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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439741/antibiotic-mediated-changes-in-the-fecal-microbiome-of-broiler-chickens-define-the-incidence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#1
Wenguang Xiong, Yulin Wang, Yongxue Sun, Liping Ma, Qinglin Zeng, Xiaotao Jiang, Andong Li, Zhenling Zeng, Tong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial agents have been widely used in animal farms to prevent and treat animal diseases and to promote growth. Antimicrobial agents may change the bacterial community and enhance the resistome in animal feces. We used metagenome-wide analysis to investigate the changes in bacterial community, variations in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and their bacterial hosts in the feces of broiler chickens over a full-treatment course of chlortetracycline at low and therapeutic dose levels...
February 13, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438292/diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-genotypes-in-non-typhoidal-salmonella-isolates-from-poultry-farms-in-uganda
#2
Terence Odoch, Camilla Sekse, Trine M L'Abee-Lund, Helge Christoffer Høgberg Hansen, Clovice Kankya, Yngvild Wasteson
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are foodborne pathogens of global public health significance. The aim of this study was to subtype a collection of 85 NTS originating from poultry farms in Uganda, and to evaluate a subgroup of phenotypically resistant isolates for common antimicrobial resistance genes and associated integrons. All isolates were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Phenotypically resistant isolates ( n = 54) were screened by PCR for the most relevant AMR genes corresponding to their phenotypic resistance pattern, and all 54 isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of integron class 1 and 2 encoding genes...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435454/garbage-management-an-important-risk-factor-for-hpai-virus-infection-in-commercial-poultry-flocks
#3
Emily Walz, Eric Linskens, Jamie Umber, Marie Rene Culhane, David Halvorson, Francesca Contadini, Carol Cardona
Garbage management represents a potential pathway of HPAI-virus infection for commercial poultry operations as multiple poultry premises may share a common trash collection service provider, trash collection site (e.g., shared dumpster for multiple premises) or disposal site (e.g., landfill). The types of potentially infectious or contaminated material disposed of in the garbage has not been previously described but is suspected to vary by poultry industry sector. A survey of representatives from the broiler, turkey, and layer sectors in the United States revealed that many potentially contaminated or infectious items are routinely disposed of in the trash on commercial poultry premises...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430368/molecular-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-thermostable-keratinase-from-bacillus-altitudinis-rbdv1
#4
Vishakha A Pawar, Anil S Prajapati, Rekha C Akhani, Darshan H Patel, R B Subramanian
A thermostable keratinase designated as KBALT was purified from Bacillus altitudinis RBDV1 from a poultry farm in Gujarat, India. The molecular weight of the native KBALT (nKBALT) purified using ammonium sulfate and ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography with a 40% yield and 80-fold purification was estimated to be ~ 43 kDa. The gene for KBALT was successfully cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant KBALT (rKBALT) when purified using a single step Ni-NTA His affinity chromatography achieved a yield of 38...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427764/identification-and-characterization-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-determinants-in-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-healthy-poultry-in-brazil
#5
Joseane Cristina Ferreira, Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho, Ana Paula Yorika Kuaye, Leonardo Neves Andrade, Angelo Berchieri Junior, Ana Lúcia Costa Darini
The expression of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes confers low-level quinolone and fluoroquinolones resistance alone. However, the association to chromosomal resistance mechanisms determines an expressively higher resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. These mechanisms are horizontally disseminated within plasmids and have contributed to the emergence of bacteria with reduced susceptibility or resistant to therapies worldwide. The epidemiological characterization of PMQR dissemination is highly relevant in the scientific and medical context, to investigate the dissemination within enterobacteria, from different populations, including humans and food-producing animals...
February 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427711/complete-genome-sequence-and-pathogenicity-of-fowl-adenovirus-serotype-4-involved-in-hydropericardium-syndrome-in-southwest-china
#6
Ru Guan, Yiming Tian, Xiaoxiao Han, Xin Yang, Hongning Wang
Since 2015, an emerging infectious disease of inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome (IBH-HPS) has been occurred in China, which caused economic loss in poultry farming. In this study, we isolated four fowl adenovirus strains from flocks with an outbreak of HPS. The complete nucleotide sequence of SC-Neijiang was determined and its pathogenicity was evaluated. Phylogenetic analysis based on hexon gene revealed that all the isolates belonged to fowl adenovirus serotype 4. The full genome sequence of SC-Neijiang has a size of 43,719 bp, with 54...
