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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210868/cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-a-new-emerging-complication-of-type-2-diabetes-the-diabetologist-s-perspective
#1
Rafael Simó, Andreea Ciudin, Olga Simó-Servat, Cristina Hernández
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two of the most common diseases of aging around the world. Given the frequency with which T2D and AD occur, the notion that people with T2D may be at increased risk for AD has large societal consequences, and understanding the mechanistic links between these diseases is imperative for the development of effective AD prevention and treatment strategies. Apart from being an accelerator of AD, T2D is associated with a progressive cognitive decline...
February 16, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190436/neurologic-complications-of-cardiac-and-vascular-surgery
#2
K N Sheth, E Nourollahzadeh
This chapter will provide an overview of the major neurologic complications of common cardiac and vascular surgeries, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and carotid endarterectomy. Neurologic complications after cardiac and vascular surgeries can cause significant morbidity and mortality, which can negate the beneficial effects of the intervention. Some of the complications to be discussed include ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, delirium, cognitive dysfunction, cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome, cranial nerve injuries, and peripheral neuropathies...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177980/alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-zebrafish-where-can-we-take-it
#3
Erika M Caramillo, David J Echevarria
With the ever-growing geriatric population, research on brain diseases such as dementia is more imperative now than ever. The most prevalent of all dementias is Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that presents with deficits in memory, cognition, motor skills, and a general decline in the quality of life. The social and economic burden associated with Alzheimer's disease is tremendous and is projected to grow even greater over the coming years. There is a specific need to elucidate and improve the treatments available, not only to alleviate the symptoms related to dementias such as Alzheimer's but also to prevent the formation of the disease...
February 7, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095583/is-it-my-job-the-role-of-rns-in-the-assessment-and-identification-of-delirium-in-hospitalized-older-adults-an-exploratory-qualitative-study
#4
Miriam Anne Coyle, Pippa Burns, Victoria Traynor
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS XX contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077667/the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-high-stages-of-motor-planning-hierarchy
#5
Luca Casartelli, Alessandra Federici, Ambra Cesareo, Emilia Biffi, Giulia Valtorta, Massimo Molteni, Luca Ronconi, Renato Borgatti
Motor planning is not a monolithic process, and distinct stages of motor planning are responsible for encoding different levels of abstractness. However, how these distinct components are mapped into different neural substrates remains an open question. We studied one of these high-level motor planning components, defined as second-order motor planning, in a patient (R.G.) with an extremely rare case of cerebellar agenesis but without any other cortical malformations. Second-order motor planning dictates that when two acts have to be performed sequentially, planning of the second act can influence the execution of the first...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031072/preparedness-in-long-term-care-a-novel-approach-to-address-gaps-in-evacuation-tracking
#6
Emilie Y Prot, Bruce Clements
With an aging population, the number of elderly individuals residing in long-term care (LTC) facilities will continue to grow and pose unique challenges to disaster preparedness and response. With this rapidly growing vulnerable population, it becomes imperative to identify enhanced and novel preparedness strategies and measures. LTC residents not only have complicated medical needs, including the timing of dispensing multiple medications, but frequently have cognitive and mobility deficits as well. In nearly every major disaster, elderly populations have suffered disproportionate morbidity and mortality...
