (11% and 27%, respectively). Relative to sodium, individual saccharides were enriched 14-1314 times in fine SSA, 3-138 times in coarse SSA, but only up to 1...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Jong Sang Youn, Janae Csavina, Kyle P Rine, Taylor Shingler, Mark Patrick Taylor, A Eduardo Sáez, Eric A Betterton, Armin Sorooshian
This study examines size-resolved physicochemical data for particles sampled near mining and smelting operations and a background urban site in Arizona with a focus on how hygroscopic growth impacts particle deposition behavior. Particles with aerodynamic diameters between 0.056 - 18 µm were collected at three sites: (i) an active smelter operation in Hayden, AZ, (ii) a legacy mining site with extensive mine tailings in Iron King, AZ, and (iii) an urban site, inner-city Tucson, AZ. Mass size distributions of As and Pb exhibit bimodal profiles with a dominant peak between 0...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Inkyu Han, Elaine Symanski, Thomas H Stock
Implications The performance of a low-cost PM sensor was evaluated in an urban residential area. Both PM2.5 and coarse PM (PM10-2.5) mass concentrations were estimated using a DC1700 PM sensor. The calculated PM mass concentrations from the number concentrations of DC 1700 were close to those measured with the Grimm 11-R when relative humidity was less than 60% for both PM2.5 and coarse PM. Particle size distribution was more important for the association of coarse PM between the DC 1700 and Grimm 11-R than it was for PM2...
September 30, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
P Thunis, B Degraeuwe, E Pisoni, F Ferrari, A Clappier
Although significant progress has been made in Europe regarding air quality, problems still remain acute for some pollutants, notably NO2 and Particulate Matter (fine and coarse fractions) in specific regions/cities. One issue regarding air quality management is governance, i.e. the selection of appropriate and cost effective strategies over the area controlled by policy makers. In this work we present a new approach to integrated assessment modelling focusing on regional and urban aspects. One of the key added values is spatial flexibility, namely the possibility to assess the contributions from different regions to air quality at any given location...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Naresh Kumar
Often spatiotemporal resolution/scale of environmental and health data do not align. Therefore, researchers compute exposure by interpolation or by aggregating data to coarse spatiotemporal scales. The latter is often preferred because of sparse geographic coverage of environmental monitoring, as interpolation method cannot reliably compute exposure using the small sample of sparse data points. This paper presents a methodology of diagnosing the levels of uncertainty in exposure at a given distance and time interval, and examines the effects of particulate matter (PM) ≤2...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lasun T Ogundele, Oyediran K Owoade, Felix S Olise, Philip K Hopke
To identify the potential sources responsible for the particulate matter emission from secondary iron and steel smelting factory environment, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 particles were collected using the low-volume air samplers twice a week for a year. The samples were analyzed for the elemental and black carbon content using x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and optical transmissometer, respectively. The average mass concentrations were 216.26, 151.68, and 138. 62 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 331.36, 190.01, and 184.60 μg/m(3) for PM2...
October 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Alessandra Ghiani, Maurizio Bruschi, Sandra Citterio, Ezio Bolzacchini, Luca Ferrero, Giorgia Sangiorgi, Riccardo Asero, Maria Grazia Perrone
Pollen aeroallergens are present in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) where they can be found in coarse biological particles such as pollen grains (aerodynamic diameter dae>10μm), as well as fragments in the finest respirable particles (PM2.5; dae<2.5μm). Nitration of tyrosine residues in pollen allergenic proteins can occur in polluted air, and inhalation and deposition of these nitrated proteins in the human respiratory tract may lead to adverse health effects by enhancing the allergic response in population...
