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Testosterone androgen cholesterol

Amy A Lubik, Mannan Nouri, Sarah Truong, Mazyar Ghaffari, Hans H Adomat, Eva Corey, Michael E Cox, Na Li, Emma S Guns, Parvin Yenki, Steven Pham, Ralph Buttyan
Despite the substantial benefit of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa), patients often progress to castration-resistant disease (CRPC) that is more difficult to treat. CRPC is associated with renewed androgen receptor (AR) activity in tumor cells and restoration of tumor androgen levels through acquired intratumoral steroidogenesis (AIS). While prostate cancer (PCa) cells have been shown to have steroidogenic capability in vitro, we previously found that benign prostate stromal cells (PrSCs) can also synthesize testosterone (T) from an adrenal precursor, DHEA, when stimulated with a hedgehog (Hh) pathway agonist, SAG...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Daniel M Kelly, Samia Akhtar, Donna J Sellers, Vakkat Muraleedharan, Kevin S Channer, T Hugh Jones
Testosterone deficiency is commonly associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and their clinical consequences-hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. The testicular feminised mouse (non-functional androgen receptor and low testosterone) develops fatty liver and aortic lipid streaks on a high-fat diet, whereas androgen-replete XY littermate controls do not. Testosterone treatment ameliorates these effects, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We compared the influence of testosterone on the expression of regulatory targets of glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism in muscle, liver, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue...
August 4, 2016: Endocrine
Sompol Permpongkosol, Kalayanee Khupulsup, Supatra Leelaphiwat, Sarawan Pavavattananusorn, Supranee Thongpradit, Thanom Petchthong
INTRODUCTION: The long-term effects of long-acting testosterone undecanoate (TU) and androgen receptor CAG repeat lengths in Thai men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) have not been reported. AIM: To analyze the 8-year follow-up effects of intramuscular TU therapy on metabolic parameters, urinary symptoms, bone mineral density, and sexual function and investigate CAG repeat lengths in men with LOH. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 428 men with LOH who had been treated with TU and 5 patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer during TU therapy...
August 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Christian E Elger, Michael Rademacher, Christian Brandt, Sami Elmoufti, Peter Dedeken, Klaus Eckhardt, Frank Tennigkeit, Marc De Backer
Treatment with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as carbamazepine (CBZ) can lead to changes in reproductive, endocrine, and lipid parameters, resulting in clinical symptoms for some patients. Previous studies indicate that these changes can be reversed by switching to a nonenzyme-inducing AED. Lacosamide is a newer-generation AED, not known to induce or strongly inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. In this phase IIIb, prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm trial (NCT01375374), the serum concentrations of CYP-related reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, and lipids were assessed in otherwise healthy male patients with focal seizures (N=11), before and after a switch from CBZ (600-1200mg/day at baseline) to lacosamide (target dose: 400mg/day by the end of titration) as adjunctive treatment to the nonenzyme-inducing AED levetiracetam (LEV, stable dosage of >1000mg/day throughout)...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Xiaoheng Li, Shuyan Cao, Baiping Mao, Yanfang Bai, Xiaomin Chen, Xiudi Wang, Ying Wu, Linxi Li, Han Lin, Qingquan Lian, Ping Huang, Ren-Shan Ge
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic antioxidant used for food preservation. Whether BHA affects testosterone biosynthesis is still unclear. The effects of BHA on the steroidogenesis in rat immature Leydig cells were investigated. Rat immature Leydig cells were isolated from 35-old-day rats and cultured with BHA (50 μM) for 3 h in combination with 22R-OH-cholesterol, pregnenolone, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone or dihydrotestosterone, and the concentrations of 5α-androstanediol and testosterone in the media were measured...
July 7, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Giacomo Tirabassi, Melissa Cutini, Benedetta Beltrami, Nicola Delli Muti, Andrea Lenzi, Giancarlo Balercia
The influence of androgen receptor (AR) GGC repeat polymorphism on the metabolic profile of men has been much less studied than the one of CAG tract polymorphism. Therefore, in this study, we looked for the association of GGC and CAG tract with cardiovascular risk factors in men. Ninety-eight men followed by our andrological unit were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and biochemical parameters on cardiovascular risk were considered. AR CAG and GGC polymorphisms were studied. GGC triplets were found to be positively and significantly correlated with several cardiovascular risk factors...
