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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902917/coccidiosis-in-the-chukar-partridge-alectoris-chukar-a-survey-of-coccidiosis-outbreaks-and-a-test-of-anticoccidial-drugs-against-eimeria-kofoidi
#1
R W Gerhold, A L Fuller, L R McDougald
Field isolates of coccidia from 20 natural outbreaks in the chukar partridge ( Alectoris chukar ) were received from gamebird farms in 10 U.S. states. These were propagated in the laboratory and identified by microscopy and PCR. Of 20 samples, 18 were Eimeria kofoidi, two were Eimeria legionensis only, and one was a mixture of the two species. One isolate of E. kofoidi also contained an unidentified species detected only by PCR, nucleotide sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against chukar coccidia was tested with experimental infections in battery cages...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902910/recombinant-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-virus-h5-expressed-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-chickens
#2
Inkar Castellanos-Huerta, Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández, Guillermo Téllez, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Luis G Brieba, Elizabeth Esquivel-Ramos, Josué I Beltrán-López, Gilberto Velazquez, Isidro Fernandez-Siurob
Globally, avian influenza (AI) is a serious problem in poultry farming. Despite vaccination, the prevalence of AI in México highlights the need for new approaches to control AI and to reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. Recombinant proteins from avian influenza virus (AIV) have been expressed in different organisms, such as plants. The present study investigated the feasibility of designing and expressing the HA protein of AIV in the transplastomic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a novel approach for AIV control and taking advantage of culture conditions, its reproductive range, and safe use in consideration of the generally regarded as safe food ingredient regulatory classification...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902903/characterization-of-thai-mycoplasma-synoviae-isolates-by-sequence-analysis-of-partial-vlha-gene
#3
Kriengwich Limpavithayakul, Jiroj Sasipreeyajan, Somsak Pakpinyo
Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), a remarkable pathogen in poultry, causes subclinical infection of the upper respiratory tract and an infectious synovitis, especially in the tendon sheaths and synovial membranes of joints. Because the specific detection of MS 16S rRNA gene-based PCR was unsuitable for strain differentiation, vlhA gene-based PCR was designed to differentiate the MS strains. The vlhA gene of MS encodes for hemagglutinin and other immunodominant membrane proteins involved in colonization, antigenic variations, and virulence...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902899/endemic-variation-of-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-in-china
#4
Yu-Fu Liu, Han-Zhang Lai, Lin Li, Yu-Peng Liu, Wen-Yan Zhang, Ren Gao, Wen-Ke Huang, Qin-Fang Luo, Yan Gao, Qiong Luo, Xiao-Yu Xie, Jia-Hua Xu, Rui-Ai Chen
Forty-two H9N2 subtype AIV strains were isolated from vaccinated commercial chickens in China from 2012 to 2015. Their HA genes had nucleotide sequence homology from 86.7% to 99.7%, and similarity to the classic vaccine strain was 88.6%-92.6%. A comparison was carried out with published HA genes (410 H9 strains) and whole genomes (306 strains) isolated in China during 2012-2015. Interestingly, 99.1% (448/452) of Chinese H9N2 AIV belonged to lineage h9.4.2, and 98.5% (445/452) of the viruses belonged to h9.4...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902350/novel-reassortant-h9n2-viruses-in-pigeons-and-evidence-for-antigenic-diversity-of-h9n2-viruses-isolated-from-quails-in-egypt
#5
Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Asmaa Maatouq, Yassmin Moatasim, Zhipeng Cai, Pamela McKenzie, Richard Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed Ahmed Ali
The endemicity of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) among Egyptian poultry represents a public health risk. Co-circulation of low pathogenic AIV H9N2 subtype with highly pathogenic AIV H5N1 subtype in Egyptian farms potentiates the possibility to generate novel reassortant viruses. Herein, the genetic characteristics of surface glycoproteins of 59 Egyptian H9N2 viruses, isolated between 2013 and 2015, were analyzed. To elucidate the potential of genetic reassortment, 10 H9N2 isolates were selected based on different avian hosts (chickens, ducks, pigeons and quails) and conducted for phylogenetic analyses of full genome sequences...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897216/characterizations-of-h4-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-ducks-in-live-poultry-markets-and-farm-in-shanghai
#6
Ying Shi, Hongrui Cui, Junheng Wang, Qiuyan Chi, Xuesong Li, Qiaoyang Teng, Hongjun Chen, Jianmei Yang, Qinfang Liu, Zejun Li
H4 avian influenza virus is one of the most prevalent influenza virus subtypes in birds. The evolution and pathogenicity of H4 AIV in domestic birds of China remain largely unclear. In the present study, a total of eight H4 AIV strains isolated in duck farm and live poultry markets (LPM) were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains are divided into two groups in the Eurasian lineage. Eight genes of MH-2/H4N6 isolated from a duck farm were closely related to three H4N6 viruses from LPM, suggesting a potential AIV link between farms and LPMs...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887603/genetic-elements-associated-with-antimicrobial-resistance-among-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#7
Amal Awad, Nagah Arafat, Mohamed Elhadidy
BACKGROUND: Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most predominant bacterial disease affecting poultry worldwide called avian colibacillosis. This study describes the genetic determinants implicated in antimicrobial resistance among APEC isolated from different broiler farms in Egypt. METHODS: A total of 116 APEC were investigated by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance patterns to 10 antimicrobials, and the genetic mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes...
