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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812563/multicopy-plasmids-potentiate-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-bacteria
#1
Alvaro San Millan, Jose Antonio Escudero, Danna R Gifford, Didier Mazel, R Craig MacLean
Plasmids are thought to play a key role in bacterial evolution by acting as vehicles for horizontal gene transfer, but the role of plasmids as catalysts of gene evolution remains unexplored. We challenged populations of Escherichia coli carrying the blaTEM-1 β-lactamase gene on either the chromosome or a multicopy plasmid (19 copies per cell) with increasing concentrations of ceftazidime. The plasmid accelerated resistance evolution by increasing the rate of appearance of novel TEM-1 mutations, thereby conferring resistance to ceftazidime, and then by amplifying the effect of TEM-1 mutations due to the increased gene dosage...
November 7, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803933/phage-in-urban-wastewater-have-the-potential-to-disseminate-antibiotic-resistance
#2
Gayathri Upeksha Gunathilaka, Varun Tahlan, Abdullah Ibn Mafiz, Manisha Polur, Yifan Zhang
A total of 29 Escherichia coli phage were isolated from wastewater samples collected from an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and characterized by host range determination, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), antibiotic resistance gene identification, and phage transduction. β-lactam resistance genes, blaCMY, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTXM, and blaOXA, were amplified on phage DNA by PCR. Out of nine host range patterns observed, six were able to multiply in three or more indicator strains, including Shiga-toxin producing E...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800411/antimicrobial-resistance-and-resistance-genes-in-salmonella-strains-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-along-the-slaughtering-process-in-china
#3
Yuanting Zhu, Haimei Lai, Likou Zou, Sheng Yin, Chengtao Wang, Xinfeng Han, Xiaolong Xia, Kaidi Hu, Li He, Kang Zhou, Shujuan Chen, Xiaolin Ao, Shuliang Liu
A total of 189 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 627 samples which were collected from cecal contents of broilers, chicken carcasses, chicken meat after cutting step and frozen broiler chicken products along the slaughtering process at a slaughterhouse in Sichuan province of China. The Salmonella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 10 categories of antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Those antibiotics-resistant isolates were further investigated for the occurrence of resistance genes, the presence of class 1 integron as well as the associated gene cassettes, and the mutations within the gyrA and parC genes...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797325/plasmid-borne-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-3-in-salmonella-isolates-from-human-infections-denmark-2009-17
#4
Eva Litrup, Kristoffer Kiil, Anette M Hammerum, Louise Roer, Eva M Nielsen, Mia Torpdahl
This report describes one Salmonella isolate harbouring both mcr-1 and mcr-3. We also found nine other Salmonella isolates positive for the plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene, mcr-3. The strains were isolated from patients in Denmark between 2009 and 2017 and five of the patients had travelled to Asia. In addition to mcr-3, all strains were found positive for blaTEM-1, strA, strB, sul2 and tet(A) or tet(B), and most strains were positive for blaCTX-M-55 and qnrS.
August 3, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780105/short-communication-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-colostrum-from-new-brunswick-canada-dairy-cows-harbor-blacmy-2-and-blatem-resistance-genes
#5
B B Awosile, J T McClure, J Sanchez, J VanLeeuwen, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, G Keefe, L C Heider
Dairy calves are colonized shortly after birth by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria, including Escherichia coli. The role of dairy colostrum fed to calves as a potential source of MDR bacteria resistance genes has not been investigated. This study determined the recovery rate of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) E. coli in colostrum from cows. The ESC-R E. coli isolates were further investigated to determine their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern and the genes conferring ESC-R. Fresh colostrum was collected from 452 cows from 8 dairy herds in New Brunswick, Canada...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767588/successful-ceftazidime-avibactam-treatment-of-mdr-kpc-positive-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#6
Agnese Gugliandolo, Carla Caio, Maria Lina Mezzatesta, Carmela Rifici, Placido Bramanti, Stefania Stefani, Emanuela Mazzon
RATIONALE: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections are a serious health care problem, because of the high mortality. Carbapenem resistance is mainly caused by carbapenemases production, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Ceftazidime-avibactam is a new cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination for the treatment of complicated urinary, intra-abdominal infections, and nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram negative, or other serious gram-negative infections...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747906/characterization-of-integrons-and-resistance-genes-in-salmonella-isolates-from-farm-animals-in-shandong-province-china
#7
Xiaonan Zhao, Jie Yang, Baozhen Zhang, Shuhong Sun, Weishan Chang
A total of 154 non-duplicate Salmonella isolates were recovered from 1,105 rectal swabs collected from three large-scale chicken farms (78/325, 24.0%), three large-scale duck farms (56/600, 9.3%) and three large-scale pig farms (20/180, 11.1%) between April and July 2016. Seven serotypes were identified among the 154 isolates, with the most common serotype in chickens and ducks being Salmonella enteritidis and in pigs Salmonella typhimurium. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that high antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for tetracycline (72...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746989/instability-of-the-incfii-type-plasmid-carrying-blandm-5-in-a-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolate
#8
Juyoun Shin, Jin Yang Baek, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kwan Soo Ko
