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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820139/risk-for-low-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus-on-poultry-farms-the-netherlands-2007-2013
#1
Ruth Bouwstra, Jose L Gonzales, Sjaak de Wit, Julia Stahl, Ron A M Fouchier, Armin R W Elbers
Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007-2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors: distance from poultry farms to clay soil, waterways, and wild waterfowl areas. Outdoor-layer, turkey (meat and breeder), and duck (meat and breeder) farms had a significantly higher risk for LPAIV introduction than did indoor-layer farms...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817554/occupational-distribution-of-campylobacteriosis-and-salmonellosis-cases-maryland-ohio-and-virginia-2014
#2
Chia-Ping Su, Marie A de Perio, Kathleen Fagan, Meghan L Smith, Ellen Salehi, Seth Levine, Karen Gruszynski, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are estimated to cause >1 million episodes of domestically acquired illness annually (1). Campylobacter and Salmonella are primarily transmitted through contaminated food, but animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission can also occur (2,3). Although occupationally acquired infections have been reported, occupational risk factors have rarely been studied. In 2015, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified 63 suspected or confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection over 3...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815990/trade-patterns-facilitating-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-dissemination-in-the-free-grazing-layer-duck-system-in-vietnam
#3
A Meyer, T X Dinh, T A Han, D V Do, T V Nhu, L T Pham, T T T Nguyen, S Newman, B Häsler, D U Pfeiffer, T Vergne
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam...
August 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815716/characterization-of-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-wild-and-captive-birds-in-the-winter-season-of-2016-2017-in-northern-japan
#4
Takahiro Hiono, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Keita Matsuno, Atsushi Haga, Ritsuko Iwata, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Mizuho Suzuki, Yuto Kikutani, Hiroshi Kida, Manabu Onuma, Yoshihiro Sakoda
On November 15, 2016, a suspected case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a dead black swan was reported from a zoo in Akita prefecture, northern Japan, and an HPAI virus (HPAIV) belonging to the H5N6 subtype was isolated from specimens taken from the bird. After the initial report, 230 cases of HPAI caused by H5N6 viruses were reported from wild birds, captive birds, and domestic poultry farms throughout the country during the winter season. In the present study, we further characterized 66 H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from northern Japan...
August 16, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803599/invited-review-resource-allocation-mismatch-as-pathway-to-disproportionate-growth-in-farm-animals-prerequisite-for-a-disturbed-health
#5
K Huber
The availability of resources including energy, nutrients and (developmental) time has a crucial impact on productivity of farm animals. Availability of energy and nutrients depends on voluntary feed intake and intestinal digestive and absorptive capacity at optimal feeding conditions. Availability of time is provided by the management in animal production. According to the resource allocation theory, resources have to be allocated between maintenance, ontogenic growth, production and reproduction during lifetime...
August 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798293/cross-species-transmission-potential-between-wild-pigs-livestock-poultry-wildlife-and-humans-implications-for-disease-risk-management-in-north-america
#6
Ryan S Miller, Steven J Sweeney, Chris Slootmaker, Daniel A Grear, Paul A Di Salvo, Deborah Kiser, Stephanie A Shwiff
Cross-species disease transmission between wildlife, domestic animals and humans is an increasing threat to public and veterinary health. Wild pigs are increasingly a potential veterinary and public health threat. Here we investigate 84 pathogens and the host species most at risk for transmission with wild pigs using a network approach. We assess the risk to agricultural and human health by evaluating the status of these pathogens and the co-occurrence of wild pigs, agriculture and humans. We identified 34 (87%) OIE listed swine pathogens that cause clinical disease in livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790460/role-of-domestic-ducks-in-the-emergence-of-a-new-genotype-of-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-avian-influenza-a-viruses-in-bangladesh
#7
Subrata Barman, Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, M Kamrul Hasan, Sharmin Akhtar, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Jasmine Cm Turner, John Franks, David Walker, Jon Seiler, Kimberly Friedman, Lisa Kercher, Trushar Jeevan, Daniel Darnell, Ghazi Kayali, Lisa Jones-Engel, Pamela McKenzie, Scott Krauss, Richard J Webby, Robert G Webster, Mohammed M Feeroz
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses were first isolated in Bangladesh in February 2007. Subsequently, clades 2.2.2, 2.3.4.2 and 2.3.2.1a were identified in Bangladesh, and our previous surveillance data revealed that by the end of 2014, the circulating viruses exclusively comprised clade 2.3.2.1a. We recently determined the status of circulating avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh by conducting surveillance of live poultry markets and waterfowl in wetland areas from February 2015 through February 2016...