June 1, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Agnieszka Zachurzok, Grazyna Deja, Aneta Gawlik, Agnieszka Drosdzol-Cop, Katarzyna Klimek, Ewa Malecka-Tendera
Study Objectives. The study aim was to evaluate whether hyperandrogenemia in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may adversely influence lipid profile. Design and Participants. Lipid levels in 16 diabetic girls with biochemical hyperandrogenemia (T1DM-H) aged 16.3 ± 1.2 years were compared to 38 diabetic girls with normal androgen levels (T1DM-N) aged 15.8 ± 1.2 years. 15 healthy girls served as controls (CG). In all patients, anthropometric measurements were done, and androgens and SHBG were assessed...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Shuichi Shimma, Henri-Obadja Kumada, Hisanori Taniguchi, Alu Konno, Ikuko Yao, Kyoji Furuta, Tadashi Matsuda, Seiji Ito
Testosterone is one of the androgens synthesized from cholesterol as a precursor in the Leydig cells of testes. Since the ionization efficiency of testosterone in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is quite low, visualization of testosterone by using MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has been considered difficult. To overcome this problem, we used two types of on-tissue derivatization techniques, which were achieved by pyridine sulfur trioxide and Girard's T (GT) reagent, to introduce a polar group into testosterone molecule with the aim to increase the sensitivity...
May 26, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Javier Del Pino Sans, Kelsey J Clements, Alexander Suvorov, Sudha Krishnan, Hillary L Adams, Sandra L Petersen
Developmental exposure to arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands abolishes sex differences in a wide range of neural structures and functions. A well-studied example is the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), a structure that controls sex-specific luteinizing hormone (LH) release. In the male, testosterone (T) secreted by the developing testes defeminizes LH release mechanisms; conversely, perinatal AhR activation by 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) blocks defeminization. To better understand developmental mechanisms altered by TCDD exposure, we first verified that neonatal TCDD exposure in male rats prevented the loss of AVPV GABA/glutamate neurons that are critical for female-typical LH surge release...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Loes Jaspers, Klodian Dhana, Taulant Muka, Cindy Meun, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Albert Hofman, Joop S E Laven, Oscar H Franco, Maryam Kavousi
CONTEXT: The concept of cardiovascular health was recently introduced. Sex steroids and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) influence different health domains, but no studies assessed their role in cardiovascular health. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), SHBG, and free androgen index (FAI) with cardiovascular health. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Analyses included 1647 men (68.6 y) and 1564 naturally postmenopausal women (69...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mari Hashimoto, Kaoru Kobayashi, Mana Yamazaki, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Shoko Takehara, Mitsuo Oshimura, Kan Chiba
Testosterone regulates cellular functions in the prostate through activation of the androgen receptor (AR), which may enhance expression levels of cholesterogenic enzymes through activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein2 (SREBP2). Because testosterone is inactivated to 6β-hydroxytestosterone by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), we examined the effects of Cyp3a deficiency on circulating testosterone levels and its effects on activation of the AR and expression levels of cholesterogenic enzymes in the prostate using Cyp3a-knockout (Cyp3a(-/-)) mice...
October 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
D Macut, K Tziomalos, I Božić-Antić, J Bjekić-Macut, I Katsikis, E Papadakis, Z Andrić, D Panidis
STUDY QUESTION: What are the most relevant factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Insulin resistance (IR) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) are independently associated with NAFLD in PCOS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Obesity and IR are frequently present in both women with PCOS and subjects having NAFLD. The coexistence of PCOS and NAFLD might synergistically increase the risk for both type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
June 2016: Human Reproduction
Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Heidemarie Abrahamian, Raimund Weitgasser, Peter Fasching, Fritz Hoppichler, Monika Lechleitner
Metabolic diseases dramatically affect life of men and women from infancy up to old age and are a major challenge for clinicians. Health professionals are confronted with different needs of women and men. This article aims at an increase of gender awareness and the implementation of current knowledge of gender medicine in daily clinical practice with regard to pre-diabetes and diabetes. Sex and gender affect screening and diagnosis of metabolic diseases as well as treatment strategies and outcome. Impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, regulation of energy balance and body fat distribution are related to steroid hormones and therefore impose their influence on cardiovascular health in both men and women...