In this study, we characterized the blaNDM-5-bearing plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate that had lost the plasmid during serial passage. We determined the complete sequences of the plasmid pCC1410-2, which was extracted from a K. pneumoniae ST709 isolate collected at a Korean hospital from which two NDM-5-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were subsequently isolated. As a result, the pCC1410-2 plasmid had a backbone structure that was similar to those of two plasmids previously reported from the same hospital, but lacked some antibiotic resistance genes (blaTEM-1, rmtB, mphR(A), mrx(A), and mph(A))...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744270/occurrence-of-the-mcr-1-colistin-resistance-gene-and-other-clinically-relevant-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-microbial-populations-at-different-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-germany
#9
Norman Hembach, Ferdinand Schmid, Johannes Alexander, Christian Hiller, Eike T Rogall, Thomas Schwartz
Seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different population equivalents and catchment areas were screened for the prevalence of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 mediating resistance against last resort antibiotic polymyxin E. The abundance of the plasmid-associated mcr-1 gene in total microbial populations during water treatment processes was quantitatively analyzed by qPCR analyses. The presence of the colistin resistance gene was documented for all of the influent wastewater samples of the seven WWTPs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743651/resistance-to-quinolones-cephalosporins-and-macrolides-in-escherichia-coli-causing-bacteremia-in-peruvian-children
#10
Noemí Palma, Maria J Pons, Cláudia Gomes, Judit Mateu, Maribel Riveros, Wilfredo García, Jan Jacobs, Coralith García, Theresa J Ochoa, Joaquim Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the β-lactam, quinolone and macrolide resistance levels and mechanisms in 62 Escherichia coli isolates causing children bacteremia. METHODS: Minimal inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid (NAL) and azithromycin was determined in presence and absence of Phe-Arg-β-Naphtylamyde. Additionally, the susceptibility levels to other 14 antimicrobial agents was established. Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were identified, while mutations in gyrA and parC genes, presence of transferable mechanisms of quinolone-resistance (TMQR) and macrolide-resistance (TMMR) was also determined...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743503/a-multi-centre-prospective-evaluation-of-the-check-direct-esbl-screen%C3%A2-for-bd-max%C3%A2-as-a-rapid-molecular-screening-method-for-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-rectal-carriage
#11
Tobias Engel, Brenda J Slotboom, Noortje van Maarseveen, Anton A van Zwet, Marrigje Nabuurs, Ferry Hagen
OBJECTIVE: We prospectively compared a multiplex ESBL-Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) qPCR, directly performed on rectal swabs, to a culture based protocol to study the discrepancies between both methods and identify existing challenges to apply this assay in routine clinical practice. Our secondary objective was to assess its performance. MATERIAL/METHODS: In two Dutch teaching hospitals 573 rectal swabs were prospectively collected. Culture with additional testing with the Check-MDR CT103XL (Check-Points) was compared to the Check-Direct ESBL Screen for BD MAX™ (Check-Points), which detects the presence of the ESBL-gene families CTX-M1, CTX-M2, CTX-M9 and SHV2/5-ESBL...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735317/genetic-characterization-of-a-novel-composite-transposon-carrying-arma-and-aac-6-ib-genes-in-an-escherichia-coli-isolate-from-egypt
#12
Mona T Kashef, Omneya M Helmy
Aminoglycosides are used in treating a wide range of infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, aminoglycoside resistance is common and occurs by several mechanisms. Among these mechanisms is bacterial rRNA methylation by the 16S rRNA methyl transferase (16S-RMTase) enzymes; but data about the spread of this mechanism in Egypt are scarce. Cephalosporins are the most commonly used antimicrobial agents in Egypt; therefore, this study was conducted to determine the frequency of 16S-RMTase among third generation cephalosporin-resistant clinical isolates in Egypt...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728058/high-prevalence-of-esbls-in-retail-chicken-meat-despite-reduced-use-of-antimicrobials-in-chicken-production-france
#13
Tiago Casella, Mara Correa Lelles Nogueira, Estelle Saras, Marisa Haenni, Jean-Yves Madec
Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are critically important antibiotics for humans and their use in animals poses a potential threat for public health. Chicken represents an increasing part of the human diet and has also been regarded as a source of ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae because of the worldwide off-label use of ceftiofur, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. Thus, numerous studies pointed out chicken as a reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC genes, plasmids and/or clones at risk for humans. In France, late 2011, strong political pressure led to a drastic reduction of ceftiofur use and all other antibiotics in chicken production...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712134/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterisation-of-clinically-relevant-bacteria-isolated-from-dental-waste-and-waste-workers-hands-mucosas-and-coats
#14
Thaysa Leite Tagliaferri, Cristina Dutra Vieira, Maria Auxiliadora Roque de Carvalho, Luiz Carlos Duarte Ladeira, Paula Prazeres Magalhães, Luiz de Macêdo Farias, Simone Gonçalves Dos Santos
Infectious wastes are potential sources of pathogenic microorganisms, which may represent a risk to the professionals who manage them. In this study we aimed to characterize the infectious bacteria present in dental waste and waste workers. The dental waste produced over 24 hours was collected and waste workers were sampled by swabbing. Isolate resistance profiles were characterized by Vitek(®) and PCR and biofilm formation by Congo Red agar, string test and microtiter assay. To assess similarity between the waste and the workers' samples, a random amplified polymorphic DNA test was used...