November 25, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886036/prevalence-assessment-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-salmonella-from-raw-chicken-eggs-in-haramaya-ethiopia
#8
Jelalu Kemal, Berhanu Sibhat, Sissay Menkir, Desta Beyene
INTRODUCTION: The presence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella in poultry and poultry products, including eggs, is a global public health concern. This study aimed to estimate the levels and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from chicken eggs and assess consumers' raw egg consumption and farmers' handling practices. METHODOLOGY: A total of 300 egg samples were collected from Haramaya open market (n = 150) and Haramaya University poultry farm (n = 150) in Ethiopia...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883255/genome-wide-association-of-functional-traits-linked-with-campylobacter-jejuni-survival-from-farm-to-fork
#9
Koji Yahara, Guillaume Méric, Aidan J Taylor, Stefan P W de Vries, Susan Murray, Ben Pascoe, Leonardos Mageiros, Alicia Torralbo, Ana Vidal, Anne Ridley, Sho Komukai, Helen Wimalarathna, Alison J Cody, Frances M Colles, Noel McCarthy, David Harris, James E Bray, Keith A Jolley, Martin C J Maiden, Stephen D Bentley, Julian Parkhill, Christopher D Bayliss, Andrew Grant, Duncan Maskell, Xavier Didelot, David J Kelly, Samuel K Sheppard
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, primarily associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry. C. jejuni lineages vary in host range and prevalence in human infection, suggesting differences in survival throughout the poultry processing chain. From 7,343 MLST-characterised isolates, we sequenced 600 C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from various stages of poultry processing and clinical cases. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) in C. jejuni ST-21 and ST-45 complexes identified genetic elements over-represented in clinical isolates that increased in frequency throughout the poultry processing chain...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876998/occurrence-of-knemidokoptes-mutans-and-laminosioptes-cysticola-in-backyard-poultry-in-india
#10
C Sreedevi, P Ramesh, P Mala Kondaiah, N Lakshmi Rani, M Abhishek
Birds reared in backyard poultry farming system are more prone to parasitic infestation resulting in economic losses to rural community. The present study reports occurrence of Knemidokoptes mutans and Laminosioptes cysticola mites in a male Aseel bird. Clinical signs observed in the affected bird include hyperkeratosis with whitish film layer on shank and hock region of legs. Focal areas of sloughing of skin with oozing of blood were also observed on the back and on the legs. Examination of skin scrapings from the affected sites revealed different developmental stages of Knemidokoptes mutans and Laminosioptes cysticola mites...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876951/prevalence-of-dermanyssus-and-ornithonyssus-species-of-mites-in-poultry-farms-of-vikarabad-area-of-hyderabad
#11
G S Sreenivasa Murthy, Rasmita Panda
The common blood feeder mites of poultry are from the genera Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production or sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on workers. They also cause anaemia in birds and play a vector role for several human and animal diseases. Five poultry farm buildings of Vikarabad area of Rangareddy district were visited. Samples were collected from a variety of sites, including beneath feed troughs, inside cage fittings and fastening clips, under egg conveyer belts and under manure belts...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876783/genetic-characterization-of-novel-fowl-aviadenovirus-4-isolates-from-outbreaks-of-hepatitis-hydropericardium-syndrome-in-broiler-chickens-in-china
#12
Yanke Liu, Wenyan Wan, Dongsheng Gao, Yongtao Li, Xia Yang, Hongying Liu, Huixia Yao, Lu Chen, Chuanqing Wang, Jun Zhao
Since May 2015, severe outbreaks of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) associated with infections of fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) have emerged in broiler chickens in several Chinese provinces. To identify the genotype and gain a better understanding of the genetic properties of the FAdV strains responsible for the recent HHS outbreaks in China, the complete genome sequences of five isolates from outbreaks of HHS in broiler chickens in five provinces were determined. The results demonstrated that a novel fowl aviadenovirus 4 (FAdV-4) genotype was epidemic in China...
November 23, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876611/re-emergence-of-amantadine-resistant-variants-among-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-viruses-in-egypt
#13
Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ola Bagato, Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Mostafa, Sara H Mahmoud, Hamdi M Hassanneen, Richard J Webby, Mohamed A Ali, Ghazi Kayali
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus continues to undergo substantial evolution. Emergence of antiviral resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses is a major challenge in the control of pandemic influenza. Numerous studies have focused on the genetic and evolutionary dynamics of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes; however, studies on the susceptibility of HPAI H5N1 viruses to amantadine and genetic diversity of the matrix (M) gene are limited. Accordingly, we studied the amantadine susceptibility of the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated in Egypt during 2006-2015 based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics...