February 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421359/emergence-of-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-cmy-2-producing-escherichia-coli-of-lineage-st2197-in-a-tunisian-poultry-farm
#7
Elaa Maamar, Carla Andrea Alonso, Zaineb Hamzaoui, Nouha Dakhli, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Sana Ferjani, Mabrouka Saidani, Ilhem Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Carmen Torres
Our study aimed to investigate colistin resistance and the mechanisms involved in a collection of 35 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and 13 CMY-2-producing E. coli strains which were previously recovered from chicken gut microbiota in Tunisia, as well as to determine the genetic location of mcr genes. Forty-eight ESBL and CMY-2-producing E. coli strains were obtained from 137 fecal samples of healthy chickens during 2013. These strains were tested for colistin resistance by the broth microdilution method, and screened for mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes by PCR...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417605/efficacy-of-a-novel-neem-oil-formulation-rp03%C3%A2-to-control-the-poultry-red-mite-dermanyssus-gallinae
#8
A Camarda, N Pugliese, A Bevilacqua, E Circella, L Gradoni, D George, O Sparagano, A Giangaspero
Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae) is the most harmful ectoparasite of laying hens, represents an occupational hazard for poultry workers, and a growing threat to medical science per se. There is increasing demand for alternative products, including plant-derived acaricides, with which to control the mite. The present study investigated the efficacy of neem oil against D. gallinae on a heavily infested commercial laying hen farm. A novel formulation of 20% neem oil, diluted from a 2400-p.p...
February 8, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406083/a-targeted-investigation-to-demonstrate-the-freedom-of-west-timor-from-hpai-h5n1
#9
Petrus Malo Bulu, Ian D Robertson, Maria Geong
In early 2004 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus caused major outbreaks of disease in poultry in Indonesia. The disease was first reported in West Timor in eastern Indonesia in the same year, resulting in the death of approximately one hundred chickens from both commercial and backyard farms; however no evidence of disease has subsequently been reported in West Timor since 2007. A targeted survey was undertaken in 2013 in 2 districts of West Timor. Three hundred village and commercial poultry (292 chickens and 8 Muscovy ducks) from 10 villages and 5 live bird markets (LBMs) were sampled between August and October 2013...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403112/antibiotic-use-in-poultry-a-survey-of-eight-farms-in-thailand
#10
Gumphol Wongsuvan, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Soawapak Hinjoy, Nicholas Pj Day, Direk Limmathurotsakul
Objective: To investigate antibiotic use in poultry farms in Thailand and estimate the total amount of antibiotics used annually in Thai production of chicken meat. Methods: In a single province, we surveyed eight farms in which chickens were raised for meat and interviewed the farms' owners in 2016. The antibiotic use for each chicken was defined as the amount of antibiotic given to the chicken over its entire lifetime divided by the target weight of the chicken at the time of its slaughter...
February 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393019/increased-productivity-in-poultry-birds-by-sub-lethal-dose-of-antibiotics-is-arbitrated-by-selective-enrichment-of-gut-microbiota-particularly-short-chain-fatty-acid-producers
#11
Sohini Banerjee, Abhijit Sar, Arijit Misra, Srikanta Pal, Arindom Chakraborty, Bomba Dam
Antibiotics are widely used at sub-lethal concentrations as a feed supplement to enhance poultry productivity. To understand antibiotic-induced temporal changes in the structure and function of gut microbiota of chicken, two flocks were maintained for six weeks on a carbohydrate- and protein-rich diet. The feed in the conventional diet (CD) group was supplemented with sub-lethal doses of chlorotetracycline, virginiamycin and amoxicillin, while the organic diet (OD) had no such addition. Antibiotic-fed birds were more productive, with a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR)...
February 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391685/prophylactic-and-immune-modulatory-influences-of-nigella-sativa-linn-in-broilers-exposed-to-biological-challenge
#12
Essam S Soliman, Rania T Hamad, Amira Ahmed
Background and Aim: Prophylaxis and disease prevention is an essential strategy among biorisk management in poultry farms that stimulate and maintain the birds' immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prophylactic, and immune-stimulant influence of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers under biological stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 1-day-old (ross) chicks were divided into 5 groups; four of which were supplemented with 1.4%, 2.8%, 4.2%, and 5...
December 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388488/feasibility-of-biogas-and-energy-generation-from-poultry-manure-in-brazil
#13
Eruin M Ribeiro, Regina Mambeli Barros, Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Ivan Felipe S Dos Santos, Luma C Sampaio, Ticiane V Dos Santos, Fernando dGB da Silva, Ana Paula M Silva, João Victor R de Freitas
The aim of the present study is to experimentally measure the volume and composition of biogas produced from the anaerobic biodigestion of laying-hen manure from poultry farms in Itanhandu-MG, Brazil, so that the biogas can be used to generate energy. Two experiments (E1 and E2) were used to characterise the biogas quantities and compositions at room temperature and at a controlled temperature of 36 °C, respectively. The biogas production and calculated net power from the exploitation of biogas energy were compared with the results obtained from methods proposed by the Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo (CETESB, an acronym in Portuguese) using the 'Biogas: Generation and energy use - effluent and rural waste' software 1...
