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cognitive imperement

Annes J Claes, Paul Van de Heyning, Annick Gilles, Vincent Van Rompaey, Griet Mertens
OBJECTIVES: To critically assess the current status of the literature on cognitive outcomes after cochlear implantation in older adults. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (PubMed) and Cochrane Library, and checking reference lists of relevant articles. No restrictions were imposed regarding language, publication date, or publication status. Eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) the study sample included older adults aged 50 or over with severe to profound bilateral hearing loss, (2) the participants received a multi-electrode cochlear implant, and (3) a cognitive test was performed before and after implantation...
June 18, 2018: Cochlear Implants International
Susanne P Clinch, Monica Busse, Mariah J Lelos, Anne E Rosser
The basal ganglia are implicated in a wide range of motor, cognitive and behavioral activities required for normal function. This region is predominantly affected in Huntington's disease (HD), meaning that functional ability progressively worsens. However, functional outcome measures for HD, particularly those for the upper limb, are limited meaning there is an imperative for well-defined, quantitative measures. Here we describe the development and evaluation of the Moneybox test (MBT). This novel, functional upper limb assessment was developed in accordance with translational neuroscience and physiological principles for people with a broad disease manifestation, such as HD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Oguz Mutlu, Tomáš Páleníček, Nikola Pinterová, Klára Šíchová, Jiří Horáček, Kristina Holubová, Cyril Höschl, Aleš Stuchlík, Faruk Erden, Karel Valeš
The adipokinetic and red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family of peptides controls fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism in insects. In our previous study, we showed that AKH possesses antidepressant, anxiolytic, and analgesic effects, causes hyperlocomotion and exerts neuroprotective effects and increased brain neurotrophic factors in mice. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Anax imperator AKH (Ani-AKH), Libellula auripennis AKH (Lia-AKH) and Phormia-Terra hypertrehalosemic hormone (Pht-HrTH) on MK-801-induced memory deterioration in the active allothetic place avoidance test (AAPA) and MK-801-induced sensorimotor gating deficit in the prepulse inhibition test (PPI)...
June 4, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Alys Wyn Griffiths, Sahdia Parveen, Saba Shafiq, Jan R Oyebode
OBJECTIVE: There has been an increasing interest in establishing dementia friendly communities leading to the development and delivery of various dementia awareness initiatives. These initiatives have generally been aimed at adults; however, to sustain dementia friendly communities, the involvement of young people is imperative. Very few dementia awareness initiatives exist for young people, and none have been independently evaluated to establish their impact. This research aimed to design and develop a scale to measure adolescents' attitudes towards dementia to allow such initiatives to be evaluated...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
M McCarron, P McCallion, A Coppus, J Fortea, S Stemp, M Janicki, K Wtachman
BACKGROUND: The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia (Glasgow, Scotland; October 2016) noted that advanced dementia can be categorised as that stage of dementia progression characterised by significant losses in cognitive and physical function, including a high probability of further deterioration and leading to death. METHOD: The question before the Summit was whether there were similarities and differences in expressions of advanced dementia between adults with intellectual disability (ID) and adults in the general population...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Anka A Vujanovic, Samantha G Farris, Brooke A Bartlett, Robert C Lyons, Moira Haller, Peter J Colvonen, Sonya B Norman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. No evidence-based, "gold standard" treatments for PTSD/SUD comorbidity are currently available. Thus, it is imperative to better understand cognitive-affective mechanisms, targetable via cognitive-behavioral intervention (i.e., malleable), that may be related to both disorders in order to improve the theory and treatment of PTSD/SUD. Anxiety sensitivity is a malleable cognitive-affective factor with relevance to both PTSD and SUD...