September 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ekaterini Velali, Eleni Papachristou, Anastasia Pantazaki, Theodora Choli-Papadopoulou, Nikoleta Argyrou, Theodora Tsourouktsoglou, Stergios Lialiaris, Alexandros Constantinidis, Dimitrios Lykidis, Thedore S Lialiaris, Athanasios Besis, Dimitra Voutsa, Constantini Samara
Three organic fractions of different polarity, including a non polar organic fraction (NPOF), a moderately polar organic fraction (MPOF), and a polar organic fraction (POF) were obtained from size-segregated (<0.49, 0.49-0.97, 0.97-3 and >3 μm) urban particulate matter (PM) samples, and tested for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using a battery of in vitro assays. The cytotoxicity induced by the organic PM fractions was measured by the mitochondrial dehydrogenase (MTT) cell viability assay applied on MRC-5 human lung epithelial cells...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Yong Ho Kim, Q Todd Krantz, John McGee, Kasey D Kovalcik, Rachelle M Duvall, Robert D Willis, Ali S Kamal, Matthew S Landis, Gary A Norris, M Ian Gilmour
The Cleveland airshed comprises a complex mixture of industrial source emissions that contribute to periods of non-attainment for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and are associated with increased adverse health outcomes in the exposed population. Specific PM sources responsible for health effects however are not fully understood. Size-fractionated PM (coarse, fine, and ultrafine) samples were collected using a ChemVol sampler at an urban site (G.T. Craig (GTC)) and rural site (Chippewa Lake (CLM)) from July 2009 to June 2010, and then chemically analyzed...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Matthias Borris, Heléne Österlund, Jiri Marsalek, Maria Viklander
Laboratory leaching experiments were performed to study the potential of coarse street sediments (i.e. >250μm) to release dissolved and particulate-bound heavy metals (i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) during rainfall/runoff. Towards this end, street sediments were sampled by vacuuming at seven sites in five Swedish cities and the collected sediments were characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. In the laboratory, the sediments were combined with synthetic rainwater and subject to agitation by a shaker mimicking particle motion during transport by runoff from street surfaces...
August 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Prashant Kumar, Anju Goel
The understanding of rapidly evolving concentrations of particulate matter (PMC) at signalised traffic intersections (TIs) is limited, but it is important for accurate exposure assessment. We performed "mobile" and "fixed-site" monitoring of size-resolved PMCs in the 0.25-34 μm range at TIs. On-road mobile measurements were made inside a car under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long round route, passing through 10 different TIs. Fixed-site measurements were conducted at two types (3- and 4-way) of TIs...
September 14, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Triratnesh Gajbhiye, Sudhir Kumar Pandey, Ki-Hyun Kim, Jan E Szulejko, Satgur Prasad
In order to investigate possible foliar transfer of toxic heavy metals, concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe were measured in samples of: Cassia siamea leaves (a common tree) Cassia siamea foliar dust, nearby road dust, and soil (Cassia siamea tree roots) at six different sites in/around the Bilaspur industrial area and a control site on the university campus. Bilaspur is located in a subtropical central Indian region. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Pb and Cd, when derived using the crustal and measured soil Fe data as reference, indicated significant anthropogenic contributions to Pb and Cd regional pollution...
August 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Shengzhen Zhou, Perry K Davy, Xuemei Wang, Jason Blake Cohen, Jiaquan Liang, Minjuan Huang, Qi Fan, Weihua Chen, Ming Chang, Travis Ancelet, William J Trompetter
Hourly-resolved PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 samples were collected in the industrial city Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. The samples were subsequently analyzed for elemental components and black carbon (BC). A key purpose of the study was to understand the composition of particulate matter (PM) at high-time resolution in a polluted urban atmosphere to identify key components contributing to extreme PM concentration events and examine the diurnal chemical concentration patterns for air quality management purposes...
August 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ketzasmin A Terrón-Mejía, Roberto López-Rendón, Armando Gama Goicochea
A proper treatment of electrostatic interactions is crucial for the accurate calculation of forces in computer simulations. Electrostatic interactions are typically modeled using Ewald-based methods, which have become some of the cornerstones upon which many other methods for the numerical computation of electrostatic interactions are based. However, their use with charge distributions rather than point charges requires the inclusion of ansatz for the solutions of the Poisson equation, since there is no exact solution known for smeared out charges...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Dalibor Breznan, Subramanian Karthikeyan, Marcelle Phaneuf, Prem Kumarathasan, Sabit Cakmak, Michael S Denison, Jeffrey R Brook, Renaud Vincent
BACKGROUND: Association of particulate matter with adverse health effects has been established in epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies are difficult to undertake while animal studies are impractical for high-throughput toxicity testing. The ease and rapidity of in vitro tests emphasizes their potential for use in risk assessment of chemicals and particles. We examined the association between in vitro and in vivo responses to ambient particles, to determine the potential of cell-based assays as standalone toxicity screening tools...
2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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