July 16, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711438/citrobacter-freundii-bacteremia-risk-factors-of-mortality-and-prevalence-of-resistance-genes
#15
Li-Hsiang Liu, Nai-Yu Wang, Alice Ying-Jung Wu, Chih-Chen Lin, Chun-Ming Lee, Chang-Pan Liu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Multidrug-resistant strains of Citrobacter have emerged, which carry Amp-C β-lactamase (Amp-C), broad-spectrum β-lactamase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and other resistance mechanisms. These strains are associated with a higher rate of in-hospital mortality. The object of this study is to determine the mortality risk factors, susceptibility pattern to antibiotics, and prevalence of resistance genes in patients with Citrobacter freundii bacteremia. METHODS: From January 2009 to December 2014, blood isolates of C...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709370/sewers-as-potential-reservoirs-of-antibiotic-resistance
#16
Olga Auguet, Maite Pijuan, Carles M Borrego, Sara Rodriguez-Mozaz, Xavier Triadó-Margarit, Saulo Varela Della Giustina, Oriol Gutierrez
Wastewater transport along sewers favors the colonization of inner pipe surfaces by wastewater-derived microorganisms that grow forming biofilms. These biofilms are composed of rich and diverse microbial communities that are continuously exposed to antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) from urban wastewater. Sewer biofilms thus appear as an optimal habitat for the dispersal and accumulation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the concentration of antibiotics, integron (intI1) and antibiotic resistance genes (qnrS, sul1, sul2, blaTEM, blaKPC, ermB, tetM and tetW), and potential bacterial pathogens were analyzed in wastewater and biofilm samples collected at the inlet and outlet sections of a pressurized sewer pipe...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707597/detection-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-esbls-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-western-iran
#17
Pegah Shakib, Rashid Ramazan Zadeh, Morovat Taherikalani, Bijan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Production of Beta-Lactamase enzymes, especially extended-spectrum Beta -Lactamases (ESBL), is a primary mechanism of resistance in these bacteria. The purpose of this study was detection of blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaCTX-M-15, blaPER and blaVEB in K. pneumoniae, isolated from clinical specimens by the PCR method and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in these strains isolated, in Sanandaj city, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a period from October 2015 to July 2016, 52 K...
July 13, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688673/characterization-of-phebe7-an-incfii-type-virulence-resistance-plasmid-carrying-blactx-m-98b-blatem-1-and-rmtb-genes-detected-in-escherichia-coli-from-a-chicken-isolate-in-china
#18
Yan-Xian Yang, Yong-Qiang Yang, Chang-Wei Lei, Bi-Hui Liu, Wei Jiang, Hong-Ning Wang, Maria Consuelo Gazitúa, An-Yun Zhang
Recently, a novel variant of the CTX-M enzyme, CTX-M-98, was detected in Escherichia coli isolates from food animals. However, few plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-98 have been fully characterized. In this study, we sequenced the complete pHeBE7 plasmid, an 86,015-bp plasmid that contains the blaCTX-M-98b, blaTEM-1, rmtB, and traT genes, using whole-genome sequencing. The backbone of pHeBE7 shows a high similarity (>99%) to pMC-NDM, which carries the blaNDM-1 gene, however its mosaic regions remain relatively unique among sequenced plasmids...
July 6, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686994/quantitative-and-qualitative-changes-in-antibiotic-resistance-genes-after-passing-through-treatment-processes-in-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plants
#19
Jangwoo Lee, Jong Hun Jeon, Jingyeong Shin, Hyun Min Jang, Sungpyo Kim, Myoung Seok Song, Young Mo Kim
In this study, quantitative and qualitative changes in antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated in two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) treating pretreated livestock or industrial wastewater as well as municipal sewage. Total eight ARGs (tetX, tetM, tetA, sul1, sul2, ermB, qnrD, and blaTEM) were quantified, and their relative abundance was assessed by ARGs copies/16S rRNA gene copies. The fate of ARGs was observed to be different between two WWTPs: sul, qnrD, and blaTEM were proliferated during the treatment processes only in the WWTP1 which received pretreated livestock wastewater...
July 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683526/characteristics-of-transmissible-ctx-m-and-cmy-type-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-collected-from-pig-and-chicken-farms-in-south-korea
#20
Seung Won Shin, Myunghwan Jung, Ho Geun Won, Kuastros Mekonnen Belaynehe, In Joong Yoon, Han Sang Yoo
The rapid dissemination Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has significantly contributed to hazard of public health globally. A total of 281 E. coli strains recovered from pigs and chickens between 2009 and 2015 in South Korea were analyzed for ESBL-production. ESBL phenotypes were recognized in 14 E. coli isolates; ten and three ESBL-producing isolates carried only blaCTX-M and blaCMY genes, respectively, and one isolate harbored both genes. The predominant CTX-M- and CMY-types were CTX-M-15 (n=8) and CMY-2 (n=3)...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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