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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822221/brain-plasticity-cognitive-functions-and-neural-stem-cells-a-pivotal-role-for-the-brain-specific-neural-master-gene-srgap2-fam72
#1
Nguyen Thi Thanh Ho, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
Due to an aging society with an increased dementia-induced threat to higher cognitive functions, it has become imperative to understand the molecular and cellular events controlling the memory and learning processes in the brain. Here, we suggest that the novel master gene pair |-SRGAP2-FAM72-| (SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 - family with sequence similarity to 72) reveals a new dogma for the regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) gene expression and is a distinctive player in the control of human brain plasticity...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802929/caregiver-burden-and-the-nonmotor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Jon P Hiseman, Robin Fackrell
Parkinson's disease has traditionally been considered as primarily a motor disorder (Chaudhuri & Schapira, 2009). It is clear however that it is the burden of the nonmotor symptomatology which impacts significantly more highly on caregiver burden and quality of life (Benavides, Alberquerque, & Chana-Cuevas, 2013; Martinez-Martin, 2011). As Parkinson's disease advances there is an almost inevitable accrual of nonmotor symptoms alongside the motor aspects of the disease. Patients as their disease progresses require increasing support and this is not infrequently provided by an informal caregiver, most typically a spouse or family member (Martinez-Martin, Forjaz, Frades-Payo, et al...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792471/comparative-studies-on-behavioral-cognitive-and-biomolecular-profiling-of-icr-c57bl-6-and-its-sub-strains-suitable-for-scopolamine-induced-amnesic-models
#3
Govindarajan Karthivashan, Shin-Young Park, Joon-Soo Kim, Duk-Yeon Cho, Palanivel Ganesan, Dong-Kug Choi
Cognitive impairment and behavioral disparities are the distinctive baseline features to investigate in most animal models of neurodegenerative disease. However, neuronal complications are multifactorial and demand a suitable animal model to investigate their underlying basal mechanisms. By contrast, the numerous existing neurodegenerative studies have utilized various animal strains, leading to factual disparity. Choosing an optimal mouse strain for preliminary assessment of neuronal complications is therefore imperative...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714724/gambling-related-cognition-scale-grcs-are-skills-based-games-at-a-disadvantage
#4
David Lévesque, Serge Sévigny, Isabelle Giroux, Christian Jacques
The Gambling-Related Cognition Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004) was developed to evaluate gambling-related cognitive distortions for all types of gamblers, regardless of their gambling activities (poker, slot machine, etc.). It is therefore imperative to ascertain the validity of its interpretation across different types of gamblers; however, some skills-related items endorsed by players could be interpreted as a cognitive distortion despite the fact that they play skills-related games. Using an intergroup (168 poker players and 73 video lottery terminal [VLT] players) differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, this study examined the possible manifestation of item biases associated with the GRCS...
July 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701980/depression-and-anxiety-prevention-based-on-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-at-risk-adolescents-a-meta-analytic-review
#5
Sanne P A Rasing, Daan H M Creemers, Jan M A M Janssens, Ron H J Scholte
Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold. Both clinical and subclinical levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are related to decreased functioning in various areas, such as social and academic functioning. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents is therefore imperative...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668726/prudence-pleasure-and-cognitive-ageing-configurations-of-the-uses-and-users-of-brain-training-games-within-uk-media-2005-2015
#6
Martyn Pickersgill, Tineke Broer, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Ian Deary
The use of 'brain training' games is often regarded as relating to wider ideals of self-improvement and youthfulness. Hence, use is intertwined with discourses of 'active' ageing. This paper analyzes how the use and users of brain training games were configured in the UK media, from 2005 to 2015, and examines how notions of active ageing relate to these representations. Game users were rarely constructed solely as gamers, and were more often presented as prudent individuals focused on a serious goal. This configuration related to assumed and enjoined motivations for brain training; specifically, users were commonly framed as seeking to enhance cognition and limit/delay cognitive decline...
