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HIV children

Anne Gatuguta, Katherine G Merrill, Manuela Colombini, Seyi Soremekun, Janet Seeley, Isaac Mwanzo, Karen Devries
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, most sexual violence survivors either do not access healthcare, access healthcare late or do not complete treatment. To design interventions that ensure optimal healthcare for survivors, it is important to understand the characteristics of those who do and do not access healthcare. In this paper, we aim to: compare the characteristics of survivors who present for healthcare to those of survivors reporting violence on national surveys; understand the healthcare services provided to survivors; and, identify barriers to treatment...
June 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
Natapol Pumipuntu, Supawadee Piratae
Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a crucial zoonotic disease caused by worldwide distributing parasitic protozoa called Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidiosis becomes a major public health and veterinary concern by affecting in human and various host range species of animals. Essentially, its importance of infection is increasing because of the high incidence in young children, immunocompromised persons, or immunodeficiency syndrome patients, especially in HIV/AIDS, and it is also one of the most causes of mortality in those patients who infected with Cryptosporidium spp...
May 2018: Veterinary World
J Odayar, M X Rangaka, A Zerbe, G Petro, J A McIntyre, T K Phillips, E J Abrams, L Myer
BACKGROUND: The burden of active tuberculosis (TB) in pregnancy compared with preconception and postpartum is unclear, particularly with universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in pregnancy. METHODS: We retrospectively compared active TB incidence in the 18 months preconception, during pregnancy and up to 6 months postpartum in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive women attending antenatal care at a primary health care facility in Cape Town from 2013 to 2014...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Kendalem Asmare Atalell
BACKGROUND: Providing preferred methods of contraceptive for HIV-positive women and avoiding unintended pregnancy is one of the primary means of preventing mother to child transmission of HIV. This study assessed the prevalence of contraceptive use and method preference among HIV-positive women in Amhara region, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among HIV-positive women in three referral hospitals of Amhara region. Data were collected by interviewing HIV-positive women using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire...
June 18, 2018: BMC Women's Health
C Horwood, L Haskins, I M Engebretsen, S Phakathi, C Connolly, A Coutsoudis, L Spies
BACKGROUND: Increasing the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to 50% in the first six months of life is one of six major global targets set by the United Nations Decade of Nutrition, and is essential to achieve the sustainable development goals to eradicate hunger and end malnutrition by 2030. METHODS: A survey using multistage random sampling design included 99 primary health care (PHC) clinics in all 11 districts in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). All mothers and caregivers of infants 14 weeks of age attending the clinics in the study period were requested to participate in a structured interview to explore feeding practices since birth...
June 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Several studies reported that the majority of deaths in HIV-infected people are documented in their early antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow-ups. Early mortality refers to death of people on ART for follow up period of below 24 months due to any cause. The current study assessed predictors of early HIV mortality in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: We have conducted a retrospective analysis of 5299 patient records dating from June 2003- March 2015. To estimate survival time and compare the time to event among the different groups of patients, we used a Kaplan Meir curve and log-rank test...
2018: PloS One
Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Jesmin Antony, Sharon E Straus, Huda M Ashoor, Yaron Finkelstein, Paul A Khan, Marco Ghassemi, Erik Blondal, John D Ivory, Brian Hutton, Kevin Gough, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Erin Lillie, Afshin Vafaei, Andrea C Tricco
BACKGROUND: Nearly all newly infected children acquire Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) during pregnancy, labour or breastfeeding from untreated HIV-positive mothers. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the standard care for pregnant women with HIV. However, evidence of ART effectiveness and harms in infants and children of HIV-positive pregnant women exposed to ART has been largely inconclusive. The aim of our systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) was to evaluate the comparative safety and effectiveness of ART drugs in children exposed to maternal HIV and ART (or no ART/placebo) across different study designs...
2018: PloS One
I F Ogbonna, I J Emodi, A N Ikefuna, N C Ojinnaka
Background: Nigeria has the highest burden of paediatric HIV in the world. HIV infection may result in significant life stressors, on both the infected children and their caregivers. Methods: This included a hospital-based cross-sectional and comparative study. Subjects and controls who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled consecutively. Their socio-demographic variables were obtained and GHQ-28 was used to assess their psychosocial status. Results: A total of 154 caregivers of HIV-infected children (subjects) and 154 caregivers of HIV-negative children (controls) were enrolled into this study...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Wendi Da, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhiyong Shen
Effective secondary prevention of HIV infections requires knowledge about changes in sexual behaviors after diagnosis among people living with HIV (PLHIV), yet there is a dearth of literature assessing gender-specific patterns and correlates of such changes among heterosexual PLHIV in China. Data used in the current study were derived from a cross-sectional survey conducted from 2012 to 2013 among 1212 heterosexual sexually active PLHIV in Guangxi, China. Most participants reduced sexual frequency (71.2%), reduced or maintained the same number of sexual partners (96...
June 17, 2018: AIDS Care
Bakht Ali, Nighat Nisar, Faryal Nawab
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is fifth leading cause of mortality and disability among infectious diseases worldwide. HIV burden is increasing annually and compliance with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is low among intravenous drug users, especially in developing countries. Aim: To determine the adherence level to ART among HIV-positive intravenous drug users in Karachi Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Jonathan Huang, Brenda Eskenazi, Riana Bornman, Stephen Rauch, Jonathan Chevrier
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, conducted in low- and middle-income countries to control malaria, may result in high exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), or pyrethroids. Animal studies suggest in utero exposure to these chemicals may increase childhood infection frequency. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between maternal DDT/E and pyrethroid metabolite concentration and child infection associations in an IRS setting in which susceptibility factors are common and infections are leading causes of child morbidity and mortality...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Brian Wahl, Katherine L O'Brien, Adena Greenbaum, Anwesha Majumder, Li Liu, Yue Chu, Ivana Lukšić, Harish Nair, David A McAllister, Harry Campbell, Igor Rudan, Robert Black, Maria Deloria Knoll
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine are now used in most countries. To monitor global and regional progress towards improving child health and to inform national policies for disease prevention and treatment, we prepared global, regional, and national disease burden estimates for these pathogens in children from 2000 to 2015. METHODS: Using WHO and Maternal and Child Epidemiology Estimation collaboration country-specific estimates of pneumonia and meningitis mortality and pneumonia morbidity from 2000 to 2015, we applied pneumococcal and Hib cause-specific proportions to estimate pathogen-specific deaths and cases...
