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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434056/beyond-the-primary-endpoint-paradigm-a-test-of-intervention-effect-in-hiv-behavioral-intervention-trials-with-numerous-correlated-outcomes
#1
Jessica M Harwood, Robert E Weiss, W Scott Comulada
Behavioral interventions are increasingly based on holistic approaches to health with an understanding that health-related behaviors are linked. A motivating example is provided by the Philani study, an intervention trial conducted to improve the health of South African mothers and their children. Inter-related health problems around maternal alcohol use, malnutrition, and HIV were addressed; multiple endpoints were targeted. The traditional hypothesis testing paradigm that tests significance on one primary outcome did not suffice...
April 22, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431108/investments-in-children-s-health-and-the-kenyan-cash-transfer-for-orphans-and-vulnerable-children-evidence-from-an-unconditional-cash-transfer-scheme
#2
Carolyn Huang, Kavita Singh, Sudhanshu Handa, Carolyn Halpern, Audrey Pettifor, Harsha Thirumurthy
Child mortality is one of the most pressing global health and policy issues in the developing world. The leading drivers of death-pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria-are preventable and treatable. However, these illnesses are exacerbated by a lack of accessible nutrition, water, basic and preventive health services, and sanitary living conditions-all factors which are more likely to disproportionately impact the poor. We examine whether Kenya's largest social protection impacts children's incidence of upper respiratory illness...
April 18, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426519/toward-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-special-considerations-of-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding
#3
Amy L Slogrove, Polly Clayden, Elaine J Abrams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are prepared for introduction in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), we consider the current evidence related to dosing, efficacy and safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding of next-generation first-line and second-line ART regimens proposed for imminent introduction in the global marketplace. RECENT FINDINGS: Pregnancy pharmacokinetic considerations include potentially insufficient efavirenz exposure if dosed at 400 mg/day, the need for twice daily darunavir dosing and the paucity of data related to tenofovir alafenamide and dolutegravir dosing, safety and efficacy...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424189/diagnostic-criteria-for-severe-acute-malnutrition-among-infants-aged-under-6-mo
#4
Martha Mwangome, Moses Ngari, Greg Fegan, Neema Mturi, Mohammed Shebe, Evasius Bauni, James A Berkley
Background: There is an increasing recognition of malnutrition among infants under 6 mo of age (U6M). Current diagnosis criteria use weight-for-length z scores (WLZs), but the 2006 WHO standards exclude infants shorter than 45 cm. In older children, midupper arm circumference (MUAC) predicts mortality better than does WLZ. Outcomes may also be influenced by exposure to HIV and size or gestational age at birth. Diagnostic thresholds for WLZ, MUAC, and other indexes have not been fully evaluated against mortality risk among U6M infants...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419277/prevention-of-tb-using-rifampicin-plus-isoniazid-reduces-nevirapine-concentrations-in-hiv-exposed-infants
#5
Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Jennifer D Hoffmann, Saba Shembe, Regina Msandiwa, Lubbe Wiesner, Sithembiso Velaphi, Sanjay G Lala, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson, Kelly E Dooley
Background: Newborns of HIV-infected mothers are given daily doses of nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Infants born to mothers with TB should also receive TB preventive therapy. TB preventive regimens include isoniazid for 6 months or rifampicin plus isoniazid for 3 months (RH preventive therapy). The effect of concomitant RH preventive therapy on nevirapine concentrations in infants is unknown. Patients and methods: Tshepiso was a prospective case-control cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women with and without TB whose newborn infants received standard doses of nevirapine for HIV prophylaxis...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419200/switching-to-efavirenz-versus-remaining-on-ritonavir-boosted-lopinavir-in-hiv-infected-children-exposed-to-nevirapine-long-term-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial
#6
Pamela M Murnane, Renate Strehlau, Stephanie Shiau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileke Mbete, Gillian Hunt, Elaine J Abrams, Ashraf Coovadia, Louise Kuhn
Background: We previously demonstrated the non-inferiority of switching to efavirenz (EFV) versus remaining on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) for virologic control in HIV-infected children exposed to nevirapine (NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Here we assess outcomes up to four years post-randomization. Methods: From 2010-2013, 298 NVP-exposed HIV-infected children ≥3 years of age were randomized to switch to EFV or remain on LPV/r in Johannesburg, South Africa (Clinicaltrials...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419006/plasma-interferon-gamma-inducible-protein-10-ip10-level-associates-with-abnormal-memory-b-cells-phenotypes-in-perinatal-hiv-infection
#7
German A Contreras, James R Murphy, Gloria P Heresi
We demonstrate for perinatally HIV infected children and adolescents receiving cART and in good clinical status with respect to HIV disease that high concentrations of IP10 associate with increased exhausted memory B cells.
