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Alejandro Amor-Coarasa, James Kelly, Shashikanth Ponnala, Yogindra Vedvyas, Anastasia Nikolopoulou, Clarence Williams, Moonsoo M Jin, J David Warren, John W Babich
INTRODUCTION: CXCR4 specific [18 F]-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are needed which would enable general distribution of the radiotracer for clinical investigation. We sought to synthesize, radiolabel and evaluate [18 F]RPS-544, a novel non-peptide CXCR4 antagonist as a CXCR4 specific probe. We compared [18 F]RPS-544 with the previously published [18 F]-3 ([18 F]RPS-510 in this paper) in a bi-lateral tumor model of differential CXCR4 expression for its ability to selectively target CXCR4 expression...
January 31, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Yeon Jung Kim, Rafael Rafael de Molon, Fausto Rioiti Horiguti, Guilherme Piragine Contador, Marco Antonio Coelho, Vinicius Ibiapina Mascarenhas, Ana Paula de Souza Faloni, Joni Augusto Cirelli, Wilson Roberto Sendyk
PURPOSE: The objective of this investigation was to assess vertical bone augmentation using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) infused or not with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) in rabbit tibiae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 female rabbits (New Zealand) received two blocks of DBBM in each tibia. The DBBM blocks were randomly assigned into four experimental groups: DBBM (only the bone graft); DBBM associated with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS); DBBM plus rhBMP-2 (1...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Krzysztof Karpowicz, Katarzyna Krych, Małgorzata Karpowicz, Witold Nowak, Piotr Gronek
The map of candidate genes that can potentially affect physical fitness becomes larger every year, and they are associated with such aspects as respiratory and cardiovascular stability; body build and composition - especially muscle mass and strength; carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; response to training; and exercise intolerance.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the CA repeat polymorphism of the P1 promoter of the IGF1 gene and the structure of motor skills in the two groups of Polish young athletes in 2011-2013...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Mohamed Fathi, Adel R Moawad, Magdy R Badr
Cryopreservation of oocytes would serve as an alternative to overcome the limited availability of dromedary camel oocytes and facilitate improvements in IVP techniques in this species. Our goal was to develop a protocol for the vitrification of camel oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage using different cryoprotectant combinations: 20% EG and 20% DMSO (VS1), 25% EG plus 25% DMSO (VS2) or 25% EG and 25% glycerol (VS3) and various cryo-carriers; straws or open pulled-straw (OPS) or solid surface vitrification (SSV); and Cryotop...
2018: PloS One
Dragana Mijac, Irena Vukovic-Petrovic, Vera Mijac, Vladimir Perovic, Natasa Milic, Srdjan Djuranovic, Daniela Bojic, Dragan Popovic, Djordje Culafic, Miodrag Krstic, Goran Jankovic, Vera Pravica, Milos Markovic
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of unknown etiology in which genetic factors contribute to development of disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene encoding transporter P-glycoprotein have been associated with IBD, but their role in disease susceptibility remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of three MDR1 polymorphisms, C1236T (rs1128503), G2677T/A (rs2032582) and C3435T (rs1045642), with Serbian IBD patients...
2018: PloS One
Nebile Isik, Elisabetta Maria Fiordaliso, Ray R LaPierre
Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are a candidate technology for future optoelectronic devices. One of the critical issues in NWs is the control of impurity doping for the formation of p-n junctions. In this study, beryllium (p-type dopant) and tellurium (n-type dopant) in self-assisted GaAs NWs was studied. The GaAs NWs were grown on (111) Si by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using the self-assisted method. The dopant incorporation in the self-assisted GaAs NWs was investigated using Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron holography...
March 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
Christine Juergens, James Trammel, Yasuko Shoji, Scott Patterson, Wendy Watson, Chris Webber, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Beate Schmoele-Thoma
Injection site reactions (ISRs; redness, swelling and pain) commonly occur within 1-2 days after vaccination. After administration of toxoid vaccines including diphtheria toxoid, a later onset of ISRs has also been observed. As the serotype capsular polysaccharides in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) are conjugated to cross-reactive material 197 (CRM197 ), a nontoxic variant of diphtheria toxin, the onset of ISRs over 14 days was explored in 8 adult studies with 19 cohorts. Subjects received PCV13 with aluminum phosphate (AlPO4 , n = 5667) or without AlPO4 (n = 304); 109 subjects received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23)...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Tao Jiang, Hao Hong, Can Liu, Wei-Tao Liu, Kaihui Liu, Shiwei Wu
Interactions between elementary excitations, such as carriers, phonons and plasmons, are critical for understanding the optical and electronic properties of materials. The significance of these interactions is more prominent in low-dimensional materials and can dominate their physical properties due to the enhanced interactions between these excitations. One-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotubes provide an ideal system for studying such interactions due to their perfect physical structures and rich electronic properties...
