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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335558/modeling-the-development-of-audiovisual-cue-integration-in-speech-perception
#1
Laura M Getz, Elke R Nordeen, Sarah C Vrabic, Joseph C Toscano
Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories...
March 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335519/translating-developmental-origins-improving-the-health-of-women-and-their-children-using-a-sustainable-approach-to-behaviour-change
#2
Mary Barker, Janis Baird, Tannaze Tinati, Christina Vogel, Sofia Strömmer, Taylor Rose, Rufia Begum, Megan Jarman, Jenny Davies, Sue Thompson, Liz Taylor, Hazel Inskip, Cyrus Cooper, Don Nutbeam, Wendy Lawrence
Theories of the developmental origins of health and disease imply that optimising the growth and development of babies is an essential route to improving the health of populations. A key factor in the growth of babies is the nutritional status of their mothers. Since women from more disadvantaged backgrounds have poorer quality diets and the worst pregnancy outcomes, they need to be a particular focus. The behavioural sciences have made a substantial contribution to the development of interventions to support dietary changes in disadvantaged women...
March 20, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335489/effects-of-the-mediterranean-diet-before-and-after-weight-loss-on-eating-behavioral-traits-in-men-with-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Élise Carbonneau, Marie-Michelle Royer, Caroline Richard, Patrick Couture, Sophie Desroches, Simone Lemieux, Benoît Lamarche
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions...
March 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335460/neuropsychology-of-aesthetic-judgment-of-ambiguous-and-non-ambiguous-artworks
#4
Maddalena Boccia, Sonia Barbetti, Laura Piccardi, Cecilia Guariglia, Anna Maria Giannini
Several affective and cognitive processes have been found to be pivotal in affecting aesthetic experience of artworks and both neuropsychological as well as psychiatric symptoms have been found to affect artistic production. However, there is a paucity of studies directly investigating effects of brain lesions on aesthetic judgment. Here, we assessed the effects of unilateral brain damage on aesthetic judgment of artworks showing part/whole ambiguity. We asked 19 unilaterally brain-damaged patients (10 left and 9 right brain damaged patients, respectively LBDP and RBDP) and 20 age- and education-matched healthy individuals (controls, C) to rate 10 Arcimboldo's ambiguous portraits (AP), 10 realistic Renaissance portraits (RP), 10 still life paintings (SL), and 10 Arcimboldo's modified portraits where only objects/parts are detectable (AO)...
March 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335446/knowledge-self-confidence-and-attitudes-towards-suicidal-patients-at-emergency-and-psychiatric-departments-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-effects-of-an-educational-poster-campaign
#5
Renate van Landschoot, Gwendolyn Portzky, Kees van Heeringen
Educational posters are used to enhance knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence of patients. Little is known on their effectiveness for educating health care professionals. As these professionals may play an important role in suicide prevention, the effects of a poster and accompanying evaluation and triage guide on knowledge, self-confidence and attitudes regarding suicidal thoughts and behaviours, were studied in a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial, involving staff from 39 emergency and 38 psychiatric departments throughout Flanders (n = 1171)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335444/hiv-education-and-welfare-services-in-primary-care-an-empirical-model-of-integration-in-brazil-s-unified-health-system
#6
Rahbel Rahman, Rogério M Pinto, Melanie M Wall
Integration of health education and welfare services in primary care systems is a key strategy to solve the multiple determinants of chronic diseases, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, there is a scarcity of conceptual models from which to build integration strategies. We provide a model based on cross-sectional data from 168 Community Health Agents, 62 nurses, and 32 physicians in two municipalities in Brazil's Unified Health System (UHS)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335404/perceptions-of-health-co-benefits-in-relation-to-greenhouse-gas-emission-reductions-a-survey-among-urban-residents-in-three-chinese-cities
#7
Jinghong Gao, Guozhang Xu, Wenjun Ma, Yong Zhang, Alistair Woodward, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Sari Kovats, Paul Wilkinson, Tianfeng He, Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Shaohua Gu, Jun Wang, Jing Li, Jun Yang, Xiaobo Liu, Jing Li, Haixia Wu, Qiyong Liu
Limited information is available on the perceptions of stakeholders concerning the health co-benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of urban residents on the health co-benefits involving GHG abatement and related influencing factors in three cities in China. Beijing, Ningbo and Guangzhou were selected for this survey. Participants were recruited from randomly chosen committees, following quotas for gender and age in proportion to the respective population shares...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335394/motor-function-evaluation-of-hemiplegic-upper-extremities-using-data-fusion-from-wearable-inertial-and-surface-emg-sensors
#8
Yanran Li, Xu Zhang, Yanan Gong, Ying Cheng, Xiaoping Gao, Xiang Chen
Quantitative evaluation of motor function is of great demand for monitoring clinical outcome of applied interventions and further guiding the establishment of therapeutic protocol. This study proposes a novel framework for evaluating upper limb motor function based on data fusion from inertial measurement units (IMUs) and surface electromyography (EMG) sensors. With wearable sensors worn on the tested upper limbs, subjects were asked to perform eleven straightforward, specifically designed canonical upper-limb functional tasks...
