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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339966/operational-challenges-and-opportunities-in-pastured-poultry-operations-in-the-united-states
#1
C Elkhoraibi, M Pitesky, N Dailey, D Niemeier
As pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a growing need for research and outreach efforts aimed at this sector of poultry production. In order to get familiarized with American pastured poultry producers, we conducted an online questionnaire aimed primarily at evaluating what operational challenges are faced by producers and what educational opportunities should be initiated by researchers. Results showed that pastured poultry farms largely vary in total number of acres farmed and total number of birds kept...
March 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339787/molecular-characterization-of-marek-s-disease-virus-in-a-poultry-layer-farm-from-colombia
#2
Sara López-Osorio, Diego Piedrahita, Maria A Espinal-Restrepo, Gloria C Ramírez-Nieto, Venugopal Nair, Susan M Williams, Susan Baigent, César Ventura-Polite, Diego A Aranzazu-Taborda, Jenny J Chaparro-Gutiérrez
Marek's disease ( ) is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by an Alphaherpesvirus, genus Mardivirus , serotype 1 ( Gallid Herpesvirus 2 , GaHV-2) that includes all known pathogenic strains. In addition to Marek's disease virus ( ) serotype 1, the genus includes 2 distinct nonpathogenic serotypes: serotype 2 (GaHV-3) and serotype 3 ( Meleagridis Herpesvirus 1 , MeHV-1) which are used in commercially available vaccines against MD. As a result of vaccination, clinical signs are not commonly observed, and new cases are usually associated with emerging variant strains against which the vaccines are less effective...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339722/prevalence-and-drug-resistance-of-avian-eimeria-species-in-broiler-chicken-farms-of-zhejiang-province-china
#3
L-H Lan, B-B Sun, B-X-Z Zuo, X-Q Chen, A-F Du
In this study, coccidia were isolated and identified from 5 main poultry farms located in Zhejiang province, eastern China. The overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 30.7% (95 of 310). Five common species were observed: E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. necatrix, and E. mitis. Two isolates (HZ and QZ) were tested for sensitivity to 8 anticoccidial drugs using 4 indexes including anticoccidial index (ACI), percent of optimum anticoccidial activity (POAA), reduction of lesion scores (RLS), and relative oocyst production (ROP): sulfachloropyrazine, toltrazuril, diclazuril, sulfamonomethoxine/trimethoprim, and amprolium; sulfaquinoxaline/sulfadimethoxine, nicarbazin, and halofuginone...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339716/prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-diversity-of-campylobacter-coli-and-campylobacter-jejuni-in-ecuadorian-broilers-at-slaughter-age
#4
Christian Vinueza-Burgos, Magali Wautier, Delphine Martiny, Marco Cisneros, Inge Van Damme, Lieven De Zutter
Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are a major cause of foodborne gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The linkage of human campylobacteriosis and poultry has been widely described. In this study we aimed to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of C. coli and C. jejuni in broilers from Ecuador. Caecal content from 379 randomly selected broiler batches originating from 115 farms were collected from 6 slaughterhouses located in the province of Pichincha during 1 year. Microbiological isolation was performed by direct plating on mCCDA agar...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338786/recombination-mediated-host-adaptation-by-avian-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Susan Murray, Ben Pascoe, Guillaume Méric, Leonardos Mageiros, Koji Yahara, Matthew D Hitchings, Yasmin Friedmann, Thomas S Wilkinson, Fraser J Gormley, Dietrich Mack, James E Bray, Sarah Lamble, Rory Bowden, Keith A Jolley, Martin C J Maiden, Sarah Wendlandt, Stefan Schwarz, Jukka Corander, J Ross Fitzgerald, Samuel K Sheppard
Staphylococcus aureus are globally disseminated among farmed chickens causing skeletal muscle infections, dermatitis and septicaemia. The emergence of poultry-associated lineages has involved zoonotic transmission from humans to chickens but questions remain about the specific adaptations that promote proliferation of chicken pathogens. We characterised genetic variation in a population of genome-sequenced S. aureus isolates of poultry and human origin. Genealogical analysis identified a dominant poultry-associated sequence cluster within the CC5 clonal complex...