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412679/epidemic-characteristics-of-main-infectious-diseases-in-yantai-city-between-2010-and-2012-and-prevention-strategy-research
#8
Huimin Gao, Wenbo Luan, Maobo Wang, Yanjie Dong
To investigate the epidemic characteristics and prevention strategies of main infectious diseases. From 2010 to 2012, 23 notifiable diseases were reported in Yantai with average reported cases of 17,376. The morbidity was the highest in 2012 and the lowest in 2011. The accumulated death toll was 101 with the highest death rate in 2011 and the lowest in 2012. Major class A and B infectious diseases included viral hepatitis, phthisis, syphilis, clap and dysentery. The major class C infectious disease was hand-foot-and-mouth disease every year...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410374/factors-influencing-postnatal-option-b-participation-and-breastfeeding-duration-among-hiv-positive-women-in-lilongwe-district-malawi-a-qualitative-study
#9
Valerie L Flax, Gloria Hamela, Innocent Mofolo, Mina C Hosseinipour, Irving F Hoffman, Suzanne Maman
To ensure the health of mothers and children, prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs test women for HIV, engage HIV-positive women in care, and promote recommended breastfeeding practices. Under Malawi's Option B+ PMTCT program, ~20% of women are lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) and little is known about their breastfeeding practices. The purpose of this study is to describe facilitators and barriers to Option B+ participation and how participation influences breastfeeding duration. We conducted in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women in Option B+ (n = 32) or LTFU from Option B+ (n = 32)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406952/individual-and-contextual-factors-associated-with-appropriate-healthcare-seeking-behavior-among-febrile-children-in-tanzania
#10
Juma Adinan, Damian J Damian, Neema R Mosha, Innocent B Mboya, Redempta Mamseri, Sia E Msuya
INTRODUCTION: Fever in malaria endemic areas, has been shown to strongly predict malaria infection and is a key symptom influencing malaria treatment. WHO recommended confirmation testing for Plasmodium spp. before initiation of antimalarials due to increased evidence of the decrease of morbidity and mortality from malaria, decreased malaria associated fever, and increased evidence of high prevalence of non-malaria fever. To immediately diagnose and promptly offer appropriate management, caretakers of children with fever should seek care where these services can be offered; in health facilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403051/modelling-cd4-t-cell-recovery-in-hepatitis-c-and-hiv-co-infected-children-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
Adedeji O Majekodunmi, Claire Thorne, Ruslan Malyuta, Alla Volokha, Robin E Callard, Nigel J Klein, Joanna Lewis
BACKGROUND: The effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection on CD4 T cell recovery in treated HIV-infected children is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To compare CD4 T cell recovery in HIV/HCV coinfected children with recovery in HIV monoinfected children. METHOD: We studied 355 HIV monoinfected and 46 HIV/HCV coinfected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) during a median follow-up period of 4.2 years (interquartile range: 2.7-5...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400955/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-revised-who-guidelines-for-management-of-childhood-pneumonia-in-74-countdown-countries
#12
Shanshan Zhang, Beatrice Incardona, Shamim A Qazi, Karin Stenberg, Harry Campbell, Harish Nair
BACKGROUND: Treatment of childhood pneumonia is a key priority in low-income countries, with substantial resource implications. WHO revised their guidelines for the management of childhood pneumonia in 2013. We estimated and compared the resource requirements, total direct medical cost and cost-effectiveness of childhood pneumonia management in 74 countries with high burden of child mortality (Countdown countries) using the 2005 and 2013 revised WHO guidelines. METHODS: We constructed a cost model using a bottom up approach to estimate the cost of childhood pneumonia management using the 2005 and 2013 WHO guidelines from a public provider perspective in 74 Countdown countries...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399423/bone-mineral-density-and-vitamin-d-concentration-the-challenges-in-taking-care-of-children-and-adolescents-infected-with-hiv
#13
Fabiana Bononi Carmo, Maria Teresa Terreri, Regina Célia de Menezes Succi, Suenia Vasconcelos Beltrão, Aida de Fátima Tomé Barbosa Gouvea, Erica Regina Cruz Paulino, Daisy Maria Machado
The increase in life expectancy for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has resulted in health complications related to a chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) alterations and vitamin D concentrations in HIV-infected children and adolescents and to verify the variations in those parameters during a 12-month interval. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a dual period of evaluation was conducted in 57 patients perinatally HIV-infected and one patient with sexual abuse in early infancy...
April 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399356/understanding-the-influence-of-socioeconomic-environment-on-paediatric-anti-retroviral-treatment-coverage-towards-closing-treatment-gaps-in-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Daniel A Adeyinka, Meirion R Evans, Chamberline E Ozigbu, Hugo van Woerden, Esther F Adeyinka, Olanrewaju Oladimeji, Chris Aimakhu, Deborah Odoh, Dick Chamla
OBJECTIVE: Many sub-Saharan African countries have massively scaled-up their antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, but many national programmes still show large gaps in paediatric ART coverage making it challenging to reduce AIDS-related deaths among HIV-infected children. We sought to identify enablers of paediatric ART coverage in Africa by examining the relationship between paediatric ART coverage and socioeconomic parameters measured at the population level so as to accelerate reaching the 90-90-90 targets...
