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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050428/effect-of-an-organic-acids-based-feed-additive-and-enrofloxacin-on-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistant-e-coli-in-cecum-of-broilers
#1
Nataliya Roth, Sigrid Mayrhofer, Martin Gierus, Christine Weingut, Christiane Schwarz, Barbara Doupovec, Roger Berrios, Konrad J Domig
Increasing antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. Fluoroquinolones are used to treat and prevent poultry diseases worldwide. Fluoroquinolone resistance rates are high in their countries of use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an acids-based feed additive, as well as fluoroquinolone antibiotics, on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. A total of 480 broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: a control group receiving a basal diet; a group receiving a feed additive (FA) based on formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid; and an antibiotic enrofloxacin (AB) group given the same diet, but supplemented with enrofloxacin in water...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032652/molecular-characterization-of-salmonella-genomic-island-1-in-proteus-mirabilis-isolates-from-chungcheong-provinces-korea
#2
Ji Youn Sung, Semi Kim, GyeCheol Kwon, Sun Hoe Koo
Emergence and dissemination of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is strongly associated with occurrence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteria in humans and animals. Diverse SGI1s have been reported among Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis in several countries. We aimed to characterize SGI1 in P. mirabilis isolates from humans and chickens at ChungCheong provinces, Korea. A total of 44 P. mirabilis isolates were recovered from humans (n=20) and chickens (n=24). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion method...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028435/evaluation-of-agricultural-interventions-on-human-and-poultry-related-salmonella-enteritidis-in-british-columbia
#3
Marsha Taylor, William Cox, Michael Otterstatter, Nancy de With, Eleni Galanis
A collaborative investigation between public health and animal health led to numerous interventions along the food chain in response to an outbreak of human salmonellosis and increased incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) among poultry. Incidence of both human and chicken SE decreased substantially in 2012 and 2013 following these interventions. We used time series analysis to assess the impact of three interventions: vaccination of broiler breeder flocks, separation in the hatchery of breeder eggs, and an industry order to stop farm-gate sales of ungraded broiler hatching eggs...
October 13, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027604/prevalence-of-avian-influenza-h9n2-in-commercial-quail-partridge-and-turkey-farms-in-iran-2014-2015
#4
Mohammad Hosein Fallah Mehrabadi, Alireza Bahonar, Kamran Mirzaei, Aidin Molouki, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Farshad Tehrani, Swee Hua Erin Lim
Avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 subtype is endemic in Iran and causes substantial economic loss to the growing poultry industry within the country. In this study, a cross-sectional analysis was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of H9N2 in several commercial farms between the years 2014 and 2015. The comparison of the mean of serum titers and the ratio of sero-positive birds between all units were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. In 2014, a total of 77 farms (58 turkey farms, 14 quail farms, and 5 partridge farms) and 894 birds (682 turkeys, 154 quails, and 58 partridges) were sampled while in 2015, a total of 69 farms (54 turkey farms, 8 quail farms, and 7 partridge farms) and 856 birds (675 turkeys, 105 quails, and 76 partridges) were sampled...
October 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018807/listeria-occurrence-in-poultry-flocks-detection-and-potential-implications
#5
REVIEW
Michael J Rothrock, Morgan L Davis, Aude Locatelli, Aaron Bodie, Tori G McIntosh, Janet R Donaldson, Steven C Ricke
Foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Listeria are a major concern within the food industry due to their pathogenic potential to cause infection. Of these, Listeria monocytogenes, possesses a high mortality rate (approximately 20%) and is considered one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens. Although the usual reservoirs for Listeria transmission have been extensively studied, little is known about the relationship between Listeria and live poultry production. Sporadic and isolated cases of listeriosis have been attributed to poultry production and Listeria spp...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992917/the-use-of-large-databases-to-inform-the-development-of-an-intestinal-scoring-system-for-the-poultry-industry
#6
H Kasab-Bachi, A G Arruda, T E Roberts, J B Wilson
There is increasing interest among the poultry industry to develop a comprehensive index that can be used to evaluate overall intestinal health and impact on production performance. The Intestinal Integrity (I(2)) index is a quantitative measurement tool used to assess the intestinal health of flocks that use the Health Tracking System (HTSi), a global surveillance system developed by Elanco Animal Health that captures flock-level information on health and performance. To generate an I(2) index score for a flock, the presence of 23 intestinal health conditions is assessed and recorded, then entered into a mathematical equation...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992814/field-efficacy-and-safety-of-fluralaner-solution-for-administration-in-drinking-water-for-the-treatment-of-poultry-red-mite-dermanyssus-gallinae-infestations-in-commercial-flocks-in-europe
#7
Emmanuel Thomas, Mathieu Chiquet, Björn Sander, Eva Zschiesche, Annie Sigognault Flochlay
BACKGROUND: Welfare concerns, production losses caused by Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite (PRM), and widespread mite resistance to environmentally applied acaricides continue to drive an urgent need for new and effective control measures. Fluralaner is a novel systemic acaricide developed to address that need. A series of field studies was initiated to investigate the safety and efficacy of a fluralaner solution (10 mg/ml) administered in drinking water at a dose rate of 0...
