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C Katvoravutthichai, K Boonbumrung, R Tiyawisutsri
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of nosocomial infection and it has increasing resistance to many antimicrobial agents. β-lactamase production is the most frequent mechanism for β-lactam resistance in P. aeruginosa. We evaluated the prevalence of β-lactamase genes in P. aeruginosa for classes A, C, and D by polymerase chain reaction, and investigated clonal diversity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We used the disk diffusion method to test 118 non-duplicate clinical isolates of P...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Ivana Goic-Barisic, Jasna Hrenovic, Ana Kovacic, Martina Šeruga Musić
Six carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were recovered from untreated and treated municipal wastewater of the capital city of Zagreb, Croatia. Molecular identification of environmental isolates of A. baumannii was performed by amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of rpoB gene. The presence of blaOXA genes encoding OXA-type carbapenemases (OXA-51-like, OXA-23, and OXA-40-like) was confirmed by multiplex PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses corroborated the affiliation of detected blaOXA genes to three different clusters and showed association of environmental OXAs with those described from clinical isolates...
October 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Vanessa Cristine Kobs, Jéssica Augustini Ferreira, Thaís Alexandra Bobrowicz, Leslie Ecker Ferreira, Roseneide Campos Deglmann, Glauco Adrieno Westphal, Paulo Henrique Condeixa de França
INTRODUCTION: Members of the Acinetobacter genus are key pathogens that cause healthcare-associated infections, and they tend to spread and develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Oxacillinases are primarily responsible for resistance to carbapenem antibiotics. Higher rates of carbapenem hydrolysis might be ascribed to insertion sequences, such as the ISAba1 sequence, near bla OXA genes. The present study examined the occurrence of the genetic elements bla OXA and ISAba1 and their relationship with susceptibility to carbapenems in clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex...
July 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Katy Jeannot, Taghrid S El-Mahdy, Hassan A Samaha, Atef M Shibl, Patrick Plésiat, Patrice Courvalin
Background. This study described various molecular and epidemiological characters determining antibiotic resistance patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Methods. A total of 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were isolated from samples collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2011. Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Results. All isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, and more than half were highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 256 mg/L)...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Gökhan Metan, Murat Akova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a worldwide challenge and associated with a high mortality rate in critically ill patients. This review focused on rapid diagnosis, optimization of antimicrobial therapy, and implication of effective infection control precautions to reduce impact of CRE on vulnerable patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Several new diagnostic assays have recently been described for the early diagnosis of CRE. Retrospective studies are supportive for colistin plus meropenem combination for the treatment of CRE infections; however, solid evidence is still lacking...
August 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Seok Hoon Jeong, Han Sung Kim, Jae Seok Kim, Dong Hoon Shin, Hyun Soo Kim, Min Jeong Park, Saeam Shin, Jun Sung Hong, Seung Soon Lee, Wonkeun Song
BACKGROUND: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem because these bacteria are resistant to most antibiotics. CPE remain relatively uncommon in Korea. We report the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and molecular epidemiology of CPE isolates collected from five university hospitals in Korea. METHODS: Between January and December 2015, 393 non-duplicated isolates that were nonsusceptible to ertapenem were analyzed...
November 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Saranya Vijayakumar, Radha Gopi, Priya Gunasekaran, Manjurekar Bharathy, Kamini Walia, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for causing nosocomial infections. Carbapenems are considered to be the drug of choice to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. The prevalent mechanism of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is enzymatic degradation by β-lactamases. Therefore, the aim of the study is to determine the prevalence and distribution of molecular determinants among the clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant A...
September 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Somdatta Chatterjee, Saswati Datta, Subhasree Roy, Lavanya Ramanan, Anindya Saha, Rajlakshmi Viswanathan, Tapas Som, Sulagna Basu
Carbapenem-resistant determinants and their surrounding genetic structure were studied in Acinetobacter spp. from neonatal sepsis cases collected over 7 years at a tertiary care hospital. Acinetobacter spp. (n = 68) were identified by ARDRA followed by susceptibility tests. Oxacillinases, metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), extended-spectrum β-lactamases and AmpCs, were detected phenotypically and/or by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Transconjugants possessing the bla NDM-1(New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase) underwent further analysis for plasmids, integrons and associated genes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Saeed Shoja, Mojtaba Moosavian, Soodabeh Rostami, Fariba Abbasi, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Amir Peymani
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen associated with a variety of infections. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility, analyze the prevalence of oxacillinase and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes and molecular typing of clinical isolates of A. baumannii. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 124 non-repetitive isolates of A. baumannii were collected from various clinical specimens in two teaching hospitals in Ahvaz, south-west of Iran...
