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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215350/prevalence-and-types-of-campylobacter-on-poultry-farms-and-in-their-direct-environment
#1
Franciska M Schets, Wilma F Jacobs-Reitsma, Rozemarijn Q J van der Plaats, Lianne Kerkhof-De Heer, Angela H A M van Hoek, Raditijo A Hamidjaja, Ana Maria de Roda Husman, Hetty Blaak
To study whether broiler and layer farms contribute to the environmental Campylobacter load, environmental matrices at or close to farms, and caecal material from chickens, were examined. Similarity between Campylobacter from poultry and environment was tested based on species identification and Multilocus Sequence Typing. Campylobacter prevalence in caecal samples was 97% at layer farms (n = 5), and 93% at broiler farms with Campylobacter-positive flocks (n = 2/3). Campylobacter prevalence in environmental samples was 24% at layer farms, and 29% at broiler farms with Campylobacter-positive flocks...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212718/the-persistence-of-multiple-strains-of-avian-influenza-in-live-bird-markets
#2
Amy Pinsent, Kim M Pepin, Huachen Zhu, Yi Guan, Michael T White, Steven Riley
Multiple subtypes of avian influenza (AI) and novel reassortants are frequently isolated from live bird markets (LBMs). However, our understanding of the drivers of persistence of multiple AI subtypes is limited. We propose a stochastic model of AI transmission within an LBM that incorporates market size, turnover rate and the balance of direct versus environmental transmissibility. We investigate the relationship between these factors and the critical community size (CCS) for the persistence of single and multiple AI strains within an LBM...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211907/evaluation-of-the-hygienogram-scores-and-related-data-obtained-after-cleaning-and-disinfection-of-poultry-houses-in-flanders-during-the-period-2007-to-2014
#3
H Maertens, K De Reu, S Van Weyenberg, E Van Coillie, E Meyer, H Van Meirhaeghe, F Van Immerseel, V Vandenbroucke, M Vanrobaeys, J Dewulf
Cleaning and disinfection (C&D) of poultry houses is an essential aspect in farm hygiene management. Adequate performance of the different steps of a C&D protocol and the use of suitable products are key to prevent and control zoonoses and animal diseases. Hygiene monitoring on total aerobic flora through sampling with agar contact plates at different locations of the poultry house results in a hygienogram score that is used to evaluate the proper execution of C&D.This study analyzed the hygienogram scores of 19,739 poultry flocks in Flanders after C&D...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209556/chinese-herbal-medicines-as-potential-agents-for-alleviation-of-heat-stress-in-poultry
#4
Parisa Shokryazdan, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Salwani Md Saadand, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Zulkifli Idrus, Hailong Zhou, Xiao Ping Diao, Juan Boo Liang
Heat stress negatively affects the productivity of chickens in commercial poultry farms in humid tropics. In this study, the concentrations and types of the antioxidant compounds of eight Chinese herbal medicines, which have previously demonstrated promising effects on suppressing heat stress as a mixture, were investigated using reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, and Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Our results provided the levels of phenolic compounds, total amounts of sugars, and total unsaturated fatty acids in the herbal extracts...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204739/serological-evidence-of-h5-subtype-influenza-a-virus-infection-in-indigenous-avian-and-mammalian-species-in-korea
#5
Hye Kwon Kim, Hee-Jong Kim, Ji Yeong Noh, Le Van Phan, Ji Hyung Kim, Daesub Song, Woonsung Na, Aram Kang, Thi Lan Nguyen, Jeong-Hwa Shin, Dae Gwin Jeong, Sun-Woo Yoon
In Korea, H5-subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused huge economic losses in poultry farms through outbreaks of H5N1 since 2003, H5N8 since 2013 and H5N6 since 2016. Although it was reported that long-distance migratory birds may play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), transmission from such birds to poultry has not been confirmed. Intermediate hosts in the wild also may be a potential factor in viral transmission. Therefore, a total of 367 serum samples from wild animals were collected near major migratory bird habitats from 2011 to 2016 and tested by AIV-specific blocking ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test...
December 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201151/complete-genome-sequences-of-clostridium-perfringens-del1-strain-isolated-from-chickens-affected-by-necrotic-enteritis
#6
Charles Li, Xianghe Yan, Hyun S Lillehoj
Background: Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature. It is a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. As the primary etiological agent of gas gangrene, necrosis and bacteremia, C. perfringens causes food poisoning, necrotic enteritis (NE), and even death. Epidemiology research has indicated that the increasing incidence of NE in poultry is associated with the withdrawal of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production in response to government regulations...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198219/unravelling-the-physical-technological-and-economic-factors-driving-the-intensification-trajectories-of-livestock-systems
#7
J P Domingues, J Ryschawy, T Bonaudo, B Gabrielle, M Tichit
Over the past 100 years, the French livestock sector has experienced significant intensification that has occurred in different ways across the country. Specifically, France has changed from a homogeneous state with most of the agricultural area covered by grasslands and a uniform distribution of animals, to a heterogeneous state characterised by an uneven distribution of grasslands, livestock numbers and livestock species. Studying the dynamics of this change is fundamental to the identification of drivers that shaped the various intensification trajectories and led to these different states, as well as to the prediction of future changes...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197422/the-acaricidal-speed-of-kill-of-orally-administered-fluralaner-against-poultry-red-mites-dermanyssus-gallinae-on-laying-hens-and-its-impact-on-mite-reproduction
#8
Maria D Brauneis, Hartmut Zoller, Heike Williams, Eva Zschiesche, Anja R Heckeroth
BACKGROUND: Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is a growing threat to chickens in poultry farms. This nocturnal hematophagous ectoparasite has a rapid rate of proliferation with a negative impact on the birds' health, welfare and productivity resulting in severe economic consequences for poultry farmers. A study was performed with fluralaner, a novel systemic ectoparasiticide, to evaluate its effect on mite vitality and reproduction after oral administration to laying hens. METHODS: Sixteen healthy hens were randomly allocated to two study groups (n = 8)...