August 9, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789874/genotyping-of-avian-infectious-bronchitis-viruses-in-iran-2015-2017-reveals-domination-of-is-1494-like-virus
#8
Amir Modiri Hamadan, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Masoud Hashemzadeh, Hossein Hosseini, Vahid Karimi, Ramak Yahyaraeyat, Hamideh Najafi
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is causing major economic losses to the poultry industry. The analysis of the S1 gene has been used to determine IBV genotype. The aim of this study was genotyping of IBVs circulating among the Iranian broiler flocks in the period between 2015 to 2017. Trachea samples from 278 broiler flocks were collected from broiler farms in eight provinces of Iran. After Real-time RT-PCR, IBV-positive samples were further characterized based on S1 gene. The results of the Real-time RT-PCR showed that 52...
August 5, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771136/assessing-evidence-for-avian-to-human-transmission-of-influenza-a-h9n2-virus-in-rural-farming-communities-in-northern-vietnam
#9
Le Nguyen Minh Hoa, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Pham Ha My, Tran Thi Kieu Huong, Nguyen Thi Yen Chi, Trang Thi Hau Thu, Juan Carrique-Mas, Mai Thuy Duong, Nguyen Dang Tho, Nguyen Dang Hoang, To Long Thanh, Nguyen Thi Diep, Nguyen van Duong, Tran Khanh Toan, Trinh Son Tung, Le Quynh Mai, Munir Iqbal, Heiman Wertheim, H Rogier van Doorn, Juliet E Bryant, The Vizions Consortium
Rural farming communities in northern Vietnam do not routinely practice vaccination for influenza A viruses (IAV) for either humans or poultry, which enables us to study transmission intensity via seroepidemiology. Using samples from a longitudinal cohort of farming households, we determined the number of symptomatic and asymptomatic human infections for seasonal IAV and avian A/H9 over 2 years. As expected, we detected virologically confirmed acute cases of seasonal IAV in humans, as well as large numbers of subclinical seroconversions to A/H1pdm [55/265 (21 %)], A/H3 [95/265 (36 %)] and A/H9 [24/265 (9 %)]...
August 4, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770245/molecular-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-virulent-infectious-bronchitis-viruses-isolated-from-chickens-in-eastern-saudi-arabia
#10
Maged Gomaa Hemida, Mohammed A Al-Hammadi, Abdul Hafeed S Daleb, Cecilio R Gonsalves
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the major respiratory viral threats for chickens. Despite the intensive application of IBV vaccines, several outbreaks have been reported worldwide. Here, we report several IBV outbreaks in thirteen poultry farms in Eastern Saudi Arabia (ESA) from 2013 to 2014. The main goals of the current study were as follows: (1) isolation and molecular characterization of the currently circulating strains in ESA (Al-Hasa, Dammam, and Buqayq) and (2) evaluation of the immune status of these birds to IBV...
June 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768551/feed-additive-probiotics-accelerate-yet-antibiotics-delay-intestinal-microbiota-maturation-in-broiler-chicken
#11
Pengfei Gao, Chen Ma, Zheng Sun, Lifeng Wang, Shi Huang, Xiaoquan Su, Jian Xu, Heping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Reducing antibiotics overuse in animal agriculture is one key in combat against the spread of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics are a potential replacement of antibiotics in animal feed; however, it is not clear whether and how probiotics and antibiotics differ in impact on physiology and microbial ecology of host animals. RESULTS: Host phenotype and fecal microbiota of broilers with either antibiotics or probiotics as feed additive were simultaneously sampled at four time points from birth to slaughter and then compared...
August 3, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757141/molecular-epidemiology-of-a-novel-re-assorted-epidemic-strain-of-equine-influenza-virus-in-pakistan-in-2015-16
#12
Amjad Khan, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Mansur Ud Din Ahmad, Jawad Nazir, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Asghar Khan
BACKGROUND: A widespread epidemic of equine influenza (EI) occurred in nonvaccinated equine population across multiple districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan during 2015-2016. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: An epidemiological surveillance study was conducted from Oct 2015 to April 2016 to investigate the outbreak. EI virus strains were isolated in embryonated eggs from suspected equines swab samples and were subjected to genome sequencing using M13 tagged segment specific primers...