May 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Yeliz Çetinkol, Murat Telli, Arzu Altunçekiç Yıldırım, Mustafa Kerem Çalgın
Acinetobacter baumannii strains, are opportunistic pathogens that cause severe nosocomial infections that are difficult to treat due to development of resistance to multiple antibiotics. As the antibiotic choices to be used in treatment are limited, combinations of a variety of antibiotics are used. The aims of this study were to identify the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of colistin and sulbactam against A.baumannii isolates and to determine the in vitro activity of colistin-sulbactam combination...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Pierrette Landrie Simo Tchuinte, Thibault Stalder, Silvia Venditti, Antoinette Ngandjio, Christophe Dagot, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Olivier Barraud
In this study, antibiotic resistance class 3 integrons in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospital sewage and sludge and their genetic contents were characterised. Two samples of hospital effluent from France and Luxembourg and one sample of sludge from a wastewater treatment plant in France were collected in 2010 and 2011. Bacteria were cultured on selective agar plates and integrons were detected in colonies by quantitative PCR. Integron gene cassette arrays and their genetic environments were analysed by next-generation sequencing...
October 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Qiu Yang, Yongyu Rui
Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A...
2016: PloS One
Chang-Ro Lee, Jung Hun Lee, Kwang Seung Park, Young Bae Kim, Byeong Chul Jeong, Sang Hee Lee
The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. In particular, the increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major source of concern. K. pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) and carbapenemases of the oxacillinase-48 (OXA-48) type have been reported worldwide. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) carbapenemases were originally identified in Sweden in 2008 and have spread worldwide rapidly. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology of K...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Vanessa Cordeiro Dias, Claudio Galuppo Diniz, Ana Claudia De Oliveira Peter, Andre Netto Bastos, Victor Quinnet de Andrade Bastos, Lucas Quinnet de Andrade Bastos, Vania Lucia Da Silva
INTRODUCTION: Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are widespread in the environment and are increasingly associated with nosocomial infections. Extensive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in hospitals has contributed to an increased number of infections caused by these microorganisms, that are resistant to a wide variety of antimicrobials, including β-lactams. This study aimed to isolate and identify carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Arijit Pal, Anusri Tripathi
Bacterial Oxacillinases (OXAs), genetically being extremely diverse and highly versatile in hydrolyzing antibiotics of different classes, holds utmost significant clinical importance. Hence, to analyze functional evolution of this enzyme, plausible changes in drug profile, affinity and binding stability of different subclasses of OXA with their preferred drugs, viz. penicillin, ceftazidime, imipenem/meropenem were investigated. Maximum-Likelihood dendrogram was constructed and based on tree topology, the least and most divergent variants of each clade were selected...
June 8, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Amy Mathers
There has been a dramatic increase in the last decade in the number of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, often leaving patients and their providers with few treatment options and resultant poor outcomes when an infection develops. The majority of the carbapenem resistance is mediated by bacterial acquisition of one of three carbapenemases (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC], oxacillinase-48-like [OXA-48], and the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase [NDM]). Each of these enzymes has a unique global epidemiology and microbiology...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Kullappan Malathi, Sudha Ramaiah
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an opportunistic bacterium that frequently causes nosocomial infections. New generation cephalosporins and β-lactams along with inhibitors are used for the treatment of opportunistic bacterial infections. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of bacterial resistance. Carbapenem class of antibiotics like imipenem and meropenem are currently the final line of antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa...
June 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Bjarte Aarmo Lund, Tony Christopeit, Yngve Guttormsen, Annette Bayer, Hanna-Kirsti S Leiros
The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a global threat that shakes the foundations of modern healthcare. β-Lactamases are enzymes that confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in bacteria, and there is a critical need for new inhibitors of these enzymes for combination therapy together with an antibiotic. With this in mind, we have screened a library of 490 fragments to identify starting points for the development of new inhibitors of the class D β-lactamase oxacillinase-48 (OXA-48) through surface plasmon resonance (SPR), dose-rate inhibition assays, and X-ray crystallography...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Franziska Tomaschek, Paul G Higgins, Danuta Stefanik, Hilmar Wisplinghoff, Harald Seifert
To compare the two Acinetobacter baumannii multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) schemes and to assess their suitability to aid in outbreak analysis we investigated the molecular epidemiology of 99 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates representing outbreak-related and sporadic isolates from 24 hospitals in four different countries (Germany, Poland, Sweden, and Turkey). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used as the reference method to determine the epidemiologic relatedness of isolates and compared to MLST using both the Oxford and Pasteur scheme...
2016: PloS One
Yeliz Cetinkol, Arzu Altunçekiç Yildirim, Murat Telli, Mustafa Kerem Calgin
Infections due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae represent a growing problem nationally. In our study, we aimed to examine carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae with multiple resistance isolated in the intensive care unit of our hospital. Isolates were investigated for the presence of oxacillinase and metallo-beta lactamase genes with a view to determining the clonal relationship between the strains intensely over a short period. Strain identification was completed with conventional methods and automated identification kit...
2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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