March 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335392/conscientious-objection-to-animal-experimentation-in-italian-universities
#9
Ilaria Baldelli, Alma Massaro, Susanna Penco, Anna Maria Bassi, Sara Patuzzo, Rosagemma Ciliberti
In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as "animal CO". However, little monitoring on the faculties' compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies...
March 13, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335143/aortic-non-covered-stents-to-treat-complicated-acute-type-b-aortic-dissections-lessons-learned-from-seven-years-from-s-o-s-aorta
#10
Jean-Marc Alsac, Salma El Batti, Auréline Boitet, Marwan Abou Rjeili, Pierre Julia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335082/reporting-of-mitotic-rate-in-cutaneous-melanoma-a-study-using-the-national-cancer-data-base
#11
Patrick D Lorimer, Emily C Benham, Kendall Walsh, Yimei Han, Meghan R Forster, Terry Sarantou, Richard L White, Joshua S Hill
BACKGROUND: The seventh edition of the American Joint Commission on Cancer staging manual (AJCC7, published 2009), updated thin cutaneous melanoma staging protocols with the incorporation of mitotic rate (MR). In these patients, higher MR is associated with decreased survival. This study utilizes the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to evaluate MR reporting since AJCC7. METHODS: The NCDB was queried for patients with primary cutaneous melanoma from 1998 to 2013...
March 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335038/a-comparative-effectiveness-education-trial-for-lifestyle-health-behavior-change-in-african-americans
#12
Chanita Hughes Halbert, Scarlett Bellamy, Vanessa Briggs, Ernestine Delmoor, Joseph Purnell, Rodney Rogers, Benita Weathers, Jerry C Johnson
Obesity and excess weight are significant clinical and public health issues that disproportionately affect African Americans because of physical inactivity and unhealthy eating. We compared the effects of alternate behavioral interventions on obesity-related health behaviors. We conducted a comparative effectiveness education trial in a community-based sample of 530 adult African Americans. Outcomes variables were physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable intake. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 1-month following interventions about shared risk factors for cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (integrated, INT) or CVD only (disease-specific)...
March 18, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334997/self-efficacy-and-comfort-with-partner-assisted-skin-examination-in-patients-receiving-follow-up-care-for-melanoma
#13
J DiMillo, D C Brosseau, C Gomez-Garibello, N C Hall, H Ezer, B Wang, A Körner
The objective of this study was to examine the role of interpersonal variables on melanoma survivors' self-efficacy for performing skin self-examinations (SSEs) during melanoma follow-up care. Specifically, the impact of comfort with partner assistance for SSE, SSE support received from one's partner, general partner support, relationship satisfaction, as well as partner attendance at a SSE education session, were examined. One hundred and thirty-seven patients with melanoma between the ages of 18 and 70 years, who also reported being involved in a romantic relationship, received a standardized education on SSE, and completed self-report questionnaires...
March 2, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334994/rural-retention-of-new-medical-graduates-from-the-collaborative-project-to-increase-production-of-rural-doctors-cpird-a-12-year-retrospective-study
#14
Win Techakehakij, Rajin Arora
Physician scarcity in rural areas is a major obstacle to healthcare access, leading to health inequity worldwide. In Thailand, a special recruitment program of medical education [Collaborative Project to Increase Production of Rural Doctors (CPIRD)] was initiated with four different medical training tracks. No previous research has examined the rural retention of new medical graduates across the CPIRD tracks, compared with those receiving conventional medical education (Normal track). This study examines the public retention of rural physicians from different tracks of entry...