February 28, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332638/water-quality-in-turkey-farms-in-khemisset-morocco-and-potential-risk-factors
#6
A El Allaoui, F Rhazi Filali, A Derouich
The objectives of this study were to assess the microbiological and physical/chemical quality of water in broiler turkey farms in the province of Khemisset (north-western Morocco) and, based on a questionnaire, to ascertain potential risk factors for contamination of drinking water with faecal coliforms. A total of 80 samples were collected and analysed in 20 farms (four from each farm). At the main inlet to the water line at the entrance to each turkey house, 100% of the samples were of unacceptable quality in terms of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci, sulphitereducing anaerobes and enterococci...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325494/modelling-h5n1-in-bangladesh-across-spatial-scales-model-complexity-and-zoonotic-transmission-risk
#7
Edward M Hill, Thomas House, Madhur S Dhingra, Wantanee Kalpravidh, Subhash Morzaria, Muzaffar G Osmani, Mat Yamage, Xiangming Xiao, Marius Gilbert, Michael J Tildesley
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a persistent public health threat, capable of causing infection in humans with a high mortality rate while simultaneously negatively impacting the livestock industry. A central question is to determine regions that are likely sources of newly emerging influenza strains with pandemic causing potential. A suitable candidate is Bangladesh, being one of the most densely populated countries in the world and having an intensifying farming system. It is therefore vital to establish the key factors, specific to Bangladesh, that enable both continued transmission within poultry and spillover across the human-animal interface...
February 21, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316230/phylogeographical-characterization-of-h5n8-viruses-isolated-from-poultry-and-wild-birds-during-2014-2016-in-south-korea
#8
Byung-Min Song, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Yu-Na Lee, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Hee-Soo Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee
During 2014–2016 HPAI outbreak in South Korea, H5N8 viruses have been mostly isolated in western areas of the country, which provide wintering habitats for wild birds and have a high density of poultry. Analysis of a total of 101 Korean isolates revealed that primitive H5N8 viruses (C0 group) have evolved into multiple genetic subgroups appearing from various epidemiological sources, namely, the viruses circulating in poultry farms (C1 and C5) and those reintroduced by migratory birds in late 2014 (C2 and C4)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299287/low-prevalence-of-salmonella-enterica-in-cull-dairy-cattle-at-slaughter-in-northern-italy
#9
Silvia Bonardi, Ilaria Bruini, Rossella Magnani, Nicolò Cannistrà, Franco Brindani
In order to evaluate Salmonella carrier status of cull dairy cattle at slaughter, 125 animals were randomly selected during the period February-May 2016. Dairy cows were reared in 89 farms located in two regions of Northern Italy (Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions), where bovine milk is primarily used for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese and Grana Padano cheese production. Samples were collected by swabbing a 400-cm(2) area of the brisket hide and by rectoanal mucosal swabs. They were tested following the reference ISO 6579 method and the isolates were serotyped following the Kauffmann-White-Le Minor scheme and genotyped by XbaI PFGE...
January 24, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292308/surveillance-of-avian-influenza-viruses-in-south-korea-between-2012-and-2014
#10
Eun-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Mi Kang, Byung-Min Song, Yu-Na Lee, Gyeong-Beum Heo, Hee-Soo Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee, Jae-Hong Kim
BACKGROUND: National surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in South Korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of AIV and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. In this study, we report on a nationwide surveillance study of AIV in domestic poultry and wild birds in South Korea between 2012 and 2014. METHODS: During the surveillance programs between 2012 and 2014, 141,560 samples were collected. Of these, 102,199 were from poultry farms, 8215 were from LBMs, and 31,146 were from wild bird habitats...
March 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289988/biosecurity-conditions-in-small-commercial-chicken-farms-bangladesh-2011-2012
#11
N A Rimi, R Sultana, M Muhsina, B Uddin, N Haider, N Nahar, N Zeidner, K Sturm-Ramirez, S P Luby
In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers' perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in-depth interviews and group discussions with poultry farmers in 16 farms and in-depth interviews with seven local feed vendors from two districts. None of the farms were completely segregated from people, backyard poultry, other animals, households, other poultry farms or large trees...