March 15, 2018: Nano Letters
Petr Chytil, Milada Sirova, Júlia Kudláčová, Blanka Rihova, Karel Ulbrich, Tomáš Etrych
Herein, the biodegradable micelle-forming amphiphilic N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA)-based polymer conjugates with the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) designed for enhanced tumor accumulation were investigated, and the influence of their stability in the blood stream on biodistribution, namely, tumor uptake, and in vivo antitumor efficacy were evaluated in detail. Dox was attached to the polymer carrier by a hydrazone bond enabling pH-controlled drug release. While the polymer-drug conjugates were stable in a buffer at pH 7...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Wenhan Xu, Gang Yang, Lan Jin, Jie Liu, Yunhe Zhang, Zhicheng Zhang, Zhenhua Jiang
Two sets of thermal stable nanocomposites were fabricated by using engineering plastics poly (ether sulfone) (PES) as a matrix and phthalocyanine molecules (CuPc) or hyperbranched phthalocyanine (HCuPc) coated barium titanate nanoparticles (BT) as filler for high electric field and high temperature dielectric applications. By side-by-side comparison, the hyperbranched coating is finely addressed for enhancing the dielectric response and breakdown strength of the composites. Specifically, BT-HCuPc/PES exhibits 40% lower dielectric loss and about 110% larger breakdown strength than BT-CuPc/PES...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Susanne Jacobsson, Bianca Stenmark, Sara Thulin Hedberg, Paula Mölling, Hans Fredlund
The aims of the study were to estimate the carrier state of Neisseria meningitidis in Swedish teenagers and its association with an outbreak at the World Scout Jamboree in 2015 as well as to compare sensitivity of throat versus nasopharyngeal swab for optimal detection of carriage. In total, 1 705 samples (cultures n = 32, throat swabs n = 715, nasopharyngeal swabs n = 958) from 1 020 Jamboree participants were collected and sent to the National Reference Laboratory for Neisseria meningitidis for culture and molecular analysis...
March 15, 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Mandeep Singh, Deshetti Jampaiah, Ahmad E Kandjani, Ylias M Sabri, Enrico Della Gaspera, Philipp Reineck, Martyna Judd, Julien Langley, Nicholas Cox, Joel van Embden, Edwin L H Mayes, Brant C Gibson, Suresh K Bhargava, Rajesh Ramanathan, Vipul Bansal
Oxygen vacancies in inorganic semiconductors play an important role in reducing electron-hole recombination, which may have important implications in photocatalysis. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O), a visible light active p-type semiconductor, is a promising photocatalyst. However, the synthesis of photostable Cu2O enriched with oxygen defects remains a challenge. We report a simple method for the gram-scale synthesis of highly photostable Cu2O nanoparticles by the hydrolysis of a Cu(i)-triethylamine [Cu(i)-TEA] complex at low temperature...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Ondřej Novák, Peter R Krogen, Tobias Kroh, Tomáš Mocek, Franz X Kärtner, Kyung-Han Hong
We report on a femtosecond ∼8.5  μm, ∼2  μJ source based on the intrapulse difference-frequency generation (DFG) of 2.1 μm pulses in an AgGaSe2 (AGSe) crystal. Compared to the conventional ∼0.8 or 1 μm near-infrared (IR) pulses, a ∼2  μm driver for intrapulse DFG can provide more efficient conversion into the wavelengths longer than 5 μm due to a lower quantum defect and is more suitable for the non-oxide nonlinear crystals that have a relatively low bandgap energy. Using 26 fs, 2...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Junxiang Ke, Lilin Yi, Guangqiong Xia, Weisheng Hu
For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we experimentally demonstrate a successful 30-Gb/s signal transmission of a duobinary message hidden in a chaotic optical carrier over 100-km fiber. Thanks to the duobinary modulation format with high spectral efficiency, the 30-Gb/s signal can be encrypted by a 10-GHz-wide chaotic carrier. A digital signal processing technique can be used to convert duobinary data into binary data on the receiver side. This proposal lowers the requirement for wideband chaos generation and synchronization in high-speed long-distance chaotic optical communications, and fiber dispersion compensation can also be simplified, which has potential to be used in high-speed long-distance secure optical communications...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Qiulin Zhang, Bofang Zheng, Chester Shu
