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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689315/stress-as-risk-factor-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Alessandra Caruso, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Dalila Mango, Amira Saidi, Rosamaria Orlando, Sergio Scaccianoce
Prolonged stress predisposes susceptible individuals to a number of physiological disorders including cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Preclinical studies have suggested that manipulation of the glucocorticoid milieu can trigger cellular, molecular and behavioral derangement resembling the hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). For example, stress or glucocorticoid administration can increase amyloid ß precursor protein and tau phosphorylation which are involved in synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death associated with AD...
April 21, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659314/level-of-physical-activity-in-men-and-women-with-chronic-stroke
#2
Birgit Vahlberg, Annika Bring, Karin Hellström, Lena Zetterberg
INTRODUCTION: Community-dwelling stroke survivors generally show low levels of physical activity (PA). An improved understanding of the factors influencing participation in PA after stroke is imperative to improve levels of PA. Furthermore, gender differences in PA have received little attention in stroke research. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in PA, physical functioning and psychological factors and the association between these factors and PA in men and women 1-3-year post-stroke...
April 16, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582514/altered-gray-matter-volume-and-disrupted-functional-connectivity-of-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-males-with-heroin-dependence
#3
Huang-Chi Lin, Peng-Wei Wang, Hung-Chi Wu, Chih-Hung Ko, Yi-Hsin Yang, Cheng-Fang Yen
AIM: Chronic heroin use can cause various neuropathological characteristics that may compromise brain function. The present study evaluated the alteration of gray matter volume (GMV) and its resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) among male heroin users. METHODS: Thirty heroin-dependent men undergoing methadone maintenance therapy and 30 educational level and age matched male controls were recruited for this study...
March 27, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573513/filling-the-glass-effects-of-a-positive-psychology-intervention-on-executive-task-performance-in-chronic-pain-patients
#4
Jantine J L M Boselie, Linda M G Vancleef, Madelon L Peters
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is associated with emotional problems as well as difficulties in cognitive functioning. Prior experimental studies have shown that optimism, the tendency to expect that good things happen in the future, and positive emotions can counteract pain-induced task performance deficits in healthy participants. More specifically, induced optimism was found to buffer against the negative effects of experimental pain on executive functioning. This clinical experiment examined whether this beneficial effect can be extended to a chronic pain population...
March 24, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568494/hubris-and-sciences
#5
Eleftherios P Diamandis, Nick Bouras
There has been an increasing awareness of the importance of leadership and decision making, including scientists and academics, over recent times. By whom and how decisions are made can have serious implications across all levels of society. Several people have been successful in their life and have been inflicted by excessive pride and self-confidence. There are times when the manifestations of such behaviours demonstrate noticeable signs of narcissism and on extreme cases, hubris. Hubris is an old concept originated from the Greek mythology...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562946/allocation-of-attention-to-scenes-of-peer-harassment-visual-cognitive-moderators-of-the-link-between-peer-victimization-and-aggression
#6
Wendy Troop-Gordon, Robert D Gordon, Bethany M Schwandt, Gregor A Horvath, Elizabeth Ewing Lee, Kari J Visconti
As approximately one-third of peer-victimized children evidence heightened aggression (Schwartz, Proctor, & Chien, 2001), it is imperative to identify the circumstances under which victimization and aggression co-develop. The current study explored two potential moderators of victimization-aggression linkages: (a) attentional bias toward cues signaling threat and (b) attentional bais toward cues communicating interpersonal support. Seventy-two fifth- and sixth-grade children (34 boys; M age = 11.67) were eye tracked while watching video clips of bullying...