August 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628018/autoimmune-limbic-encephalitis-case-reports
#7
K Kobaidze, A Harrison, Y Burklin, V Patidar, M Riccardi
Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an autoimmune or paraneoplastic disease that affects the medial temporal lobes. The patient will usually present with cognitive impairment, psychiatric changes, and seizures. Autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE) is a challenging diagnosis as it is not always included in the typical paraneoplastic/autoimmune panels. Anti-GAD antibodies are associated with various disease including type I diabetes mellitus, various autoimmune processes, some neoplastic and infectious diseases. Thus, it is not as specific as some of the antibodies causing LE...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545363/sleep-wake-patterns-and-cognition-of-older-adults-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-amci-a-comparison-with-cognitively-healthy-adults-and-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#8
Emma J Wams, Gordon K Wilcock, Russell G Foster, Katharina Wulff
Age-related cognitive impairment and the prevalence of neurodegenerative disease contribute to decreasing quality of life in affected individuals and their families as well as demand considerable societal responsibility. Sleep supports overall brain activity and contributes to both physical and mental health. As a result sleep is an attractive target for exploring ways to promote health in accelerated cognitive aging. The aims of this study were to characterise cognitive performance and sleep-wake behaviour in older adults with different degrees of cognitive impairment...
May 22, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541234/psychiatric-specialty-training-in-greece
#9
EDITORIAL
M Margariti, V Kontaxakis, D Ploumpidis
The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509081/interleukin-6-mediated-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-derived-neural-differentiation
#10
Yanuar Alan Sulistio, Han Kyu Lee, Sung Jun Jung, Klaus Heese
In an aging society with an increasing threat to higher brain cognitive functions due to dementia, it becomes imperative to identify new molecular remedies for supporting adult neurogenesis. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a promising cytokine that can support neurogenesis under conditions of neurodegeneration, and neuron replacement is eventually possible due to its agonistic acting soluble receptor sIL-6R. Here, we report that activation of the IL-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis is neurogenic and has potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499456/role-of-micrornas-in-premature-ovarian-insufficiency
#11
REVIEW
Ying Guo, Junyan Sun, Dongmei Lai
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a typical disorder of amenorrhea lasting for a minimum of 4 months. The typical characteristics comprised of declined estrogen and raised serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in women <40-year-old, primarily originating from iatrogenic factors, karyotypic abnormalities, and genetic factors. However, the etiology of POI remains unknown in approximately 90% of cases. POI could lead to infertility, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disorder, and cognitive dysfunction...
May 12, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494774/expanding-conceptualizations-of-harm-reduction-results-from-a-qualitative-community-based-participatory-research-study-with-people-who-inject-drugs
#12
L M Boucher, Z Marshall, A Martin, K Larose-Hébert, J V Flynn, C Lalonde, D Pineau, J Bigelow, T Rose, R Chase, R Boyd, M Tyndall, C Kendall
BACKGROUND: The perspectives of people who use drugs are critical in understanding why people choose to reduce harm in relation to drug use, what practices are considered or preferred in conceptualizations of harm reduction, and which environmental factors interfere with or support the use of harm reduction strategies. This study explores how people who inject drugs (PWID) think about harm reduction and considers the critical imperative of equity in health and social services delivery for this community...
May 12, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488561/an-integrative-cognitive-model-of-internalized-stigma-in-psychosis
#13
Lisa Wood, Rory Byrne, Anthony P Morrison
BACKGROUND: Internalized stigma is a significant difficulty for those who experience psychosis, but it has never been conceptualized using cognitive theory. AIMS: The aim of this paper is to outline a cognitive model conceptualizing internalized stigma experienced by people who also experience psychosis. METHOD: Previous literature is reviewed, critiqued and synthesized to develop the model. It draws upon previous social cognitive models of internalized stigma and integrates cognitive behavioural theory and social mentality theory...
May 10, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468642/the-ciprus-study-a-nurse-led-psychological-treatment-for-patients-with-undifferentiated-somatoform-disorder-in-primary-care-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Kate Sitnikova, Stephanie S Leone, Lyonne N L Zonneveld, Harm W J van Marwijk, Judith E Bosmans, Johannes C van der Wouden, Henriëtte E van der Horst
BACKGROUND: Up to a third of patients presenting medically unexplained physical symptoms in primary care may have a somatoform disorder, of which undifferentiated somatoform disorder (USD) is the most common type. Psychological interventions can reduce symptoms associated with USD and improve functioning. Previous research has either been conducted in secondary care or interventions have been provided by general practitioners (GPs) or psychologists in primary care. As efficiency and cost-effectiveness are imperative in primary care, it is important to investigate whether nurse-led interventions are effective as well...
