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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684092/weekends-off-efavirenz-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-breather-extended-follow-up-results-of-a-randomised-open-label-non-inferiority-trial
#1
Anna Turkova, Cecilia L Moore, Karina Butler, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saïdi, Victor Musiime, Annet Nanduudu, Elizabeth Kaudha, Tim R Cressey, Suwalai Chalermpantmetagul, Karen Scott, Lynda Harper, Samuel Montero, Yoann Riault, Torsak Bunupuradah, Alla Volokha, Patricia M Flynn, Rosa Bologna, Jose T Ramos Amador, Steven B Welch, Eleni Nastouli, Nigel Klein, Carlo Giaquinto, Deborah Ford, Abdel Babiker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Weekends off antiretroviral therapy (ART) may help engage HIV-1-infected young people facing lifelong treatment. BREATHER showed short cycle therapy (SCT; 5 days on, 2 days off ART) was non-inferior to continuous therapy (CT) over 48 weeks. Planned follow-up was extended to 144 weeks, maintaining original randomisation. METHODS: BREATHER was an open-label, non-inferiority trial. Participants aged 8-24yrs with virological suppression on efavirenz-based first-line ART were randomised 1:1, stratified by age and African/non-African sites, to remain on CT or change to SCT...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683910/acog-committee-opinion-no-735-adolescents-and-long-acting-reversible-contraception-implants-and-intrauterine-devices
#2
(no author information available yet)
The phenomenon of adolescent childbearing is complex and far reaching, affecting not only the adolescents but also their children and their community. The prevalence and public health effect of adolescent pregnancy reflect complex structural social problems and an unmet need for acceptable and effective contraceptive methods in this population. In 2006-2010, 82% of adolescents at risk of unintended pregnancy were currently using contraception, but only 59% used a highly effective method, including any hormonal method or intrauterine device...
May 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683905/acog-committee-opinion-no-735-summary-adolescents-and-long-acting-reversible-contraception-implants-and-intrauterine-devices
#3
(no author information available yet)
The phenomenon of adolescent childbearing is complex and far reaching, affecting not only the adolescents but also their children and their community. The prevalence and public health effect of adolescent pregnancy reflect complex structural social problems and an unmet need for acceptable and effective contraceptive methods in this population. In 2006-2010, 82% of adolescents at risk of unintended pregnancy were currently using contraception, but only 59% used a highly effective method, including any hormonal method or intrauterine device...
May 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682776/bootstrap-inference-when-using-multiple-imputation
#4
Michael Schomaker, Christian Heumann
Many modern estimators require bootstrapping to calculate confidence intervals because either no analytic standard error is available or the distribution of the parameter of interest is nonsymmetric. It remains however unclear how to obtain valid bootstrap inference when dealing with multiple imputation to address missing data. We present 4 methods that are intuitively appealing, easy to implement, and combine bootstrap estimation with multiple imputation. We show that 3 of the 4 approaches yield valid inference, but that the performance of the methods varies with respect to the number of imputed data sets and the extent of missingness...
April 16, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681168/hiv-associated-cognitive-disorders-in-perinatally-infected-children-and-adolescents-a-novel-composite-cognitive-domains-score
#5
Nicole J Phillips, Jacqueline Hoare, Dan J Stein, Landon Myer, Heather J Zar, Kevin G F Thomas
Accurate assessment of HIV-associated cognitive disorders in perinatally infected children and adolescents is challenging. Assessments of general intellectual functioning, or global cognition, may not provide information regarding domain-specific strengths and weaknesses, and may therefore fail to detect, impaired trajectories of development within particular cognitive domains. We compare the efficacy of global cognitive scores to that of composite cognitive domain scores in detecting cognitive disorders in a sample of perinatally HIV-infected children, and a demographically matched HIV negative control group, drawn from the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort (CTAAC) study...
April 22, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680970/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-child-mental-disorders-in-a-population-based-cohort-of-hiv-exposed-and-unexposed-african-children-aged-7-11-years
#6
Tamsen J Rochat, Brian Houle, Alan Stein, Rebecca M Pearson, Ruth M Bland
Despite being home to a large population of vulnerable children there is a dearth of population-based evidence on childhood mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Parent and child mental health are rarely measured concurrently, despite potential for confounding with other risk factors, including parental HIV. Using the parent-report Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) we assessed children's mental health in a population-based cohort of 1536 HIV-negative children (31% HIV-exposed, 18% HIV-affected, 51% HIV-unexposed) aged 7-11 years...