June 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Sarah M Kennedy, Niza A Tonarely, Jamie A Sherman, Jill Ehrenreich-May
Various efficacious treatment packages exist for youth anxiety, and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is now considered to be a well-established treatment for child anxiety disorders (Higa-McMillan, Francis, Rith-Najarian, & Chorpita, 2016). Improving outcomes for the significant proportion of anxious youth who demonstrate inadequate response to CBT is imperative, but our understanding of who does and does not benefit is incomplete. Further, there are no known empirical studies of predictors of treatment response for youth who receive a transdiagnostic intervention for anxiety or depression, and it is therefore unclear whether predictors of response to a transdiagnostic treatment for children are similar to those found in previous studies of anxiety-specific treatments...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Yvonne Ten Hoeve, Jasperina Brouwer, Petrie F Roodbol, Saskia Kunnen
AIM: This study explored the effects of contextual, relational and cognitive factors derived from novice nurses' work experiences on emotions and affective commitment to the profession. BACKGROUND: With an increasing demand for well-trained nurses, it is imperative to investigate which work-related factors most affect their commitment to develop effective strategies to improve work conditions, work satisfaction and emotional attachment. DESIGN: A repeated-measures within subjects design...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Pierpaolo Croce, Filippo Zappasodi, Spadone Sara, Paolo Capotosto
Different electrophysiological (EEG) correlates may provide specific important assessment of the period that anticipates an imperative stimulus. Previous study of our group showed that a local (i.e. parietal) anticipatory EEG marker (i.e. the event related de-synchronization of the alpha rhythms; ERD) is selectively affected when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is delivered over crucial nodes belonging to well-known human networks involved in different cognitive domains. Here, we investigated whether such distinction is also present in the whole brain activity as seen through the pre-stimulus microstate's topography, representing a global and reference-free measure of the neural activity...
April 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Bhaskara P Shelley, Thomas V Chacko, Balakrishnan R Nair
Neurology has a reputation, particularly as a complex "head-to-toe" discipline for undergraduate medical students. Neurophobia syndrome, a global phenomenon, fundamentally stems from pedagogical deficiencies during the undergraduate curriculum, the lack of vertical integration between basic neurosciences and clinical bedside neurology, the lack of clinical reasoning exercises, cognitive heuristics, and clinical problem-solving, errors in diagnostic competence, and hyposkilia. This ultimately results in poor clinical competence and proficiency in clinical neurology and causes attrition in nurturing a passion for learning the neurology discipline...
January 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Kristin L Garlanger, Lisa A Beck, Andrea L Cheville
OBJECTIVE: To examine the occurrence and severity of co-occurring traumatic brain injury (TBI) in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), i.e. dual diagnosis (DD), and to describe differences in functional outcomes between persons with DD and SCI only from an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) perspective. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical chart review. SETTING: Acute Midwest SCI inpatient rehabilitation facility. PARTICIPANTS: 256 persons age 18-80 years with acute traumatic SCI (AIS A-E, C1-S3 level of injury) from 2002-2012...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Suzanne Delwel, Roberto S G M Perez, Andrea B Maier, Cees M P M Hertogh, Henrica C W de Vet, Frank Lobbezoo, Erik J A Scherder
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the psychometric evaluation of the Orofacial Pain Scale for Non-Verbal Individuals (OPS-NVI) as a screening tool for orofacial pain in people with dementia. BACKGROUND: The OPS-NVI has recently been developed and needs psychometric evaluation for clinical use in people with dementia. The pain self-report is imperative as a reference standard and can be provided by people with mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment...
April 29, 2018: Gerodontology
Konstantinos I Avgerinos, Nikolaos Spyrou, Konstantinos I Bougioukas, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Creatine is a supplement used by sportsmen to increase athletic performance by improving energy supply to muscle tissues. It is also an essential brain compound and some hypothesize that it aids cognition by improving energy supply and neuroprotection. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of oral creatine administration on cognitive function in healthy individuals. METHODS: A search of multiple electronic databases was performed for the identification of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) examining the cognitive effects of oral creatine supplementation in healthy individuals...