December 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187195/prevalence-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-risk-factors-associated-with-non-typhoidal-salmonella-on-ugandan-layer-hen-farms
#9
Terence Odoch, Yngvild Wasteson, Trine L'Abée-Lund, Adrian Muwonge, Clovice Kankya, Luke Nyakarahuka, Sarah Tegule, Eystein Skjerve
BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are among the leading global foodborne pathogens and a significant public health threat. Their occurrence in animal reservoirs and their susceptibilities to commonly used antimicrobials are poorly understood in developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, determine antimicrobial susceptibility and identify risk factors associated with NTS presence in laying hen farms in Uganda through a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Pooled faecal samples were collected from 237 laying hen farms and these were analysed for NTS following standard laboratory procedures...
November 29, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185219/study-on-the-pollution-status-and-control-measures-for-the-livestock-and-poultry-breeding-industry-in-northeastern-china
#10
Hanxi Wang, Jianling Xu, Xuejun Liu, Lianxi Sheng, Di Zhang, Longwei Li, Aixia Wang
Livestock and poultry breeding industry is one of the main economic pillars of northeastern China. However, the amount of pollutants produced is much higher than that in other parts of China. Through a questionnaire survey, indoor experiment, and outdoor experiment, it was found that the resource utilization rate of livestock and poultry manure in the northeastern region is low, with the pollution of livestock and poultry breeding mainly including air and water pollution. The alarm level of cultivated land and manure is II...
November 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184365/public-health-concerns-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-endemicity-in-africa
#11
REVIEW
Olubunmi Gabriel Fasanmi, Ismail Ayoade Odetokun, Fatima Adeola Balogun, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 was first officially reported in Africa in 2006; thereafter this virus has spread rapidly from Nigeria to 11 other African countries. This study was aimed at utilizing data from confirmed laboratory reports to carry out a qualitative evaluation of the factors responsible for HPAI H5N1 persistence in Africa and the public health implications; and to suggest appropriate control measures. Relevant publications were sought from data banks and repositories of FAO, OIE, WHO, and Google scholars...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184157/genetic-evolution-of-influenza-h9n2-viruses-isolated-from-various-hosts-in-china-from-1994-to-2013
#12
Chong Li, Shuoguo Wang, Guoxia Bing, Robert A Carter, Zejiang Wang, Jinliang Wang, Chenxi Wang, Lan Wang, Gang Wu, Robert G Webster, Yongqiang Wang, Honglei Sun, Yipeng Sun, Jinhua Liu, Juan Pu
Influenza H9N2 subtype viruses and their reassortants (such as H7N9) are posing increasing threats to birds and humans in China. During 2009-2013, multiple novel subtype viruses with H9N2 original genes emerged in China. Yet, the genetic evolution of H9N2 viruses in various host organisms in China has not been systematically investigated since 2009. In the present study, we performed large-scale sequence analysis of H9N2 viral genomes from public databases, representing the spectrum of viruses isolated from birds, mammals and humans in China from 1994 to 2013, and updated the clade classification for each segment...
November 29, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178629/analysis-of-emerging-organic-contaminants-in-poultry-manure-by-gc-ms-ms
#13
Ramón Aznar, Beatriz Albero, Rosa Ana Pérez, Consuelo Sánchez-Brunete, Esther Miguel, José L Tadeo
A multiresidue method was developed for the determination of 19 emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products and bisphenol A) in poultry manure. Lyophilized samples of manure were extracted by ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion and the extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry after derivatization. Analysis of spiked poultry manure samples, at levels ranging from 25 to 150 ng g-1 , gave satisfactory recovery results for all the compounds, with values from 67 to 106 %...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173593/molecular-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-salmonella-gallinarum-trace-the-origin-and-diversification-of-recent-outbreaks-of-fowl-typhoid-in-poultry-farms
#14
Silvia De Carli, Tiago Gräf, Diéssy Kipper, Fernanda Kieling Moreira Lehmann, Nathalie Zanetti, Franciele Maboni Siqueira, Samuel Cibulski, André Salvador Kazantzi Fonseca, Nilo Ikuta, Vagner Ricardo Lunge
Fowl typhoid (FT) and pullorum disease (PD) are two important poultry infections caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum). S. Gallinarum strains are adapted to birds and classified into biovars Gallinarum (bvGA) and Pullorum (bvPU) as they are the causative agent of FT and PD, respectively. In Brazil, FT/PD outbreaks have been reported along the last 50 years, but there was a recent increase of FT field reports with the suspicion it could be due to virulence reversion of the attenuated live vaccine SG9R...