March 16, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334986/addressing-london-s-modern-urban-health-challenges-learning-from-other-global-cities
#15
Y G Doyle, A J Mills, M Korkodilos
Around 150 cities have emerged as notable at a global scale. With a global population of fewer than 12%, they generate 46% of world gross domestic product. There is growing interest in how cities can accelerate health improvements through wider social and economic collaboration. A team led by Public Health England in London visited counterparts in New York City and Paris to examine how city health leaders addressed public health challenges. The three cities have similar health challenges but different legal, political and fiscal resources for promoting and protecting health...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334962/exposure-to-fictional-medical-television-and-health-a-systematic-review
#16
Beth L Hoffman, Ariel Shensa, Charles Wessel, Robert Hoffman, Brian A Primack
Fictional medical television programs have long been a staple of television programming, and they remain popular today. We aimed to examine published literature assessing the influence of medical television programs on health outcomes. We conducted systematic literature searches in PubMed, PsychINFO and CINAHL. Selected studies had to be scholarly research, to involve exposure to fictionalized medical television programming, and to assess associations between exposures and outcomes. Of 3541 unique studies identified, nineteen met selection criteria...
March 14, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334960/neural-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-in-unmedicated-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Marcus Rothkirch, Jonas Tonn, Stephan Köhler, Philipp Sterzer
According to current concepts, major depressive disorder is strongly related to dysfunctional neural processing of motivational information, entailing impairments in reinforcement learning. While computational modelling can reveal the precise nature of neural learning signals, it has not been used to study learning-related neural dysfunctions in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder so far. We thus aimed at comparing the neural coding of reward and punishment prediction errors, representing indicators of neural learning-related processes, between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334939/association-between-tau-deposition-and-antecedent-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-rates-in-normal-and-early-symptomatic-individuals
#18
Duygu Tosun, Susan Landau, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Mark Mintun, William Jagust, Michael W Weiner
A long-term goal of our field is to determine the sequence of pathological events, which ultimately lead to cognitive decline and dementia. In this study, we first assessed the patterns of brain tau tangle accumulation (measured with the positron emission tomography tracer 18F-AV-1451) associated with well-established Alzheimer's disease factors in a cohort including cognitively healthy elderly individuals and individuals at early symptomatic stages of Alzheimer's disease. We then explored highly associated patterns of greater 18F-AV-1451 binding and increased annualized change in cortical amyloid-β plaques measured as florbetapir positron emission tomography binding antecedent to 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography scans, and to what extent these multimodal pattern associations explained the variance in cognitive performance and clinical outcome measures, independently and jointly...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334915/salience-and-default-mode-network-dysregulation-in-chronic-cocaine-users-predict-treatment-outcome
#19
Xiujuan Geng, Yuzheng Hu, Hong Gu, Betty Jo Salmeron, Bryon Adinoff, Elliot A Stein, Yihong Yang
While chronic cocaine use is associated with abnormalities in both brain structure and function within and interactions between regions, previous studies have been limited to interrogating structure and function independently, and the detected neural differences have not been applied to independent samples to assess the clinical relevance of results. We investigated consequences of structural differences on resting-state functional connectivity in cocaine addiction and tested whether resting-state functional connectivity of the identified circuits predict relapse in an independent cohort...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334898/changing-knowledge-and-practices-of-mothers-on-newborn-care-through-mother-class-an-intervention-study-in-indonesia
#20
Narila Mutia Nasir, Yuli Amran, Yasuhide Nakamura
Poor knowledge and practices of newborn care may contribute to high neonatal mortality. This study aims to analyze the effect of prenatal education, namely 'mother class', on knowledge and practices of newborn care among mothers in Tangerang Selatan District, Indonesia. An intervention study with a quasi-experimental design was conducted. Using a questionnaire, 427 mothers were interviewed: an intervention group (n = 214) that attended mother class and a control group (n = 213) that had not. A home visit followed the intervention to assess newborn care practices...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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