March 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282226/a-quantitative-real-time-pcr-approach-for-assessing-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-colonization-in-broiler-herds
#12
Katrin Haas, Gudrun Overesch, Peter Kuhnert
Human campylobacteriosis is a major public health concern in developed countries, with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry recognized as the main source of human infection. Identification of Campylobacter-positive broiler herds before slaughter is essential for implementing measures to avoid carryover of pathogens via the slaughter process into the food chain. However, appropriate methods that have been validated for testing poultry flocks antemortem are lacking for Campylobacter. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) that allows simultaneous detection and quantification of C...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278292/salmonella-serovars-and-their-distribution-in-nigerian-commercial-chicken-layer-farms
#13
Idowu Oluwabunmi Fagbamila, Lisa Barco, Marzia Mancin, Jacob Kwaga, Sati Samuel Ngulukun, Paola Zavagnin, Antonia Anna Lettini, Monica Lorenzetto, Paul Ayuba Abdu, Junaidu Kabir, Jarlath Umoh, Antonia Ricci, Maryam Muhammad
Commercial poultry farms (n° 523), located in all the six regions of Nigeria were sampled with a view to generate baseline information about the distribution of Salmonella serovars in this country. Five different matrices (litter, dust, faeces, feed and water) were collected from each visited farm. Salmonella was isolated from at least one of the five matrices in 228 farms, with a farm prevalence of 43.6% (CI95[39.7-48.3%]). Altogether, 370 of 2615 samples collected (14.1%, CI95[12.8; 15.5%]) contained Salmonella...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278281/discordant-detection-of-avian-influenza-virus-subtypes-in-time-and-space-between-poultry-and-wild-birds-towards-improvement-of-surveillance-programs
#14
Josanne H Verhagen, Pascal Lexmond, Oanh Vuong, Martin Schutten, Judith Guldemeester, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Armin R W Elbers, Roy Slaterus, Menno Hornman, Guus Koch, Ron A M Fouchier
Avian influenza viruses from wild birds can cause outbreaks in poultry, and occasionally infect humans upon exposure to infected poultry. Identification and characterization of viral reservoirs and transmission routes is important to develop strategies that prevent infection of poultry, and subsequently virus transmission between poultry holdings and to humans. Based on spatial, temporal and phylogenetic analyses of data generated as part of intense and large-scale influenza surveillance programs in wild birds and poultry in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2011, we demonstrate that LPAIV subtype distribution differed between wild birds and poultry, suggestive of host-range restrictions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278170/rapid-on-line-detection-and-grading-of-wooden-breast-myopathy-in-chicken-fillets-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#15
Jens Petter Wold, Eva Veiseth-Kent, Vibeke Høst, Atle Løvland
The main objective of this work was to develop a method for rapid and non-destructive detection and grading of wooden breast (WB) syndrome in chicken breast fillets. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was chosen as detection method, and an industrial NIR scanner was applied and tested for large scale on-line detection of the syndrome. Two approaches were evaluated for discrimination of WB fillets: 1) Linear discriminant analysis based on NIR spectra only, and 2) a regression model for protein was made based on NIR spectra and the estimated concentrations of protein were used for discrimination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277792/estimation-of-ochratoxin-a-in-poultry-feed-and-its-ingredients-with-special-reference-to-temperature-conditions
#16
Z Abidin, A Khatoon, N Arooj, S Hussain, S Ali, A W Manzoor, M K Saleemi
1. The present study was designed to analyse ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feed samples (mixed types) along with different poultry feed ingredients collected from different farms and market of Lahore, Pakistan. 2. The whole year (2012-2013) was divided into three sub-periods depending upon environmental conditions, that is, July-October (hot and humid), November-February (winter) and March-June (moderate). During each sub-period 120 samples were collected for each feed and each ingredient constituting a total of 840 samples (120x7 of feed and feed ingredients in each sub-period)...