December 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170494/phosphate-solubilizing-bacteria-nullify-the-antagonistic-effect-of-soil-calcification-on-bioavailability-of-phosphorus-in-alkaline-soils
#15
Muhammad Adnan, Zahir Shah, Shah Fahad, Muhamamd Arif, Mukhtar Alam, Imtiaz Ali Khan, Ishaq Ahmad Mian, Abdul Basir, Hidayat Ullah, Muhammad Arshad, Inayat-Ur- Rehman, Shah Saud, Muhammad Zahid Ihsan, Yousaf Jamal, Amanullah, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Wajid Nasim
Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) reduce the negative effects of soil calcification on soil phosphorus (P) nutrition. In this incubation study, we explored the ability of PSB (control and inoculated) to release P from different P sources [single super phosphate (SSP), rock phosphate (RP), poultry manure (PM) and farm yard manure (FYM)] with various soil lime contents (4.78, 10, 15 and 20%) in alkaline soil. PSB inoculation progressively enriched Olsen extractable P from all sources compared to the control over the course of 56 days; however, this increase was greater from organic sources (PM and FYM) than from mineral P sources (SSP and RP)...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166389/comparisons-of-management-practices-and-farm-design-on-australian-commercial-layer-and-meat-chicken-farms-cage-barn-and-free-range
#16
Angela Bullanday Scott, Mini Singh, Jenny-Ann Toribio, Marta Hernandez-Jover, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Lee, Peter Groves
There are few published studies describing the unique management practices, farm design and housing characteristics of commercial meat chicken and layer farms in Australia. In particular, there has been a large expansion of free range poultry production in Australia in recent years, but limited information about this enterprise exists. This study aimed to describe features of Australian commercial chicken farms, with particular interest in free range farms, by conducting on-farm interviews of 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164137/urban-livestock-keeping-in-the-city-of-nairobi-diversity-of-production-systems-supply-chains-and-their-disease-management-and-risks
#17
Pablo Alarcon, Eric M Fèvre, Patrick Muinde, Maurice K Murungi, Stella Kiambi, James Akoko, Jonathan Rushton
Urban livestock keeping in developing cities have an important role in food security and livelihoods but can also pose a significant threat to the environment and health of urban dwellers. The aim of this study was to identify the different livestock systems in Nairobi, their supply chains, and their management and food safety risks. Seven focus group discussions with livestock production officers in charge of each major Nairobi sub-county were conducted. Data were collected on the type of systems existing for each livestock species and their supply chains, disease management, food safety risks, and general husbandry and gender factors...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157369/risk-factors-associated-with-the-a2c-resistance-pattern-among-e-coli-isolates-from-broiler-flocks-in-canada
#18
Niamh Caffrey, Omid Nekouei, Sheryl Gow, Agnes Agunos, Sylvia Checkley
The extra-label use of ceftiofur in Canadian hatcheries was cause for concern due to an increased prevalence of ceftiofur resistant Salmonella Heidelberg in chickens and humans in Québec. Due to on-going concerns related to human health the use of ceftiofur was eventually phased out of the poultry production industry in 2014-2015. Simultaneous resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur and cefoxitin, a pattern known as A2C, caused by the presence of blaCMY-2 has become increasingly prevalent in broiler flocks worldwide...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152884/economic-impacts-of-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-kerala-india
#19
G Govindaraj, R Sridevi, S N Nandakumar, R Vineet, P Rajeev, M K Binu, V Balamurugan, H Rahman
This study assessed the short-run impact to poultry farmers, duck hatcheries, control costs, compensation paid to stakeholders (transfer payments) and market reactions on own and substitute product prices and backwater tourism (boat operators) due to avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in Kuttanad region of Kerala, India, during 2014. The primary data from 91 poultry farms (duck farms, broiler chicken and backyard poultry), four hatcheries and 90 backwater boat owners were collected through pre-tested schedules...
November 19, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151896/genotypic-diversity-antimicrobial-resistance-and-biofilm-forming-abilities-of-campylobacter-isolated-from-chicken-in-central-china
#20
Tengfei Zhang, Jun Dong, Yiluo Cheng, Qin Lu, Qingping Luo, Guoyuan Wen, Guoping Liu, Huabin Shao
Background: Campylobacter is considered to be the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis, of which poultry is the main reservoir. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products are a major cause of human Campylobacter infection. In this study, the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken in central China was investigated, and the genotypic diversity, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm of these isolates were characterized. Results: A total of 206 Campylobacter isolates, including 166 C...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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