March 22, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559418/effect-of-auditory-stimulus-on-executive-function-and-execution-time-during-cognitively-demanding-stepping-task-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Mitsuya Horiba, Shogo Itamoto, Yoshino Ueki, Ikuo Wada, Ippei Nojima
Start hesitation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) occurs predominantly during distractive and conflictual situations. The aim of this study was to investigate how differently an auditory stimulus (AS) influences execution function and execution time during a cognitively demanding stepping task in PD patients as compared to healthy controls. PD patients and healthy controls stepped forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus of an arrow. We applied a Simon task that comprised congruent and incongruent conditions...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499207/is-it-safe-to-reduce-water-intake-in-the-overactive-bladder-population-a-systematic-review
#8
Lauren N Wood, Melissa A Markowitz, Pooja S Parameshwar, Alex J Hannemann, Shellee L Ogawa, Jennifer T Anger, Karyn S Eilber
INTRODUCTION: and Objectives: Overactive bladder (OAB) imposes a significant socioeconomic burden on the healthcare system. It is a commonly held belief that increased fluid intake (eight glasses of water a day) is beneficial for one's health; however, increased fluid intake exacerbates OAB symptoms. Thus, it is imperative that clinicians appropriately educate patients for whom increased water intake may be detrimental (women with OAB), in contrast to patients with comorbidities that necessitate increased water intake (nephrolithiasis)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482814/pre-sleep-arousal-scale-psas-psychometric-study-of-a-european-portuguese-version
#9
Daniel Ruivo Marques, Ana Allen Gomes, Perry M Nicassio, Maria Helena Pinto de Azevedo
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Pre-sleep arousal constitutes one of the major features of insomnia. As such, it is imperative to have adequate instruments to measure this construct in both clinical and research settings. The Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS) is the most well-known measure to evaluate pre-sleep arousal. The current study aimed to examine some of the psychometric properties of a European Portuguese version of the scale. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: For this purpose, data from 691 undergraduate students from a medical school were analyzed...
March 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447253/combined-impairments-in-vision-hearing-and-cognition-are-associated-with-greater-levels-of-functional-and-communication-difficulties-than-cognitive-impairment-alone-analysis-of-interrai-data-for-home-care-and-long-term-care-recipients-in-ontario
#10
Dawn M Guthrie, Jacob G S Davidson, Nicole Williams, Jennifer Campos, Kathleen Hunter, Paul Mick, Joseph B Orange, M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, Natalie A Phillips, Marie Y Savundranayagam, Walter Wittich
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the current study was to understand the added effects of having a sensory impairment (vision and/or hearing impairment) in combination with cognitive impairment with respect to health-related outcomes among older adults (65+ years old) receiving home care or residing in a long-term care (LTC) facility in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using existing data collected with one of two interRAI assessments, one for home care (n = 291,824) and one for LTC (n = 110,578)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421458/a-systematic-review-of-the-methodological-and-practical-challenges-of-undertaking-randomised-controlled-trials-with-cognitive-disability-populations
#11
REVIEW
Peter Mulhall, Laurence Taggart, Vivien Coates, Toni McAloon, Angela Hassiotis
Approximately 10% of the world's population have a cognitive disability. Cognitive disabilities can have a profound impact on a person's social, cognitive or mental functioning, requiring high levels of costly health and social support. Therefore, it is imperative that interventions and services received are based upon a sound evidence-base. For many interventions for this population, this evidence-base does not yet exist and there is a need for more Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs). The process of conducting RCTs with disabled populations is fraught with methodological challenges...
January 29, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411408/exploratory-and-confirmatory-analyses-in-sentence-processing-a-case-study-of-number-interference-in-german
#12
Bruno Nicenboim, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, Katja Suckow
Given the replication crisis in cognitive science, it is important to consider what researchers need to do in order to report results that are reliable. We consider three changes in current practice that have the potential to deliver more realistic and robust claims. First, the planned experiment should be divided into two stages, an exploratory stage and a confirmatory stage. This clear separation allows the researcher to check whether any results found in the exploratory stage are robust. The second change is to carry out adequately powered studies...