March 23, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277779/further-investigations-on-the-epidemiology-of-fowl-typhoid-in-brazil
#17
Anny Lucia Del Pilar Celis-Estupiñan, Diego Felipe Alves Batista, Marita Vedovelli Cardozo, Andrei Itajahy Secundo de Souza, Lucas Bocchini Rodrigues Alves, Adriana Maria de Almeida, Paul Andrew Barrow, Angelo Berchieri, Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto
Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) causes fowl typhoid (FT), a disease responsible for economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. FT has been considered under control in Brazil; nevertheless, since 2012 it has frequently been identified in poultry farming of several Brazilian states. The present study was aimed at assessing: (i) the pathogenicity of a SG strain recently isolated from an FT outbreak affecting chickens of both white and brown layers; (ii) the transmission of SG through eggs and hatching; (iii) the effects of antibiotic therapy on SG persistence in poultry tissues and on its vertical transmission; (iv) the genetic profiles of strains isolated over 27 years by PFGE...
March 1, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277218/emerging-highly-pathogenic-h5-avian-influenza-viruses-in-france-during-winter-2015-16-phylogenetic-analyses-and-markers-for-zoonotic-potential
#18
François-Xavier Briand, Audrey Schmitz, Katell Ogor, Aurélie Le Prioux, Cécile Guillou-Cloarec, Carole Guillemoto, Chantal Allée, Marie-Odile Le Bras, Edouard Hirchaud, Hélène Quenault, Fabrice Touzain, Martine Cherbonnel-Pansart, Evelyne Lemaitre, Céline Courtillon, Hélène Gares, Patrick Daniel, Alexandre Fediaevsky, Pascale Massin, Yannick Blanchard, Nicolas Eterradossi, Sylvie van der Werf, Véronique Jestin, Eric Niqueux
Several new highly pathogenic (HP) H5 avian influenza virus (AIV) have been detected in poultry farms from south-western France since November 2015, among which an HP H5N1. The zoonotic potential and origin of these AIVs immediately became matters of concern. One virus of each subtype H5N1 (150169a), H5N2 (150233) and H5N9 (150236) was characterised. All proved highly pathogenic for poultry as demonstrated molecularly by the presence of a polybasic cleavage site in their HA protein - with a sequence (HQRRKR/GLF) previously unknown among avian H5 HPAI viruses - or experimentally by the in vivo demonstration of an intravenous pathogenicity index of 2...
March 2, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270655/insight-into-live-bird-markets-of-bangladesh-an-overview-of-the-dynamics-of-transmission-of-h5n1-and-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses
#19
Jasmine C M Turner, Mohammed M Feeroz, M Kamrul Hasan, Sharmin Akhtar, David Walker, Patrick Seiler, Subrata Barman, John Franks, Lisa Jones-Engel, Pamela McKenzie, Scott Krauss, Richard J Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Robert G Webster
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have been recognized as threats to public health in Bangladesh since 2007. Although live bird markets (LBMs) have been implicated in the transmission, dissemination, and circulation of these viruses, an in-depth analysis of the dynamics of avian transmission of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses at the human-animal interface has been lacking. Here we present and evaluate epidemiological findings from active surveillance conducted among poultry in various production sectors in Bangladesh from 2008 to 2016...
March 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261951/susceptibility-to-disinfectants-in-antimicrobial-resistant-and-susceptible-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-from-poultry-esbl-ampc-phenotype-of-escherichia-coli-is-not-associated-with-resistance-to-a-quaternary-ammonium
#20
Nadine Wieland, Julia Boss, Sarah Lettmann, Barbara Fritz, Karin Schwaiger, Johann Bauer, Christina S Hölzel
AIMS: The spread of bacteria that are simultaneously resistant to disinfectants and antimicrobials would constitute an unsettling scenario. In order to explore an association between antimicrobial resistance and reduced susceptibility to biocides / microbicides like disinfectants in agriculture, we investigated Escherichia (E.) coli (n = 438) and enterococci (n = 120) isolated from six different flocks of the same poultry farm with known history of antimicrobial treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Susceptibility to disinfectants (formic acid and a quaternary ammonium compound, didecyldimethlyammoniumchloride - DDAC) was assessed by macrodilution (German Veterinary Society)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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