July 15, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Floris G Wouterlood, Angela Engel, Mariah Daal, Gertjan Houwen, Aileen Meinderts, Tomàs Jordà Siquier, Jeroen A M Beliën, Yvette C van Dongen, Jørgen Scheel-Krüger, Anne-Marie Thierry, Henk J Groenewegen, Jean-Michel Deniau
Parallel corticostriatonigral circuits have been proposed that separately process motor, cognitive, and emotional-motivational information. Functional integration requires that interactions exist between neurons participating in these circuits. This makes it imperative to study the complex anatomical substrate underlying corticostriatonigral circuits. It has previously been proposed that dopaminergic neurons in the ventral mesencephalon may play a role in this circuit interaction. Therefore, we studied in rats convergence of basal ganglia circuits by depositing an anterograde neuroanatomical tracer into the ventral striatum together with a retrograde fluorescent tracer ipsilaterally in the dorsolateral striatum...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Alessandra Caruso, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Dalila Mango, Amira Saidi, Rosamaria Orlando, Sergio Scaccianoce
Prolonged stress predisposes susceptible individuals to a number of physiological disorders including cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Preclinical studies have suggested that manipulation of the glucocorticoid milieu can trigger cellular, molecular and behavioral derangement resembling the hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). For example, stress or glucocorticoid administration can increase amyloid ß precursor protein and tau phosphorylation which are involved in synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death associated with AD...
June 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Birgit Vahlberg, Annika Bring, Karin Hellström, Lena Zetterberg
INTRODUCTION: Community-dwelling stroke survivors generally show low levels of physical activity (PA). An improved understanding of the factors influencing participation in PA after stroke is imperative to improve levels of PA. Furthermore, gender differences in PA have received little attention in stroke research. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in PA, physical functioning and psychological factors and the association between these factors and PA in men and women 1-3-year post-stroke...
April 16, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Huang-Chi Lin, Peng-Wei Wang, Hung-Chi Wu, Chih-Hung Ko, Yi-Hsin Yang, Cheng-Fang Yen
AIM: Chronic heroin use can cause various neuropathological characteristics that may compromise brain function. The present study evaluated the alteration of gray matter volume (GMV) and its resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) among male heroin users. METHODS: Thirty heroin-dependent men undergoing methadone maintenance therapy and 30 educational-level- and age-matched male controls were recruited for this study...
March 27, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
J J L M Boselie, L M G Vancleef, M L Peters
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is associated with emotional problems as well as difficulties in cognitive functioning. Prior experimental studies have shown that optimism, the tendency to expect that good things happen in the future, and positive emotions can counteract pain-induced task performance deficits in healthy participants. More specifically, induced optimism was found to buffer against the negative effects of experimental pain on executive functioning. This clinical experiment examined whether this beneficial effect can be extended to a chronic pain population...
March 24, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Eleftherios P Diamandis, Nick Bouras
There has been an increasing awareness of the importance of leadership and decision making, including scientists and academics, over recent times. By whom and how decisions are made can have serious implications across all levels of society. Several people have been successful in their life and have been inflicted by excessive pride and self-confidence. There are times when the manifestations of such behaviours demonstrate noticeable signs of narcissism and on extreme cases, hubris. Hubris is an old concept originated from the Greek mythology...
2018: F1000Research
Wendy Troop-Gordon, Robert D Gordon, Bethany M Schwandt, Gregor A Horvath, Elizabeth Ewing Lee, Kari J Visconti
As approximately one-third of peer-victimized children evidence heightened aggression (Schwartz, Proctor, & Chien, 2001), it is imperative to identify the circumstances under which victimization and aggression co-develop. The current study explored two potential moderators of victimization-aggression linkages: (a) attentional bias toward cues signaling threat and (b) attentional bais toward cues communicating interpersonal support. Seventy-two fifth- and sixth-grade children (34 boys; M age = 11.67) were eye tracked while watching video clips of bullying...
March 22, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
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