October 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991967/within-house-spatial-distribution-of-fecal-indicator-bacteria-in-poultry-litter
#8
Scott Winkler, Craig Coufal, Daren Harmel, Emily Martin, John P Brooks, Sheena Popham, Terry J Gentry
Land application of poultry litter is often considered to be a major source of water pollutants in poultry-producing regions. However, reported levels of fecal indicator microorganisms in litter vary widely, with considerable variation possible within houses and across farms, depending on management practices. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the levels and distribution of indicator microorganisms within 12 broiler farms representing three companies. Within each house, litter samples were collected from around the feed line, water line, north wall, cool pad end, middle, and fan end...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981905/interaction-between-metarhizium-anisopliae-met-and-the-insecticides-used-for-controlling-house-fly-diptera-muscidae-in-poultry-farm-of-malaysia
#9
Song-Quan Ong, Hamdan Ahmad, Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid, Zairi Jaal
The potential of integrating the mycoinsecticide, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.), into house fly control programs is tremendous. However, the interaction between the fungus and insecticide, when applied at poultry farms, remains poorly understood. This study investigated the interaction between M. anisopliae and two selected insecticides, cyromazine and ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypemethrin), with three objectives: to assess the compatibility of M. anisopliae and the insecticides by measuring fungal vegetative growth and conidia production in the presence of insecticides; to evaluate the effect of M...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957010/causes-of-normal-mortality-in-commercial-egg-laying-chickens
#10
Richard M Fulton
In a large population of animals, it is normal to have some die each day from causes not related to disease, which is often referred to as natural causes. In poultry production, this phenomenon is commonly referred to as daily mortality. In egg-producing chickens, many of the natural causes of death are associated with making an egg. The causes of normal mortality in commercial egg-laying chicken flocks have been described very little to date. A commercial chicken egg farm, housing approximately two million single-comb white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in 16 egg-producing flocks, was visited on a monthly basis to monitor bird health, body conditioning, skeletal integrity, and causes of daily mortality in an attempt to provide early detection of health abnormalities...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956861/brazilian-citizens-opinions-and-attitudes-about-farm-animal-production-systems
#11
Maria C Yunes, Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Maria J Hötzel
The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their "social license to operate"; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement...
September 28, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945170/fowl-aviadenovirus-9-dutpase-plays-a-role-in-regulation-of-the-host-immune-response
#12
Li Deng, Bryan D Griffin, Yanlong Pei, David Leishman, Betty-Anne McBey, Shayan Sharif, Éva Nagy
Fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs) are distributed worldwide in poultry farms. Some FAdVs are the causative agents of inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome that cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry. In contrast with human adenovirus, the study of the molecular biology of FAdV is still far behind. We previously showed that FAdV-9 open reading frame 1 (ORF1) is a dUTPase enzyme that contributes to the upregulation of type I interferons and is not required for virus replication in vitro...
September 25, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942256/antibiotics-in-the-agricultural-soils-from-the-yangtze-river-delta-china
#13
Jianteng Sun, Qingtao Zeng, Daniel C W Tsang, L Z Zhu, X D Li
This study focused on the occurrence and spatial distribution of 13 common antibiotics in the agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. Antibiotics were detected in all the 241 soil samples (i.e., 100% detection rate) with the total concentrations ranging from 4.55 to 2,010 ng/g dry weight. The concentrations of three antibiotic classes decreased in the order: quinolones (mean 48.8 ng/g) > tetracyclines (mean 34.9 ng/g) > sulfonamides (mean 2.35 ng/g). Ciprofloxacin was the prevalent compound with a mean concentration of 27...
