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Poultry farm

Anna Roccato, Marzia Mancin, Lisa Barco, Veronica Cibin, Keti Antonello, Francesco Cocola, Antonia Ricci
According to Regulation (EC) No 2017/1495, amending Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005, a slaughterhouse process hygiene criterion based on a limit of 103  CFU/g of Campylobacter for no more than 20 (for the years 2018 and 2019), 15 (for the years 2020-2024) and 10 (starting from 2025) of 50 neck skin samples of broiler carcasses could be an effective measure to reduce the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. In order to stimulate the poultry industry to improve the control of Campylobacter along the slaughter-line, the quantification of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli or Enterobacteriaceae could be a useful strategy...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
W-H Kim, J-U An, J Kim, O-K Moon, S H Bae, J B Bender, S Cho
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 outbreaks occurred in poultry farms in South Korea in 2014 resulting in significant damage to the poultry industry. Between 2014 and 2016, the pandemic disease caused significant economic loss and social disruption. To evaluate the risk factors for HPAI infection in broiler duck farms, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on broiler duck farms. Forty-three farms with confirmed laboratories on premises were selected as the case group, and 43 HPAI-negative farms were designated as the control group...
April 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
G Di Martino, A Piccirillo, M Giacomelli, D Comin, A Gallina, K Capello, F Buniolo, C Montesissa, L Bonfanti
Drinking water for poultry is not subject to particular microbiological, chemical and physical requirements, thereby representing a potential transmission route for pathogenic microorganisms and contaminants and/or becoming unsuitable for water-administered medications. This study assessed the microbiological, chemical and physical drinking water quality of 28 turkey farms in North-Eastern Italy: 14 supplied with tap water (TW) and 14 with well water (WW). Water salinity, hardness, pH, ammonia, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, chromium, copper and iron levels were also assessed...
April 17, 2018: Poultry Science
Laurent Orsi, Corrado Magnani, Eleni T Petridou, John D Dockerty, Catherine Metayer, Elizabeth Milne, Helen D Bailey, Nick Dessypris, Alice Y Kang, Catharina Wesseling, Claire Infante-Rivard, Victor Wünsch-Filho, Ana M Mora, Logan G Spector, Jacqueline Clavel
The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several factors related to early stimulation of the immune system, that is, farm residence and regular contacts with farm animals (livestock, poultry) or pets in early childhood, were investigated using data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. The sample included 7847 ALL cases and 11,667 controls aged 1-14 years. In all studies, the data were obtained from case and control parents using standardized questionnaires...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Medicine
I Hansson, M Sandberg, I Habib, R Lowman, E O Engvall
Campylobacteriosis is an important, worldwide public health problem with numerous socio-economic impacts. Since 2015, approximately 230,000 cases have been reported annually in Europe. In the United States, Australia and New Zealand, campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported disease. Poultry and poultry products are considered important sources of human infections. Poultry meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter during slaughter if live chickens are intestinal carriers. Campylobacter spp. can be transferred from animals to humans through consumption and handling of contaminated food products, with fresh chicken meat being the most commonly implicated food type...
April 16, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Adriano Sakai Okamoto, Raphael Lucio Andreatti Filho, Elisane Lenita Milbradt, Ana Carolina Izidoro Moraes, Igor Henrique Bastos Vellano, Priscylla Tatiana Chalfun Guimarães-Okamoto
Bacterial communication has become an increasingly studied topic aiming at the discovery of new products to aid the treatment of diseases for which conventional options do not work. The production of safe foods, free of pathogens, has been receiving increasing attention due to market demands for food products of high quality and free of residues. This study assessed the communication between Lactobacillus spp. during the in vitro inhibition of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) and the impact an autoinducer produced by a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum has on communication in the normal microbiota and inhibiting SH in newborn chicks...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Asok Kumar Mariappan, Palanivelu Munusamy, Shyma K Latheef, Shambu Dayal Singh, Kuldeep Dhama
Aim: Mortality in a broiler chicken farm was investigated for identifying the cause of mortality. Materials and Methods: A broiler farm with a population of 16000 succumbed to a disease outbreak. Clinical signs, vaccination history and mortality, were recorded. Necropsy examination and microscopic examination were carried out along with toxicological and molecular studies. Results: The clinical signs in the affected broiler birds were of non-specific nature with a total mortality of 26...