October 29, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873564/effect-of-enhanced-biosecurity-and-selected-on-farm-factors-on-campylobacter-colonization-of-chicken-broilers
#14
M Georgiev, W Beauvais, J Guitian
Human campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial infection in the EU; poultry meat has been identified as the main source of infection. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced biosecurity and other factors such as welfare status, breed, the practice of partial depopulation and number of empty days between flocks may prevent Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization of poultry batches at high levels (>123 000 c.f.u./g in pooled caecal samples). We analysed data from 2314 poultry batches sampled at slaughter in the UK in 2011-2013...
November 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872721/the-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-2-fgfr2-in-differentiation-of-bovine-spermatogonial-stem-cells-scc
#15
Rahem Khoshbakht, Mohammad Tabatabaei, Saeid Hoseinzadeh, Mojtaba Mojtaba, Hesamaddin Shirzad Aski, Enayat Berizi
Although poultry meat is considered as the main source for human Campylobacter infections, there is limited information about non-poultry sources. The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fecal samples of the cattle and sheep in Shiraz, Iran. A total of 302 fecal samples were obtained from clinically healthy, slaughtered cattle and sheep from Shiraz slaughterhouse. The animals were clinically healthy before being slaughtered...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869522/current-aspects-of-salmonella-contamination-in-the-us-poultry-production-chain-and-the-potential-application-of-risk-strategies-in-understanding-emerging-hazards
#16
Kalavathy Rajan, Zhaohao Shi, Steven C Ricke
One of the leading causes of foodborne illness in poultry products is Salmonella enterica. Salmonella hazards in poultry may be estimated and possible control methods modeled and evaluated through the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) models and tools. From farm to table, there are many possible routes of Salmonella dissemination and contamination in poultry. From the time chicks are hatched through growth, transportation, processing, storage, preparation, and finally consumption, the product could be contaminated through exposure to different materials and sources...
November 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865271/bacterial-contamination-of-eggs-and-behaviour-of-poultry-flocks-in-the-free-range-environment
#17
Talia Moyle, Kelly Drake, Vaibhav Gole, Kapil Chousalkar, Susan Hazel
The free range production system is becoming more common in Australia and is expected to increase. Free range hens are exposed to more stressors in comparison to hens from barn and cage systems and it is suggested that stress can increase bacterial shedding on eggs. The aims of this study were to examine the level of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae populations, as well as the presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter, in eggs collected from two free range flocks on two different farms and to conduct longitudinal observations of the behaviour and welfare of hens in the free range production system...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857835/antibiotics-practice-and-opinions-of-cambodian-commercial-farmers-animal-feed-retailers-and-veterinarians
#18
Chhorvoin Om, Mary-Louise McLaws
BACKGROUND: Cambodia has reported multidrug resistant bacteria in poultry, similar to other countries in the region. We visited commercial food animal farms to explore opinions and antibiotic practices on the farms. METHODS: We used individual in-depth qualitative interviews with 16 commercial farmers, four feed retailers and nine veterinarians from food animal industry and government offices from the southwestern region of Phnom Penh. Transcribed interviews were thematically analysed...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852855/the-potential-for-low-pathogenic-avian-h7-influenza-a-viruses-to-replicate-and-cause-disease-in-a-mammalian-model
#19
Mark Zanin, Zeynep A Koçer, Rebecca L Poulson, Jon D Gabbard, Elizabeth W Howerth, Cheryl A Jones, Kimberly Friedman, Jon Seiler, Angela Danner, Lisa Kercher, Ryan McBride, James C Paulson, David E Wentworth, Scott Krauss, Stephen M Tompkins, David E Stallknecht, Robert G Webster
: H7 subtype influenza A viruses are widely distributed and have been responsible for human infections and numerous outbreaks in poultry with significant impact. Despite this, the disease-causing potential of the precursor low pathogenic (LP) H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. Our objective was to assess the disease causing potential of 30 LP H7 viruses isolated from wild avian species in the USA and Canada, using the DBA/2J mouse model. Without prior mammalian adaptation, the majority of viruses, 27 (90%), caused mortality in mice...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847414/molecular-identification-of-mycoplasma-synoviae-from-seroprevalent-commercial-breeder-farms-at-chittagong-district-bangladesh
#20
Md Inkeyas Uddin, Md Harisul Abid, Md Shafiqul Islam, Tofazzal Md Rakib, Ashim Baran Sen, Shah Mohammed Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury, Md Nurul Anwar, Kazi Md Kamaruddin
AIM: Worldwide, Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is an important pathogen of poultry, especially for chicken and turkey. It causes respiratory tract infection and infectious sinusitis. The study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of MS infection with associated risk factors and identification of MS organism in unvaccinated flocks of commercial breeder farms of the Chittagong district, Bangladesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 365 serum samples were collected and tested for MS using serum plate agglutination (SPA) test for determination of MS seroprevalence...
October 2016: Veterinary World
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