February 7, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394208/caring-interactions-in-secondary-prevention-programs-a-qualitative-inquiry-of-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Lindsey E Greviskes, Leslie Podlog, Maria Newton, Leland E Dibble, Ryan D Burns, Wanda Pillow, Morgan S Hall, Christopher Hammer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: With Parkinson's disease (PD) prevalence rates steadily increasing and long-term adherence to regular physical activity and exercise often difficult to achieve, it is imperative to investigate factors promoting adherence to secondary prevention programs (SPP) that help limit the progression of motor and nonmotor signs and symptoms of the disease. Caring interactions between patients and their rehabilitation team may be particularly germane to individuals with PD, given the physical and psychosocial issues that often accompany this disease (eg, loss of physical function, depression, apathy, and cognitive impairments)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378508/memory-profiles-in-down-syndrome-across-development-a-review-of-memory-abilities-through-the-lifespan
#14
REVIEW
Mary Godfrey, Nancy Raitano Lee
Down syndrome (DS) is associated with a variety of cognitive impairments, notably memory impairments. Due to the high prevalence rates of early-onset dementia associated with DS, it is imperative to understand the comprehensive development of memory impairments beginning in childhood and into adulthood, as this may help researchers identify precursors of dementia at earlier stages of development and pinpoint targets for memory intervention. The current paper provides a systematic, developmentally focused review of the nature of memory difficulties in DS across the lifespan...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374488/effects-of-dance-on-cognitive-function-among-older-adults-a-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Asm Borhan, Patricia Hewston, Dafna Merom, Courtney Kennedy, George Ioannidis, Nancy Santesso, Pasqualina Santaguida, Lehana Thabane, Alexandra Papaioannou
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is characterized by problems in thinking, memory, language, and judgment that are greater than cognitive changes in normal aging. Considering the unprecedented growth of the older adult population and the projected increase in the prevalence of cognitive impairment, it is imperative to find effective strategies to improve or maintain cognitive function in older adults. The objective of this review is to summarize the effects of dance versus any other control group on cognitive function, physical function, adverse events, and quality of life in older adults...
January 27, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371024/from-neuroscience-to-evidence-based-psychological-treatments-the-promise-and-the-challenge-ecnp-march-2016-nice-france
#16
Guy M Goodwin, Emily A Holmes, Erik Andersson, Michael Browning, Andrew Jones, Johanna Lass-Hennemann, Kristoffer Nt Månsson, Carolin Moessnang, Elske Salemink, Alvaro Sanchez, Linda van Zutphen, Renée M Visser
This ECNP meeting was designed to build bridges between different constituencies of mental illness treatment researchers from a range of backgrounds with a specific focus on enhancing the development of novel, evidence based, psychological treatments. In particular we wished to explore the potential for basic neuroscience to support the development of more effective psychological treatments, just as this approach is starting to illuminate the actions of drugs. To fulfil this aim, a selection of clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and neuroscientists were invited to sit at the same table...
February 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370825/a-novel-language-neutral-visual-cognitive-assessment-test-vcat-validation-in-four-southeast-asian-countries
#17
Levinia Lim, Tze Pin Ng, Anam Paulus Ong, Maw Pin Tan, Alvin Rae Cenina, Qi Gao, Adeline Ng, Nagaendran Kandiah
BACKGROUND: Cognitive screeners are imperative for early diagnosis of dementia. The Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT) is a language-neutral, visual-based test which has proven useful for a multilingual population in a single-center study. However, its performance utility is unknown in a wider and more diverse Southeast Asian cohort. METHODS: We recruited 164 healthy controls (HC) and 120 cognitively impaired (CI) subjects- 47 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 73 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia participants, from four countries between January 2015 and August 2016 to determine the usefulness of a single version of the VCAT, without translation or adaptation, in a multinational, multilingual population...
January 22, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357821/construct-validity-of-the-dining-environment-audit-protocol-a-secondary-data-analysis-of-the-making-most-of-mealtimes-m3-study
#18
Sabrina Iuglio, Heather Keller, Habib Chaudhury, Susan E Slaughter, Christina Lengyel, Jill Morrison, Veronique Boscart, Natalie Carrier
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated the importance of physical environments at mealtimes for residents in long term care (LTC). However, a lack of a standardized measurement to assess physical dining environments has resulted in inconsistent research with potentially invalid and unreliable conclusions. The development of a standardized, construct valid instrument that assesses dining rooms is imperative to systematically examine physical environments in LTC. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity of the new Dining Environment Audit Protocol (DEAP) tool...
January 22, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345878/impact-of-cognitive-impairment-on-functioning-in-patients-with-depression
#19
Raymond W Lam
Reassessing a patient's diagnosis if he or she does not respond adequately to initial antidepressant pharmacotherapy is imperative. In this CME activity, evaluate the case of Melissa, a 32-year-old architect with a potential case of treatment-resistant depression, and decide on appropriate treatment strategies.
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334237/safety-of-working-patterns-among-uk-neuroradiologists-what-can-we-learn-from-the-aviation-industry-and-cognitive-science
#20
John Reicher, Stuart Currie, Daniel Birchall
As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to strike the necessary balance between achieving satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities...
April 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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