February 2018: Veterinary World
Huijun Wu, Shun Wang, Liangmin Gao, Ling Zhang, Zengwei Yuan, Tingyu Fan, Kaiping Wei, Li Huang
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a critical role in agricultural production and cause many environmental disturbances. By combing life cycle assessment (LCA) method with the mass balance principle of substance flow analysis (SFA), this study establishes a nutrient-derived environmental impact assessment (NEIA) model to analyze the environmental impacts caused by nutrient-containing substances of agricultural production in China during 1978-2015. The agricultural production system is composed of crop farming and livestock breeding, and the environmental impacts include energy consumption, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Clara Atterby, Evangelos Mourkas, Guillaume Méric, Ben Pascoe, Helen Wang, Jonas Waldenström, Samuel K Sheppard, Björn Olsen, Josef D Järhult, Patrik Ellström
Campylobacter jejuni is the primary cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, infecting humans mostly through consumption of contaminated poultry. C. jejuni is common in the gut of wild birds, and shows distinct strain-specific association to particular bird species. This contrasts with farm animals, in which several genotypes co-exist. It is unclear if the barriers restricting transmission between host species of such specialist strains are related to environmental factors such as contact between host species, bacterial survival in the environment, etc...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
F X Briand, E Niqueux, A Schmitz, E Hirchaud, H Quenault, C Allée, A Le Prioux, C Guillou-Cloarec, K Ogor, M O Le Bras, H Gares, P Daniel, A Fediaevsky, C Martenot, P Massin, S Le Bouquin, Y Blanchard, N Eterradossi
From November 2015 to August 2016, 81 outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H5 avian influenza virus were detected in poultry farms from South-Western France. These viruses were mainly detected in farms raising waterfowl, but also in chicken or guinea fowl flocks, and did not induce severe signs in waterfowl although they did meet the HP criteria. Three different types of neuraminidases (N1, N2 and N9) were associated with the HP H5 gene. Full genomes sequences of 24 H5HP and 6 LP viruses that circulated in the same period were obtained by next generation sequencing, from direct field samples or after virus isolation in SPF embryonated eggs...
April 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Iman Dandachi, Elie S Sokhn, Elias A Dahdouh, Eid Azar, Bassel El-Bazzal, Jean-Marc Rolain, Ziad Daoud
Currently, antimicrobial resistance is one of the most prominent public health issues. In fact, there is increasing evidence that animals constitute a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance. In collaboration with the Lebanese Ministry of Agriculture, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal carriage of multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative Bacilli in poultry farms at the national level. Between August and December 2015, 981 fecal swabs were obtained from 49 poultry farms distributed across Lebanon...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qiqi Yang, Wei Shi, Lei Zhang, Yi Xu, Jing Xu, Shen Li, Junjun Zhang, Kan Hu, Chaofeng Ma, Xiang Zhao, Xiyan Li, Feng Liu, Xin Tong, Guogang Zhang, Pengbo Yu, Oliver G Pybus, Huaiyu Tian
We report infection of humans with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shaanxi, China, in May 2017. We obtained complete genomes for samples from 5 patients and from live poultry markets or farms in 4 cities. Results indicate that H7N9 is spreading westward from southern and eastern China.