January 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386074/helminth-community-from-azara-s-grass-mouse-akodon-azarae-in-three-habitats-with-different-land-use-in-farming-systems-of-argentina
#14
M H Miño, E J Rojas Herrera, J Notarnicola, K Hodara
In the Pampa region of Argentina, farming activities have been performed since the beginning of the 20th century, but in the 1990s, land-use patterns rapidly changed towards intensive agriculture and poultry breeding. This study compares the helminth community of Akodon azarae (Rodentia) among three habitats with different land use in pampean agroecosystems: poultry farms, mono-cultivated fields and abandoned fields (not used for 35 years), under the prediction that there will be greater helminth richness and diversity in mice from abandoned fields compared to those from the other habitats...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385158/identification-of-high-risk-areas-for-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-california-using-disease-distribution-models
#15
Jaber Belkhiria, Robert J Hijmans, Walter Boyce, Beate M Crossley, Beatriz Martínez-López
The coexistence of different types of poultry operations such as free range and backyard flocks, large commercial indoor farms and live bird markets, as well as the presence of many areas where wild and domestic birds co-exist, make California susceptible to avian influenza outbreaks. The 2014-2015 highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) outbreaks affecting California and other states in the United States have underscored the need for solutions to protect the US poultry industry against this devastating disease...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382414/local-amplification-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8-viruses-in-wild-birds-in-the-netherlands-2016-to-2017
#16
Marjolein J Poen, Theo M Bestebroer, Oanh Vuong, Rachel D Scheuer, Henk P van der Jeugd, Erik Kleyheeg, Dirk Eggink, Pascal Lexmond, Judith M A van den Brand, Lineke Begeman, Stefan van der Vliet, Gerhard J D M Müskens, Frank A Majoor, Marion P G Koopmans, Thijs Kuiken, Ron A M Fouchier
IntroductionHighly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N8 were re-introduced into the Netherlands by late 2016, after detections in south-east Asia and Russia. This second H5N8 wave resulted in a large number of outbreaks in poultry farms and the deaths of large numbers of wild birds in multiple European countries. Methods: Here we report on the detection of HPAI H5N8 virus in 57 wild birds of 12 species sampled during active (32/5,167) and passive (25/36) surveillance activities, i.e. in healthy and dead animals respectively, in the Netherlands between 8 November 2016 and 31 March 2017...
January 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368637/global-avian-influenza-outbreaks-2010-2016-a-systematic-review-of-their-distribution-avian-species-and-virus-subtype
#17
Ioanna P Chatziprodromidou, Malamatenia Arvanitidou, Javier Guitian, Thomas Apostolou, George Vantarakis, Apostolos Vantarakis
BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review to investigate avian influenza outbreaks and to explore their distribution, upon avian influenza subtype, country, avian species and other relating details as no comprehensive epidemiological analysis of global avian influenza outbreaks from 2010 to 2016 exists. METHODS: Data was collated from four databases (Scopus, Web of Science Core Correlation, PubMed and SpringerLink electronic journal) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED mail), using PRISMA and ORION systematic approaches...
January 25, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366472/the-use-of-social-network-analysis-to-examine-the-transmission-of-salmonella-spp-within-a-vertically-integrated-broiler-enterprise
#18
Helen Kathleen Crabb, Joanne Lee Allen, Joanne Maree Devlin, Simon Matthew Firestone, Mark Anthony Stevenson, James Rudkin Gilkerson
To better understand factors influencing infectious agent dispersal within a livestock population information is needed on the nature and frequency of contacts between farm enterprises. This study uses social network analysis to describe the contact network within a vertically integrated broiler poultry enterprise to identify the potential horizontal and vertical transmission pathways for Salmonella spp. Nodes (farms, sheds, production facilities) were identified and the daily movement of commodities (eggs, birds, feed, litter) and people between nodes were extracted from routinely kept farm records...
May 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361806/molecular-identification-of-eimeria-species-in-broiler-chickens-in-trinidad-west-indies
#19
Arianne Brown Jordan, Damer Blake, Jamila Beard, Asha Beharry, Louanne Serrette, Atlyn Soleyn, Jamie Sookhoo, Lemar Blake, Gabriel Brown, Christopher Oura
Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease of chickens of major economic importance to broiler industries worldwide. Species of coccidia found in chickens include Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella. In recent years, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed to provide accurate and rapid identification of the seven known Eimeria species of chickens. The aim of this study was to use species-specific real-time PCR (qPCR) to identify which of the seven Eimeria species are present in Trinidad poultry...
January 22, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361703/detection-of-antibodies-to-seven-priority-pathogens-in-backyard-poultry-in-trinidad-west-indies
#20
Arianne Brown Jordan, Pompei Bolfa, Silvia Marchi, Shakera Hemmings, Tashard Major, Rod Suepaul, Lemar Blake, Christopher Oura
Backyard poultry farms in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) play a vital role in providing food and income for rural communities. There is currently no information on the presence and circulation of pathogens in backyard poultry farms in T&T, and little is known in relation to the potential risks of spread of these pathogens to the commercial poultry sector. In order to address this, serum samples were collected from 41 chickens on five backyard farms taken from selected locations in Trinidad. Samples were tested for antibodies to seven priority pathogens of poultry by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 20, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
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