July 2018: Lancet Global Health
Jennifer Beard, Anne Skalicky, Busisiwe Nkosi, Tom Zhuwau, Mandisa Cakwe, Jonathon Simon, Mary Bachman DeSilva
The Amajuba Child Health and Wellbeing Research Project measured the impact of orphaning due to HIV/AIDS on South African households between 2004 and 2007. Community engagement was a central component of the project and extended through 2010. We describe researcher engagement with the community to recruit participants, build local buy-in, stimulate interest in study findings, and promote integration of government social welfare services for families and children affected by HIV/AIDS. This narrative documents the experience of researchers, drawing also on project reports, public documents, and published articles, with the objective of documenting lessons learned in this collaboration between researchers from two universities and a community in South Africa during a period that spanned seven years...
June 1, 2018: Global Health Promotion
Amy L Slogrove, Renaud Becquet, Ellen G Chadwick, Hélène C F Côté, Shaffiq Essajee, Rohan Hazra, Valériane Leroy, Mary Mahy, Maurine Murenga, Jacqueline Wambui Mwangi, Laura Oyiengo, Nigel Rollins, Martina Penazzato, George R Seage, Lena Serghides, Marissa Vicari, Kathleen M Powis
Great gains were achieved with the introduction of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, including improved child survival. Transition to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on surviving, thriving, and transforming, representing an important shift to a broader public health goal, the achievement of which holds the promise of longer-term individual and societal benefits. A similar shift is needed with respect to outcomes for infants born to women living with HIV (WLHIV). Programming to prevent vertical HIV transmission has been successful in increasingly achieving a goal of HIV-free survival for infants born to WLHIV...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Jamie W Krashin, Lisa B Haddad, Hannock Tweya, Jane Chiwoko, Wingston Ng'ambi, Bernadette Samala, Thomas Chaweza, Jennifer H Tang, Mina C Hosseinipour, Sam Phiri
As access to antiretroviral therapy increases, more HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa may desire fertility. We conducted a cross-sectional study of reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and practices to identify factors associated with desired fertility among women and men receiving care at two large public HIV clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. Research assistants administered questionnaires to participants. We performed descriptive, bivariable and multivariable analysis of factors related to desired fertility and of factors related to contraceptive non-use among participants who did not desire fertility...
2018: PloS One
Naman S Shetty, Ira Shah
Isoniazid (INH)-induced peripheral neuritis is not uncommonly reported in adults, especially those with malnutrition and alcoholism, but it is very rare in children. INH leads to peripheral neuritis by causing a deficiency in the serum level of pyridoxine which depends on the dose of INH, duration of treatment and the patient's nutritional and acetylator status. A 12-year-old girl developed tingling and numbness of the lower limbs after commencing anti-tuberculous therapy which included INH 10 mg/kg/day. The symptoms continued despite the dose being reduced to 5 mg/kg/day...
June 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Jan-Walter De Neve, Omar Karlsson, Lelani Coetzee, Henning Schröder, Subu Subramanian, Till Bärnighausen, Sebastian Vollmer
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether national antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage is associated with changes in elderly living arrangements. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis using 103 nationally representative surveys from 28 African countries between 1991 and 2015. METHODS: The sample consisted of individuals aged at least 60 years old. We investigated how three measures of living arrangements of older people have changed with ART coverage: (i) the number of older individuals living without prime-age adults; (ii) the number of older individuals living with only dependent children (i...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Kari C Kugler, Kate Guastaferro, Chad E Shenk, Sarah J Beal, Kathleen M Zadzora, Jennie G Noll
Children with substantiated child maltreatment (CM) experience adverse health outcomes. However, it is unclear whether substantiation vs. an investigation not resulting in substantiation has a greater impact on subsequent adolescent health. Propensity scores were used to examine the effect of investigated reports on the subsequent health of 503 adolescent females. CM was categorized into three levels: 1) investigated and substantiated, 2) investigated but unsubstantiated, and 3) no investigation. Models using inverse propensity score weights estimated the effect of an investigation on subsequent teen motherhood, HIV-risk behaviors, drug use, and depressive symptoms...
June 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Nidhi Prabhakar, Chirag K Ahuja, Niranjan Khandelwal
Bilateral basal ganglia lesions are a common non-specific finding seen in many diseases. One of the differential diagnoses for it, in a child, is kernicterus occurring due to hyperbilirubinemia. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common cause of severe hyperbilirubinemia. A 1-year old child presented to the hospital with history of generalized dystonia in the previous 3 days. MRI showed evidence of symmetrical lesions in bilateral globus pallidus, which were hyperintense on T2/FLAIR and isointense on T1...
April 2018: Annals of Neurosciences
Dickens Otieno Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Enos Masini, Martien Willem Borgdorff
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya, assess the magnitude of TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identify risk factors for mortality during TB treatment. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Kenyan national TB program data for patients enrolled from 2013 through 2015. A total of 23 753 children aged less than 15 years were included in the analysis. Survival analysis was performed with censorship at 9 months and mortality was the main outcome...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
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