May 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400180/reducing-barriers-to-patient-reported-outcome-measures-for-people-with-cognitive-impairments
#15
Jessica M Kramer, Ariel Schwartz
The field of rehabilitation has increasingly called for the use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in research and practice. Given that many rehabilitation patients present with conditions associated with cognitive impairments, it is imperative to reduce barriers to PROM use for this population. The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive understanding of cognitive accessibility that can prospectively inform the design of PROMs. We put forth the following definition of cognitive accessibility for PROMs: cognitive accessibility is present when assessment design anticipates respondent variability in cognitive abilities and, to the greatest extent possible, reduces cognitive demands and/or supports cognitive processes to enable respondents with a range of cognitive abilities to interpret and respond to assessment items as intended...
August 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399433/embodied-emotion-impairment-in-huntington-s-disease
#16
Iris Trinkler, Sévérine Devignevielle, Amal Achaibou, Romain V Ligneul, Pierre Brugières, Laurent Cleret de Langavant, Beatrice De Gelder, Rachael Scahill, Sophie Schwartz, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi
Theories of embodied cognition suggest that perceiving an emotion involves somatovisceral and motoric re-experiencing. Here we suggest taking such an embodied stance when looking at emotion processing deficits in patients with Huntington's Disease (HD), a neurodegenerative motor disorder. The literature on these patients' emotion recognition deficit has recently been enriched by some reports of impaired emotion expression. The goal of the study was to find out if expression deficits might be linked to a more motoric level of impairment...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302757/alteration-of-monoamine-receptor-activity-and-glucose-metabolism-in-paediatric-patients-with-anticonvulsant-induced-cognitive-impairment
#17
Yuankai Zhu, Jianhua Feng, Jianfeng Ji, Haifeng Hou, Lin Chen, Shuang Wu, Qing Liu, Qiong Yao, Peizhen Du, Kai Zhang, Qing Chen, Zexin Chen, Hong Zhang, Mei Tian
A landmark study from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) reported that the assessment of cognitive difficulties in children with epilepsy is timely and imperative. Anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment could influence the quality of life more than seizure itself in patients. Although monoaminergic system is involved in the regulation of cognitive process, its role in anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment remains unclear. Methods: To explore in vivo monoamine receptor binding activity in patients with anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment, each patient had PET imaging with both monoamine receptor binding agent, (11)C-N-methylspiperone ((11)C-NMSP), and glucose metabolic agent, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291277/diagnostiska-fel-och-misstag-%C3%A3-r-vanliga-och-sv%C3%A3-ra-att-m%C3%A3-ta
#18
Anders von Heijne
Diagnostic errors are prevalent and hard to measure Diagnostic errors are prevalent in all aspects of healthcare and a common cause of adverse events. They are often the result of multifactorial events, where there is a complex interplay between cognitive factors, system factors and lack of adequate knowledge. The generic, iterative diagnostic process, with abductive, deductive and inductive components supported by tests and the physical exam, leads to a correct diagnosis for the great majority of patients, but can be derailed by suboptimal thinking, lack of adequate information and external factors such as stress and work overload...
March 13, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280475/sensorimotor-coarticulation-in-the-execution-and-recognition-of-intentional-actions
#19
Francesco Donnarumma, Haris Dindo, Giovanni Pezzulo
Humans excel at recognizing (or inferring) another's distal intentions, and recent experiments suggest that this may be possible using only subtle kinematic cues elicited during early phases of movement. Still, the cognitive and computational mechanisms underlying the recognition of intentional (sequential) actions are incompletely known and it is unclear whether kinematic cues alone are sufficient for this task, or if it instead requires additional mechanisms (e.g., prior information) that may be more difficult to fully characterize in empirical studies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270884/critical-imperative-for-the-reform-of-british-interpretation-of-fetal-heart-rate-decelerations-analysis-of-figo-and-nice-guidelines-post-truth-foundations-cognitive-fallacies-myths-and-occam-s-razor
#20
REVIEW
Shashikant L Sholapurkar
Cardiotocography (CTG) has disappointingly failed to show good predictability for fetal acidemia or neonatal outcomes in several large studies. A complete rethink of CTG interpretation will not be out of place. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are the most common deviations, benign as well as manifestation of impending fetal hypoxemia/acidemia, much more commonly than FHR baseline or variability. Their specific nomenclature is important (center-stage) because it provides the basic concepts and framework on which the complex "pattern recognition" of CTG interpretation by clinicians depends...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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