March 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399347/conjunctival-tumors-review-of-clinical-features-risks-biomarkers-and-outcomes-the-2017-j-donald-m-gass-lecture
#15
Carol L Shields, Jason L Chien, Thamolwan Surakiatchanukul, Kareem Sioufi, Sara E Lally, Jerry A Shields
Conjunctival tumors encompass a broad range of diagnoses. The 3 most important malignant tumors include ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) (14%), melanoma (12%), and lymphoma (7%). Conjunctival malignancies are rarely found in children. Regarding OSSN, pre-disposing conditions include chronic solar radiation, immune deficiency (HIV), organ transplant, autoimmune conditions, xeroderma pigmentosum, and chronic exposure to cigarette smoke. OSSN is managed surgically or with topical/injection immunotherapy or chemotherapy...
March 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399056/the-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-of-children-with-respiratory-infections-in-botswana
#16
Matthew S Kelly, Michael G Surette, Marek Smieja, Jeffrey M Pernica, Laura Rossi, Kathy Luinstra, Andrew P Steenhoff, Kristen A Feemster, David M Goldfarb, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Sefelani Boiditswe, Ikanyeng Rulaganyang, Charles Muthoga, Letang Gaofiwe, Tiny Mazhani, John F Rawls, Coleen K Cunningham, Samir S Shah, Patrick C Seed
BACKGROUND: Nearly half of child pneumonia deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Microbial communities in the nasopharynx are a reservoir for pneumonia pathogens and remain poorly described in African children. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children with pneumonia (N=204), children with upper respiratory infection symptoms (N=55), and healthy children (N=60) in Botswana between April 2012 and April 2014. We sequenced the V3 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and used partitioning around medoids to cluster samples into microbiota biotypes...
April 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399003/a-comprehensive-response-the-role-of-nonstate-actors-in-the-global-plan
#17
Robert J Vitillo, Francesca Merico, Anna S Levine, Taylor Buonocore
Nonstate actors-especially faith-based organizations, other nongovernmental organizations, groups of people living with HIV and AIDS, and private sector organizations-have been deeply committed to supporting governments reach the goals of the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan). This article highlights the role and contributions of select faith-based organizations and some private sector and philanthropic partners, as well as the work of other organizations...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399002/understanding-the-role-and-impact-of-effective-country-and-community-leadership-in-progress-toward-the-global-plan
#18
Charles Lyons, Yogan Pillay
Individual leadership and leaders have played pivotal roles in the history of efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. The goal of this article is to reflect on and understand how leadership and leaders have impacted and enabled the success of the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive (Global Plan). To accomplish this goal, multiple interviews were conducted with individuals in positions of leadership who had been identified as people whose actions drove progress...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399001/realizing-the-promise-of-the-global-plan-engaging-communities-and-promoting-the-health-and-human-rights-of-women-living-with-hiv
#19
Rebecca Matheson, Sophie Brion, Aditi Sharma, Sophie Dilmitis, Kathrin Schmitz, Stuart Kean, Katie Filous, Maurine Murenga, Esca Scheepers, Patricia Ukoli, Lillian Mworeko, Anandi Yuvaraj
The Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive highlighted the need to put the health and well-being of women and mothers at the center of efforts to prevent vertical transmission. This article will examine a selection of community engagement practices in 3 key areas: (1) as an accountability tool, (2) in service delivery, and (3) as a facilitator of human rights. The lived experiences of women living with HIV as recipients of and participants in services for the prevention of vertical transmission provide both the framework for an exploration of best community engagement practices and suggestions for the way forward...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399000/overcoming-health-system-challenges-for-women-and-children-living-with-hiv-through-the-global-plan
#20
Surbhi Modi, Tegan Callahan, Jessica Rodrigues, Mwikemo D Kajoka, Helen M Dale, Judite O Langa, Marilena Urso, Matsepeli I Nchephe, Helene Bongdene, Sostena Romano, Laura N Broyles
To meet the ambitious targets set by the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan), the initial 22 priority countries quickly developed innovative approaches for overcoming long-standing health systems challenges and providing HIV testing and treatment to pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. The Global Plan spurred programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission to integrate HIV-related care and treatment into broader maternal, newborn, and child health services; expand the effectiveness of the health workforce through task sharing; extend health services into communities; strengthen supply chain and commodity management systems; reduce diagnostic and laboratory hurdles; and strengthen strategic supervision and mentorship...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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