December 29, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028743/changes-in-home-and-health-over-nine-years-among-very-old-people-in-latvia-results-from-the-enable-age-project
#7
Charlotte Löfqvist, Signe Tomsone, Susanne Iwarsson, Vibeke Horstmann, Maria Haak
To meet the needs of an increasing, heterogeneous, ageing population it is imperative to understand links between home and health. In Latvia, only limited research targeting the health and home situation of very old people is available. Consequently, the aim of this study was to describe how the home environment and aspects of health have changed over nine years between 2002 and 2011 for very old people in Latvia, living in their home environment. This study is based on the Latvian part of the cross-national European ENABLE-AGE Project comprising data on objective, as well as perceived, aspects of home and health...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013104/the-impact-of-nursing-delirium-preventive-innterventions-in-the-intensive-care-unit-underpin-icu-a-study-protocol-for-a-multi-centre-stepped-wedge-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Annelies Wassenaar, Paul Rood, Lisette Schoonhoven, Steven Teerenstra, Marieke Zegers, Peter Pickkers, Mark van den Boogaard
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a common disorder in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and is associated with serious short- and long-term consequences, including re-intubations, ICU readmissions, prolonged ICU and hospital stay, persistent cognitive problems, and higher mortality rates. Considering the high incidence of delirium and its consequences, prevention of delirium is imperative. This study focuses on a program of standardized nursing and physical therapy interventions to prevent delirium in the ICU, called UNDERPIN-ICU (nUrsiNg DEliRium Preventive INterventions in the ICU)...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997604/physical-activity-in-community-dwelling-older-people-a-systematic-review-of-reviews-of-interventions-and-context
#9
Olawale Olanrewaju, Sarah Kelly, Andy Cowan, Carol Brayne, Louise Lafortune
BACKGROUND: The promotion and maintenance of higher physical activity (PA) levels in the older population is an imperative for cognitive and healthy ageing but it is unclear what approaches are best suited to achieve this for the increasing number of older people living in the community. Effective policies should be informed by robust, multi-disciplinary and multi-dimensional evidence, which not only seeks what works, but in 'what context? In addition to evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of PA for maintaining cognitive health, social contexts such as 'how do we actually get older people to partake in PA?' and 'how do we sustain that activity long-term?' also need highlighting...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979665/neonatal-cranial-ultrasound-are-current-safety-guidelines-appropriate
#10
REVIEW
Assema Lalzad, Flora Wong, Michal Schneider
Ultrasound can lead to thermal and mechanical effects in interrogated tissues. We reviewed the literature to explore the evidence on ultrasound heating on fetal and neonatal neural tissue. The results of animal studies have suggested that ultrasound exposure of the fetal or neonatal brain may lead to a significant temperature elevation at the bone-brain interface above current recommended safety thresholds. Temperature increases between 4.3 and 5.6°C have been recorded. Such temperature elevations can potentially affect neuronal structure and function and may also affect behavioral and cognitive function, such as memory and learning...
December 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932305/scavenging-of-highly-reactive-gamma-ketoaldehydes-attenuates-cognitive-dysfunction-associated-with-epileptogenesis
#11
Jennifer N Pearson, Eric Warren, Li-Ping Liang, L Jackson Roberts, Manisha Patel
Cognitive dysfunction is a major comorbidity of the epilepsies; however, treatments targeting seizure-associated cognitive dysfunction, particularly deficits in learning and memory are not available. Isoketals and neuroketals, collectively known as gamma-ketoaldehydes are formed via the non-enzymatic, free radical catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. They are attractive candidates for oxidative protein damage and resultant cognitive dysfunction due to their formation within the plasma membrane and their high proclivity to form cytotoxic adducts on protein lysine residues...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895528/nurses-perceptions-of-a-pressure-ulcer-prevention-care-bundle-a-qualitative-descriptive-study
#12
Shelley Roberts, Elizabeth McInnes, Marianne Wallis, Tracey Bucknall, Merrilyn Banks, Wendy Chaboyer
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcer prevention is a critical patient safety indicator for acute care hospitals. An innovative pressure ulcer prevention care bundle targeting patient participation in their care was recently tested in a cluster randomised trial in eight Australian hospitals. Understanding nurses' perspectives of such an intervention is imperative when interpreting results and translating evidence into practice. As part of a process evaluation for the main trial, this study assessed nurses' perceptions of the usefulness and impact of a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle intervention on clinical practice...
2016: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878426/the-differential-effects-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-lewy-body-pathology-on-cognitive-performance-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Ashita S Gurnani, Brandon E Gavett
Differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal aging and other dementia etiologies is imperative for disease specific treatment options and long-term care planning. Neuropathological confirmation is the gold standard for neurodegenerative disease diagnosis, yet most published studies examining the use of neuropsychological tests in the differential diagnosis of dementia rely upon clinical diagnostic outcomes. The present study undertook a meta-analytic review of the literature to identify cognitive tests and domains that allow for the differentiation of individuals with AD pathology from individuals with dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) pathology and pathology-free individuals...
November 22, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876294/reprint-of-the-new-approach-to-epilepsy-classification-cognition-and-behavior-in-adult-epilepsy-syndromes
#14
REVIEW
Sallie Baxendale, Pamela Thompson
The revised terminology and concepts for the organization of seizures and epilepsy proposed by the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology in 2010 allows for a number of new opportunities in the study of cognition and behavior in adults. This review examines the literature that has looked for behavioral and cognitive correlates of the newly recognized genetic epilepsies in adults. While some studies report clear cognitive phenotypes associated with specific genetic mutations in adults with epilepsy, others report remarkable clinical heterogeneity...