April 21, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676342/audit-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-programme-interventions-in-hiv-exposed-children-at-national-hospital-abuja-nigeria
#7
Mariya Mukhtar-Yola, Adekunle Tolulope Otuneye, Amsa Baba Mairami, Yewande Wey, Vincent Nwatah, Lamidi Isah Audu
Background: Ninety percentage of children acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the form of Mother-to-child Transmission (MTCT). In the absence of interventions, transmission rates range from 15% to 45%. This can be reduced to below 5% with effective interventions. The last published national guideline (NG) on prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) was in 2010. Clinical audits are essential in improving the quality of care delivered to patients. Objectives: The study objectives were to determine the rate of MTCT of HIV in exposed infants at a follow-up clinic between 2011 and 2014 and to determine the level of adherence to 2010 NG on the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, feeding options, antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis and the use of co-trimoxazole (CTZ)...
January 2018: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673395/shorter-treatment-for-minimal-tuberculosis-tb-in-children-shine-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Chishala Chabala, Anna Turkova, Margaret J Thomason, Eric Wobudeya, Syed Hissar, Vidya Mave, Marieke van der Zalm, Megan Palmer, Monica Kapasa, Perumal K Bhavani, Sarath Balaji, Priyanka A Raichur, Anne-Marie Demers, Graeme Hoddinott, Ellen Owen-Powell, Aarti Kinikar, Philippa Musoke, Veronica Mulenga, Rob Aarnoutse, Helen McIlleron, Anneke Hesseling, Angela M Crook, Mark Cotton, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is frequently paucibacillary and non-severe forms of pulmonary TB are common. Evidence for tuberculosis treatment in children is largely extrapolated from adult studies. Trials in adults with smear-negative tuberculosis suggest that treatment can be effectively shortened from 6 to 4 months. New paediatric, fixed-dose combination anti-tuberculosis treatments have recently been introduced in many countries, making the implementation of World Health Organisation (WHO)-revised dosing recommendations feasible...
April 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668812/reporting-of-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-estimates-from-a-brazilian-study
#9
Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Valéria Saraceni, Maria do Carmo Leal
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the coverage of the reporting of cases of HIV-infected pregnant women, to estimate the increase in the coverage of the reporting with the routine search of data in other Brazilian health information systems, and to identify missed opportunities for identification of HIV-infected pregnant women in Brazilian maternity hospitals. METHODS: This is a descriptive study on the linkage of Brazilian databases with primary data from the "Nascer no Brasil" study and secondary database collection from national health information systems...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667336/optimal-breastfeeding-durations-for-hiv-exposed-infants-the-impact-of-maternal-art-use-infant-mortality-and-replacement-feeding-risk
#10
Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Roger Shapiro, Francois Dabis, Barbara Engelsmann, Kenneth A Freedberg, Valeriane Leroy, Shahin Lockman, Rochelle Walensky, Nigel Rollins, Andrea Ciaranello
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. METHODS: Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663952/timing-of-hiv-diagnosis-in-children-with-tuberculosis-managed-at-a-referral-hospital-in-cape-town-south-africa
#11
L N Byamungu, K du Preez, E Walters, J B Nachega, H S Schaaf
SETTING: Tygerberg Hospital, Western Cape Province, Cape Town, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with simultaneous tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses in children. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study in TB-HIV co-infected children aged <13 years admitted to Tygerberg Hospital in 2012. Data were collected from medical records, laboratory results and electronic TB treatment registers...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663621/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-young-children-born-to-hiv-positive-mothers-in-rural-yunnan-china
#12
Jie Wu, Jing Li, Yan Li, Kek Khee Loo, Haixia Yang, Qiong Wang, Rufei Duan, Xia Xiao, Xiaoxiao Song, Siwei Yang, Lin Sun
BACKGROUND: Children born to HIV-infected mothers are at risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Little is known about neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants and toddlers who were born to HIV-positive mothers but were not themselves infected by HIV, especially in poor rural areas. This study was conducted to compare developmental outcomes between young children who were HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) and their HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) peers in rural Yunnan, China. METHODS: A total of 250 HEU children aged 6-36 months and 250 HUU children matched on age, gender and residency were recruited from rural Yunnan, China...
April 16, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660820/human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-patients-with-tuberculous-meningitis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Ali Pormohammad, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Fatemeh Fallah
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected individuals are at increased risk for all forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), including tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The current study aimed to investigate the frequency of HIV in TBM patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for articles including relevant data. Stata version 14.0 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA) was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Twenty studies were identified...