July 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749780/the-prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-poultry-chickens-and-variation-according-to-farming-practices-in-punjab-india
#13
Charles H Brower, Siddhartha Mandal, Shivdeep Hayer, Mandeep Sran, Asima Zehra, Sunny J Patel, Ravneet Kaur, Leena Chatterjee, Savita Mishra, B R Das, Parminder Singh, Randhir Singh, J P S Gill, Ramanan Laxminarayan
BACKGROUND: Agricultural use of antimicrobials in subtherapeutic concentrations is increasing in response to the rising demand for food animal products worldwide. In India, the use of antimicrobials in food animal production is unregulated. Research suggests that many clinically important antimicrobials are used indiscriminately. This is the largest study to date in India that surveys poultry production to test for antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of extended-spectrum (ESBLs) modulated by farming and managerial practices...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747153/temporal-and-spatial-analysis-of-psittacosis-in-association-with-poultry-farming-in-the-netherlands-2000-2015
#14
Lenny Hogerwerf, Manon M C Holstege, Elisa Benincà, Frederika Dijkstra, Wim van der Hoek
BACKGROUND: Human psittacosis is a highly under diagnosed zoonotic disease, commonly linked to psittacine birds. Psittacosis in birds, also known as avian chlamydiosis, is endemic in poultry, but the risk for people living close to poultry farms is unknown. Therefore, our study aimed to explore the temporal and spatial patterns of human psittacosis infections and identify possible associations with poultry farming in the Netherlands. METHODS: We analysed data on 700 human cases of psittacosis notified between 01-01-2000 and 01-09-2015...
July 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737063/genetic-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-broilers-with-vertebral-osteomyelitis-in-southeast-brazil
#15
Juliana Fortes Vilarinho Braga, Carlos Augusto Gomes Leal, Camila Costa Silva, André Almeida Fernandes, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins, Roselene Ecco
Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is a worldwide emerging disease that affects broilers. Recently, the isolation of Enterococcus faecalis in cases of the disease has been described. This study aimed at determining the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profile of 12 Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from broilers with VO. Strains were isolated from nine flocks from six farms in a high-density poultry production area in Southeast Brazil and were evaluated using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and phylogenetic analysis...
July 24, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736677/no-evidence-of-on-farm-circulation-of-avian-influenza-h5-subtype-in-ca-mau-province-southern-vietnam-march-2016-january-2017
#16
Nguyen Thi Le Thanh, Nguyen Ha Thao Vy, Huynh Thi Ai Xuyen, Huynh Thi Phuong, Phung Ngoc Tuyet, Nguyen Thanh Huy, Benjamin Nguyen-Van-Yen, Ha Minh Lam, Maciej F Boni
BACKGROUND: Subtype H5N1 avian influenza viruses, both high pathogenicity and low pathogenicity, have been enzootic in Vietnam since 2001.  The viruses are readily identified at live bird markets, but virus prevalence on smallholder poultry is typically zero or very low.  If the true direction of the viral transmission chain is farm to market, it is unknown why farm prevalence should be low when market prevalence is moderate to high. METHODS: We established a cohort of 50 smallholder poultry farms in Ca Mau province in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam...
May 5, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727028/production-management-and-the-environment-symposium-measurement-and-mitigation-of-reactive-nitrogen-species-from-swine-and-poultry-production
#17
W Powers, M Capelari
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724100/ammonia-and-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-broiler-houses-with-downtime-windrowed-litter
#18
Kyoung S Ro, Philip A Moore, Ariel A Szogi, Patricia D Millner
An emerging poultry manure management practice is in-house windrowing to disinfect the litter. However, this practice is likely to increase emissions of ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) from the windrowed litter. The objective of this study was to quantitatively compare NH and NO emissions from broiler houses with and without in-house windrowing. Two broiler houses at a commercial farm were used to compare the NH and NO emissions. Gas emission measurements were conducted continuously and simultaneously for both the control house (without windrowing) and the house with windrowing during the same production periods...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719840/environmental-and-human-health-challenges-of-industrial-livestock-and-poultry-farming-in-china-and-their-mitigation
#19
REVIEW
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks...
July 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719770/household-exposure-to-livestock-and-health-in-the-chililab-hdss-cohort-vietnam
#20
Sinh Dang-Xuan, Lauren E MacDonald, Janna M Schurer, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Phuc Pham-Duc
In Vietnam, pigs and poultry are predominantly produced by small-scale farmers, creating challenges for zoonotic disease management. The objective of this study was to characterize practices related to livestock and manure management and to measure association with 3 self-reported health symptoms (coughing, fever, and diarrhea/nausea/vomiting) in a region currently undergoing health transitions. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected from a subset (N = 5520) of the Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System cohort in Chi Linh district, Vietnam...
July 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
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