April 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Ozlen Emekci Ozay, Ali Cenk Ozay, Berrin Acar, Erkan Cagliyan, Mustafa Seçil, Tuncay Küme
OBJECTIVE: Due to the complex relationship between kisspeptin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the study was planned to measure the kisspeptin levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to analyze the correlations between kisspeptin and PCOS-related reproductive, metabolic changes. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective study in Dokuz Eylul University between December 2011 and September 2013. A total of 285 PCOS cases and 162 controls were recruited...
March 22, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Adel Alkhedaide, Zafer Saad Alshehri, Ayman Sabry, Tulip Abdel-Ghaffar, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Hossam Attia
Cadmium (Cd) is the most prevalent toxic metal present in livestock feed; therefore, the present study aimed to examine the ameliorative effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)‑induced testicular dysfunction of Wistar rats. Male adult Wistar rats (40 rats; n=10/group) were divided into four equal groups. Group one was used as a control, and was given ad libitum access to food and water. Groups 2‑4 were treated with CdCl2 [5 mg/kg body weight (BW)], GSE (400 mg/kg BW, orally), and GSE plus CdCl2, respectively...
April 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Christian Bo Poulsen, Martin Bødtker Mortensen, Wolfgang Koechling, Charlotte Brandt Sørensen, Jacob Fog Bentzon
BACKGROUND: Treatment of prostate cancer often involves androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonists, GnRH receptor antagonists, or orchiectomy. ADT may increase the rate of cardiovascular disease events, but recent clinical studies suggested that not all means of ADT carry the same risk, raising the possibility of non-testosterone-mediated effects of different forms of ADT on atherosclerosis. Here we compared effects of ADT on atherosclerosis in intact and orchiectomized Apoe-deficient mice...
February 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Linyuan Zhang, Sijin Ding, Peihuan Qiao, Li Dong, Miao Yu, Chong Wang, Ming Zhang, Lixia Zhang, Yimin Li, Ning Tang, Bing Chang
It is well known that inappropriate exposure to exogenous hormones during fetal or neonatal life, such as testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2 ), leads to adverse reproductive outcomes. In our previous study, the reproductive dysfunction of male rats was characterized by an E2 increase and T decrease after in utero and lactation exposures to n-butylparaben (n-BP). In this study, we investigated the synthesis and metabolism pathways of steroid hormones, hormone receptors and the epigenetic modification of male offspring on postnatal day (PND) 21 and PND90 to explore the possible mechanisms of endocrine and reproductive disorders...
February 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Claus D Volko, Pedro A Regidor, Uwe D Rohr
INTRODUCTION: Stress was described by Cushing and Selye as an adaptation to a foreign stressor by the anterior pituitary increasing ACTH, which stimulates the release of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. The question is raised whether stress can induce additional steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases (SMD), since stress is the common denominator. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, where the steroidal hormone cascade of patients with SMD was compared to the impact of increasing stress on the steroidal hormone cascade (a) in healthy amateur marathon runners with no overtraining; (b) in healthy well-trained elite soldiers of a ranger training unit in North Norway, who were under extreme physical and mental stress, sleep deprivation, and insufficient calories for 1 week; and, (c) in soldiers suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia (SI), and bipolar disorders (BD)...
March 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Javad Ranjbaran, Marzieh Farimani, Heidar Tavilani, Marzieh Ghorbani, Jamshid Karimi, Faranak Poormonsefi, Iraj Khodadadi
It is believed that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in follicular development and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, conflicting results are available about the alteration of MMP2 and MMP9 concentrations or activities in PCOS. In fact, there is no study entirely investigating both concentration and activity of these MMPs and serum levels of their tissue inhibitors TIMP2 and TIMP1, as well as lipocalin-bound form of MMP9 (MMP9/NGAL). Therefore, the thoroughness of previous studies is questionable...
April 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Robert Krysiak, Wojciech Gilowski, Bogusław Okopień
BACKGROUND: By reducing LDL cholesterol levels, statins may decrease androgen production. This study was aimed at investigating whether testosterone treatment has an impact on cardiometabolic risk factors in statin-treated men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). METHODS: The study included 31 men with LOH who had been treated for at least 6 months with atorvastatin (20-40mg daily). On the basis of patient preference, atorvastatin-treated patients were divided into two matched groups of patients: receiving intramuscular testosterone enanthate (100mg weekly, n=16) and not treated with this hormone (n=15)...
February 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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