We proposed a novel scheme for realizing Kramers-Kronig detection by utilizing the narrow-band and high-gain characteristic of stimulated Brillouin scattering. At the receiver, the weak virtual carrier located at the edge of the signal spectrum is Brillouin amplified by the output of a slave laser, which is injection locked by a weak pump seed provided by the transmitter. More than a 2.7-dB optical signal-to-noise ratio sensitivity improvement is experimentally obtained compared with the traditional virtual carrier assisted scheme after an 80-km transmission...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
E Millart, S Lesieur, V Faivre
Introduction The development of multifunctional drug carriers provides many opportunities in the field of drug delivery. Among them, carriers loaded with both drug and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles would allow the combination of chemotherapy with the possibility of monitoring or controlling the distribution of the nanocarrier in the body, triggering drug release and/or applying a synergistic hyperthermia treatment. Areas covered The present review covers biocompatible lipid-based nanotechnologies that have been employed to co-encapsulate drug and iron oxide...
March 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Rugang Geng, Ram C Subedi, Hoang M Luong, Minh T Pham, Weichuan Huang, Xiaoguang Li, Kunlun Hong, Ming Shao, Kai Xiao, Lawrence A Hornak, Tho D Nguyen
Hyperfine interaction (HFI), originating from the coupling between spins of charge carriers and nuclei, has been demonstrated to strongly influence the spin dynamics of localized charges in organic semiconductors. Nevertheless, the role of charge localization on the HFI strength in organic thin films has not yet been experimentally investigated. In this study, the statistical relation hypothesis that the effective HFI of holes in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is proportional to 1/N^{0.5} has been examined, where N is the number of the random nuclear spins within the envelope of the hole wave function...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Lintao Peng, Spencer A Wells, Christopher R Ryder, Mark C Hersam, Matthew Grayson
The crystal orientation of an exfoliated black phosphorous flake is determined by purely electrical means. A sequence of three resistance measurements on an arbitrarily shaped flake with five contacts determines the three independent components of the anisotropic in-plane resistivity tensor, thereby revealing the crystal axes. The resistivity anisotropy ratio decreases linearly with increasing temperature T and carrier density reaching a maximum ratio of 3.0 at low temperatures and densities, while mobility indicates impurity scattering at low T and acoustic phonon scattering at high T...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Cyprian Lewandowski, L S Levitov
In Dirac materials linear band dispersion blocks momentum-conserving interband transitions, creating a bottleneck for electron-hole pair production and carrier multiplication in the photoexcitation cascade. Here we show that the decays are unblocked and the bottleneck is relieved by subtle many-body effects involving multiple off-shell e-h pairs. The decays result from a collective behavior due to simultaneous emission of many soft pairs. We discuss characteristic signatures of the off-shell pathways, in particular the sharp angular distribution of secondary carriers, resembling relativistic jets in high-energy physics...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jinho Park, Jae Hyeong Lee, Gil-Ho Lee, Yositake Takane, Ken-Ichiro Imura, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Hu-Jong Lee
We report on short ballistic (SB) Josephson coupling in junctions embedded in a planar heterostructure of graphene. Ballistic Josephson coupling is confirmed by the Fabry-Perot-type interference of the junction critical current I_{c}. The product of I_{c} and the normal-state junction resistance R_{N}, normalized by the zero-temperature gap energy Δ_{0} of the superconducting electrodes, turns out to be exceptionally large close to 2, an indication of strong Josephson coupling in the SB junction limit. However, I_{c} shows a temperature dependence that is inconsistent with the conventional short-junction-like behavior based on the standard Kulik-Omel'yanchuk prediction...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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