September 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937583/infectious-bronchitis-virus-variants-molecular-analysis-and-pathogenicity-investigation
#14
REVIEW
Shu-Yi Lin, Hui-Wen Chen
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants constantly emerge and pose economic threats to poultry farms worldwide. Numerous studies on the molecular and pathogenic characterization of IBV variants have been performed between 2007 and 2017, which we have reviewed herein. We noted that viral genetic mutations and recombination events commonly gave rise to distinct IBV genotypes, serotypes and pathotypes. In addition to characterizing the S1 genes, full viral genomic sequencing, comprehensive antigenicity, and pathogenicity studies on emerging variants have advanced our understanding of IBV infections, which is valuable for developing countermeasures against IBV field outbreaks...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934348/antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-poultry-and-livestock-china
#15
Afrah Kamal Yassin, Jiansen Gong, Patrick Kelly, Guangwu Lu, Luca Guardabassi, Lanjing Wei, Xiangan Han, Haixiang Qiu, Stuart Price, Darong Cheng, Chengming Wang
Poultry and livestock are the most important reservoirs for pathogenic Escherichia coli and use of antimicrobials in animal farming is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. The aim of our study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from food animals in Jiangsu, China. The disc diffusion method was used to determine susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents in 862 clinical isolates collected from chickens, ducks, pigs, and cows between 2004 and 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932713/antibiotic-resistance-patterns-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-isolated-from-livestock-and-associated-farmers-in-anuradhapura-sri-lanka
#16
Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera, Wikum Widuranga Kumbukgolla
INTRODUCTION: The animal husbandry comes to play an important role according to new economic reforms of the rural economy in South Asia including Sri Lanka, and the rural farming community has a poor knowledge about hygienic issues of animal husbandry, which can lead to spread of pathogenic bacterial strains from animals to humans. Our study was conducted to evaluate methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and its antimicrobial resistance pattern among livestock (n=188) and related farmers (n=94) in Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka...
September 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931674/natural-reassortants-between-potentially-zoonotic-avian-influenza-viruses-h5n1-and-h9n2-from-egypt-display-distinct-pathogenic-phenotypes-in-experimentally-infected-chickens-and-ferrets
#17
Mahmoud M Naguib, Reiner Ulrich, Elisa Kasbohm, Christine L P Eng, Donata Hoffmann, Christian Grund, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
Co-circulation of zoonotic highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 and AIV of subtype H9N2 among poultry in Egypt for at least six years should render this country a hypothetical hotspot for the emergence of reassortant, phenotypically altered viruses, yet no reassortants have been detected in Egypt. The present investigations proved that reassortants between Egyptian H5N1 clade 2.2.1.2 and H9N2 of the G1-B lineage can be generated by co-amplification in embryonated chicken eggs. Reassortants were restricted to the H5N1 subtype and had acquired between two and all six of the internal segments of the H9N2 virus...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929966/-a-case-with-scalp-pruritus-caused-by-dermanysus-gallinae-order-mesostigmata
#18
Mustafa Şengül, Nida Kaçar, Mehmet Karaca, Sedef Zeliha Öner, Çağrı Ergin
Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the important hematophagous ectoparasite species of poultry like chicken, pigeon and wild bird species. These ectoparasites in the form of nymphs or adults who can not find their hosts are also seen in mammals and even in humans. For this reason, they are considered as important for public health. The ectoparasite causes a clinical condition named gamasoidosis among pet owners and people who live or work close to animal shelters, barns and chicken farms. Pruritus dermatitis is also caused by D...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929797/automated-early-detection-of-drops-in-commercial-egg-production-using-neural-networks
#19
I Ramírez-Morales, E Fernández-Blanco, D Rivero, A Pazos
1. The purpose of this work was to support decision-making in poultry farms by performing automatic early detection of anomalies in egg production. 2. Unprocessed data were collected from a commercial egg farm on a daily basis over 7 years. Records from a total of 24 flocks, each with approximately 20 000 laying hens, were studied. 3. Other similar works have required a prior feature extraction by a poultry expert, and this method is dependent on time and expert knowledge. 4. The present approach reduces the dependency on time and expert knowledge because of the automatic selection of relevant features and the use of artificial neural networks capable of cost-sensitive learning...
October 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919677/influence-of-microclimatic-ammonia-levels-on-productive-performance-of-different-broilers-breeds-estimated-with-univariate-and-multivariate-approaches
#20
Essam S Soliman, Sherif A Moawed, Rania A Hassan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Birds litter contains unutilized nitrogen in the form of uric acid that is converted into ammonia; a fact that does not only affect poultry performance but also has a negative effect on people's health around the farm and contributes in the environmental degradation. The influence of microclimatic ammonia emissions on Ross and Hubbard broilers reared in different housing systems at two consecutive seasons (fall and winter) was evaluated using a discriminant function analysis to differentiate between Ross and Hubbard breeds...
August 2017: Veterinary World
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