April 16, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660296/influence-of-aids-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-growth-pattern
#14
REVIEW
Ana Paula Brigatto Simões Golucci, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Mariana Freitas Fedato Valente, Maira Migliari Branco, Camila Carbone Prado, Roberto José Negrão Nogueira
OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus infection can result in the early impairment of anthropometric indicators in children and adolescents. However, combined antiretroviral therapy has improved, in addition to the immune response and viral infection, the weight and height development in infected individuals. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effect of combined antiretroviral on the growth development of human immunodeficiency virus infected children and adolescents. SOURCE OF DATA: A systematic review was performed...
April 13, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659973/the-diagnostic-challenge-of-acquired-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-in-children-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Elise Schapkaitz, Tanya Marié Schickerling
Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disease in children. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, acquired TTP remains a challenging disease due to the lack of a simple diagnostic test and the variable response to plasma exchange. Herein, we describe a case of a 5-year-old of black ethnicity boy who presented with a sudden onset of fatigue and body aches. Laboratory investigations revealed a thrombotic microangiopathic manifestation. TTP was diagnosed, and plasma exchange and corticosteroids were initiated, with an excellent response...
April 12, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656449/regimen-durability-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-initiating-first-line-art-in-a-large-public-sector-hiv-cohort-in-south-africa
#16
Rachael Bonawitz, Alana T Brennan, Lawrence Long, Timothy Heeren, Mhairi Maskew, Ian Sanne, Matthew P Fox
INTRODUCTION: In April 2010 tenofovir and abacavir replaced stavudine in public-sector first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children under 20 years old in South Africa. The association of both abacavir and tenofovir with fewer side-effects and toxicities compared to stavudine could translate to increased durability of tenofovir or abacavir-based regimens. We evaluated changes over time in regimen durability for pediatric patients 3 to 19 years of age at 8 public sector clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa...
April 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652972/-genetic-analysis-of-the-mutations-in-hiv-1-infected-population-in-ecuador
#17
Manuel González-González, Consuelo Correa-Sierra, Katherine Hermida-Álava, Ana Machado-Díaz, L Fernando Gómez-Andrade, Martha Castillo-Segovia, C Lissette Pérez-Santos, Vivian Kourí-Cardellá
Background The international recommendations of antiretroviral treatment include resistance tests to guide the treatment regimen in each patient, which is not available on a regular basis in Ecuador. Aim To describe mutations that confer resistance to antiretrovirals in a population of Ecuadorian patients. Methods Plasma samples from 101 HIV-1 patients with failure to antiretroviral therapy, divided into 15 children and 86 adults, were studied with the GS Junior (Roche) and the sequences were analyzed with the DeepChek program...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651922/prior-exposure-to-intimate-partner-violence-associated-with-less-hiv-testing-among-young-women
#18
Yukiko Washio, Elizabeth Novack Wright, Annet Davis-Vogel, Jesse Chittams, Claire Anagnostopulos, Linda M Kilby, Anne M Teitelman
Low-income minority women are disproportionately represented among those living with HIV in the United States. They are also at risk for the SAVA (substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS) syndemic issues. Women who have recently given birth are at high risk for substance use and intimate partner violence (IPV), and HIV testing is not routinely administered during the postpartum visit. We explored the relationship between substance use, IPV, and HIV testing among low-income young adult women attending Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), a federally supported nutrition program...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649264/age-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-and-cell-associated-hiv-1-dna-levels-in-hiv-1-infected-children
#19
Louise Kuhn, Maria Paximadis, Bianca Da Costa Dias, Shayne Loubser, Renate Strehlau, Faeezah Patel, Stephanie Shiau, Ashraf Coovadia, Elaine J Abrams, Caroline T Tiemessen
BACKGROUND: The latent viral reservoir is the major obstacle to achieving HIV remission and necessitates life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected individuals. Studies in adults and children have found that initiating ART soon after infection is associated with a reduction in the size of the HIV-1 reservoir. Here we quantified cell-associated HIV-1 DNA in early-treated but currently older HIV-infected children suppressed on ART. METHODS: The study participants comprised of a cohort of 146 early-treated children with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml enrolled as part of a clinical trial in Johannesburg, South Africa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648942/a-phenomenology-of-informal-caregiving-for-hiv-aids-in-india-exploring-women-s-search-for-authoritative-knowledge-self-efficacy-and-resilience
#20
Shrivridhi Shukla, Judith L M McCoyd
Women provide informal caregiving across the world and are often expected to provide care even when ailing themselves. We explore the lived experience of 33 impoverished married Indian women living with HIV, caring for their husbands and/or children living with HIV. Drawing on concepts of authoritative knowledge (AK), self-efficacy and resilience, we found a trajectory that reveals barriers to accessing care, yet we also found that women developed strengths and resiliency. Women gather information, develop 'environ-info,' and deliberatively weigh AK from health workers, family/friends' advice, and their own experiences...
April 12, 2018: Health Care for Women International
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