November 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856411/personalising-exercise-recommendations-for-brain-health-considerations-and-future-directions
#15
Cindy K Barha, Liisa A Galea, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Kirk I Erickson, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
The societal value of strategies that delay the onset and progression of dementia cannot be overstated. Physical activity-unstructured and structured-is a promising, cost-effective strategy for the promotion of brain health. However, a large degree of variation exists in its efficacy. Therefore, to increase its utility as 'medication' for healthy cognitive ageing, it is imperative to identify key moderators and mediators of the positive effects of targeted exercise training on brain health. In this commentary, we focus on the type of targeted exercise training, the determinants of individual variation, including biological sex and genotypic factors, and the mechanisms by which exercise exerts its influence on the brain...
November 17, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854227/do-psychosocial-interventions-improve-quality-of-life-and-wellbeing-in-adults-with-neuromuscular-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis
#16
Elaine Walklet, Kate Muse, Jane Meyrick, Tim Moss
Quality of life and well-being are frequently restricted in adults with neuromuscular disorders. As such, identification of appropriate interventions is imperative. The objective of this paper was to systematically review and critically appraise quantitative studies (RCTs, controlled trials and cohort studies) of psychosocial interventions designed to improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders. A systematic review of the published and unpublished literature was conducted. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were appraised using a validated quality assessment tool and results presented in a narrative synthesis...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832767/chitinase-3-like-1-protein-chi3l1-locus-influences-cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-of-ykl-40
#17
Yuetiva Deming, Kathleen Black, David Carrell, Yefei Cai, Jorge L Del-Aguila, Maria Victoria Fernandez, John Budde, ShengMei Ma, Benjamin Saef, Bill Howells, Sarah Bertelsen, Kuan-Lin Huang, Courtney L Sutphen, Rawan Tarawneh, Anne M Fagan, David M Holtzman, John C Morris, Alison M Goate, Joseph D Dougherty, Carlos Cruchaga
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology appears several years before clinical symptoms, so identifying ways to detect individuals in the preclinical stage is imperative. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Tau/Aβ42 ratio is currently the best known predictor of AD status and cognitive decline, and the ratio of CSF levels of chitinase-3-like 1 protein (CHI3L1, YKL-40) and amyloid beta (Aβ42) were reported as predictive, but individual variability and group overlap inhibits their utility for individual diagnosis making it necessary to find ways to improve sensitivity of these biomarkers...
November 10, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810221/promoting-health-workers-ownership-of-infection-prevention-and-control-using-normalization-process-theory-as-an-interpretive-framework
#18
D J Gould, R Hale, E Waters, D Allen
BACKGROUND: All health workers should take responsibility for infection prevention and control (IPC). Recent reduction in key reported healthcare-associated infections in the UK is impressive, but the determinants of success are unknown. It is imperative to understand how IPC strategies operate as new challenges arise and threats of antimicrobial resistance increase. METHODS: The authors undertook a retrospective, independent evaluation of an action plan to enhance IPC and 'ownership' (individual accountability) for IPC introduced throughout a healthcare organization...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793659/do-anesthetics-harm-the-developing-human-brain-an-integrative-analysis-of-animal-and-human-studies
#19
Erica P Lin, Jeong-Rim Lee, Christopher S Lee, Meng Deng, Andreas W Loepke
Anesthetics permit surgical procedures and stressful interventions have been found to cause structural brain abnormalities and functional impairment in immature animals, generating extensive concerns among clinicians, parents, and government regulators regarding the safe use of these drugs in young children. Critically important questions remain, such as the exact age at which the developing brain is most vulnerable to the effects of anesthetic exposure, whether a particular age exists beyond which anesthetics are devoid of long-term effects on the brain, and whether any specific exposure duration exists that does not lead to deleterious effects...
October 26, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790138/splendor-in-the-grass-a-pilot-study-assessing-the-impact-of-medical-marijuana-on-executive-function
#20
Staci A Gruber, Kelly A Sagar, Mary K Dahlgren, Megan T Racine, Rosemary T Smith, Scott E Lukas
Currently, 25 states and Washington DC have enacted full medical marijuana (MMJ) programs while 18 states allow limited access to MMJ products. Limited access states permit low (or zero) tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and high cannabidiol (CBD) products to treat specified conditions such as uncontrolled epilepsy. Although MMJ products are derived from the same plant species as recreational MJ, they are often selected for their unique cannabinoid constituents and ratios, not typically sought by recreational users, which may impact neurocognitive outcomes...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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