June 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Marcos E Herkenhoff, Arthur C Oliveira, Pedro G Nachtigall, Juliana M Costa, Vinicius F Campos, Alexandre W S Hilsdorf, Danillo Pinhal
In the last decade, several studies have been focused on revealing the microRNA (miRNA) repertoire and determining their functions in farm animals such as poultry, pigs, cattle, and fish. These small non-protein coding RNA molecules (18-25 nucleotides) are capable of controlling gene expression by binding to messenger RNA (mRNA) targets, thus interfering in the final protein output. MiRNAs have been recognized as the main regulators of biological features of economic interest, including body growth, muscle development, fat deposition, and immunology, among other highly valuable traits, in aquatic livestock...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Helena Eriksson, Robert Söderlund, Linda Ernholm, Lennart Melin, Désirée S Jansson
Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is a poultry pathogen associated with significant economic losses and animal suffering. Strict eradication programmes have eliminated S. Pullorum from the commercial poultry sector in most regions, but occasional outbreaks still occur in the non-commercial population. In 2012, pullorum disease was diagnosed in a non-commercial flock in Sweden. Epidemiological, post-mortem and bacteriological investigations identified three more infected flocks. To study the epidemiological relationships between the flocks and evaluate different subtyping methods for S...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
M Krawiec, S Rusiecki, M Kuczkowski, A Wieliczko
Salmonella is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the European Union and the United States of America. Free-living birds are known as a reservoir for the different serovars of Salmonella, including S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Hadar, which may play an important role in the epidemiology of salmonellosis in farm animals, particularly poultry. Also, the antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. is a growing, public health emergency. In the present study, the authors examined 36 Salmonella spp...
December 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
C G Velasquez, K S Macklin, S Kumar, M Bailey, P E Ebner, H F Oliver, F S Martin-Gonzalez, M Singh
Salmonella spp. are among the most common foodborne pathogens, and increase in the occurrence of antimicrobial drug-resistant Salmonella poses a severe risk to public health. The main objective of this study was to determine changes in Salmonella prevalence and their antimicrobial resistance on poultry farms following recommendations to changes in biosecurity practices. Four poultry farms were sampled by collecting cloacal swabs, drag swabs, and litter samples prior to recommended biosecurity changes (March-April) and post recommendations (October-November)...
March 27, 2018: Poultry Science
A M Carnero, K Kitayama, D A Diaz, M Garvich, N Angulo, V A Cama, R H Gilman, A M Bayer
Interspecies transmission of pathogens is an unfrequent but naturally occurring event and human activities may favour opportunities not previously reported. Reassortment of zoonotic pathogens like influenza A virus can result from these activities. Recently, swine and birds have played a central role as "mixing vessels" for epidemic and pandemic events related to strains like H1N1 and H5N1. Unsafe practices in poultry markets and swine farms can lead to interspecies transmission, favouring the emergence of novel strains...
March 30, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Manuela Donati, Karine Laroucau, Alessandro Guerrini, Andrea Balboni, Daniela Salvatore, Elena Catelli, Caterina Lupini, Aurora Levi, Antonietta Di Francesco
Until recently, Chlamydia psittaci was considered to be the only etiological agent of avian chlamydiosis, but two new avian species, Chlamydia gallinacea and Chlamydia avium, have recently been described in poultry and pigeons or psittacine birds, respectively. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence of C. psittaci and C. gallinacea in backyard chickens in Italy. Cloacal swabs were taken from 160 asymptomatic chickens reared in 16 backyard farms. Samples were tested for C. psittaci and C. gallinacea by specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, with 24 (15%) of the 160 chickens resulting positive for C...
April 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Manita Subedi, Himal Luitel, Bhuminanda Devkota, Rebanta Kumar Bhattarai, Sarita Phuyal, Prabhat Panthi, Anil Shrestha, Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are causative agent of extraintestinal infections, collectively known as colibacillosis, which results significant losses in poultry industries. The extraintestinal survival of E. coli is facilitated by numerous virulence factors which are coded by virulence genes. This study was conducted to find out the pattern of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes content in the APEC strains isolated from broiler chickens at National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory and Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal...
March 27, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Benjamin Duqué, Samuel Daviaud, Sandrine Guillou, Nabila Haddad, Jeanne-Marie Membré
Highly prevalent in poultry, Campylobacter is a foodborne pathogen which remains the primary cause of enteritis in humans. Several studies have determined prevalence and contamination level of this pathogen throughout the food chain. However it is generally performed in a deterministic way without considering heterogeneity of contamination level. The purpose of this study was to quantify, using probabilistic tools, the contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on chicken carcasses after air-chilling step in several slaughterhouses in France...
April 2018: Food Research International
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