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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228317/leukocyte-telomere-length-at-birth-and-during-the-early-life-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-following-in-utero-exposure-to-antiretrovirals
#1
Abhinav Ajaykumar, Hugo Soudeyns, Fatima Kakkar, Jason Brophy, Ari Bitnun, Ariane Alimenti, Arianne Y K Albert, Deborah M Money, Hélène C F Côté
Background: Maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy could impact the health of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children, as some antiretrovirals cross the placenta and can inhibit telomerase. Our objective was to compare HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at birth and in early life, and investigate any relationship with cART exposure. Methods: HEU and HUU children's blood LTL was compared cross-sectionally at birth, and during the first three years of life...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227466/morbidity-and-mortality-of-a-cohort-of-peruvian-hiv-infected-children-2003-2012
#2
Amira N Baker, Angela M Bayer, Rolando M Viani, Lenka Kolevic, Myung-Shin Sim, Jaime G Deville
BACKGROUND: Data on pediatric HIV in Peru is limited. The National Institute of Child Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño: INSN) cares for the most HIV-infected children under age 18 in the country. We describe the outcomes of children seen at INSN's HIV clinic over the 10 years when antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions became available in 2004. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of INSN HIV clinic patients between 2003-2012...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227462/psychiatric-disorders-antiretroviral-medication-adherence-and-viremia-in-a-cohort-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-young-adults
#3
Amelia Bucek, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Stephanie Benson, Patricia Warne, Elaine J Abrams, Katherine S Elkington, Curtis Dolezal, Andrew Wiznia, Claude Ann Mellins
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents and young adults (AYA) are at risk for sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and mental health and substance use problems that, in HIV-infected adults, predict non-adherence. Studies on the relationship between psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUD) and adherence among PHIV+ AYA are limited, but may be important to informing evidence-based interventions to promote adherence. METHODS: Data were analyzed from three annual follow-up interviews (FU2-4, N=179) in a longitudinal study of PHIV+ AYA...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227461/population-pharmacokinetics-of-lopinavir-in-severely-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-and-the-effect-on-treatment-outcomes
#4
Moherndran Archary, Helen Mcllleron, Raziya Bobat, Phillip La Russa, Thobekile Sibaya, Lubbe Wiesner, Stefanie Hennig
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malnutrition remains a common clinical syndrome at antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Physiological changes due to malnutrition and during nutritional recovery could affect the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition were randomised to early or delayed initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir, abacavir and lamivudine using WHO weight-band dosage charts...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227424/effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-growth-parameters-of-children-with-hiv-infection
#5
Anju Seth, Rajeev Kumar Malhotra, Rohini Gupta, Jagdish Chandra, Praveen Kumar, Sarita Singh, Garima Sharma
BACKGROUND: Children living with HIV (CLHIV) commonly experience growth failure. We report growth parameters in CLHIV at baseline and during 3 years of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Records of CLHIV who had completed at least 3 years on ART were reviewed after excluding subjects who died, were lost to follow-up or developed treatment failure to assess impact of sustained administration of ART. Height-for-age (HFA) and body mass index for age (BFA) Z scores were calculated, and proportion of CLHIV with wasting and stunting estimated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after starting ART using the linear mixed model...
January 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227133/prevalence-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-associated-factors-amongst-women-attending-antenatal-care-at-outapi-clinic-namibia-a-descriptive-survey
#6
Leonard T Bikinesi, Robert Mash, Kate Joyner
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant and largely hidden public health problem for all women and, during pregnancy, can have significant effects on the health of both mother and the unborn baby. Previous Namibian studies suggest rates of IPV as high as 36%, although few studies have been conducted in primary care. AIM: To determine the prevalence of IPV amongst women attending antenatal care. SETTING: Outapi primary care clinic, Namibia...
December 6, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225071/clinical-characteristics-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-lentiflavum-disease-in-adult-patients
#7
Kazuma Yagi, Kozo Morimoto, Makoto Ishii, Ho Namkoong, Satoshi Okamori, Takanori Asakura, Shoji Suzuki, Takahiro Asami, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Yohei Funatsu, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Hirofumi Kamata, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Atsuyuki Kurashima, Naoki Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium lentiflavum organisms are slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria often associated with immunocompromised state and cervical lymphadenitis in young children. However, little is known about the clinical importance of pulmonary infection with M. lentiflavum in adults. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all adults who met the diagnostic criteria of pulmonary M. lentiflavum disease at Keio University Hospital and Fukujuji Hospital from 2001 to 2015...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224754/prevalence-of-chronic-ear-disease-among-hiv-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
David C Ianacone, Alden F Smith, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Robbert J H Ensink, Farrel Buchinsky, Abebe Melaku, Glenn Isaacson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV+, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-treated children and compare this to the prevalence in healthy children of similar age living in a similar setting. INTRODUCTION: From previous clinical work in Ethiopia, we suspected that chronic middle ear disease was common both in the general pediatric population and especially among children with HIV/AIDS. Few studies have examined the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV + children, particularly in those treated with HAART...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221651/-the-myth-of-virgin-cleansing-latest-news-on-an-archaic-magico-religious-practice
#9
P Charlier, F Bou Abdallah, L Brun, V Hoang-Oppermann, S Deo, Y Mostefai-Dulac, M-F Mamzer, C Hervé
BACKGROUND: In the medical anthropology section of the Nanterre Hospital (France) for migrants and refugees, three cases were recorded of "virgin cleansing" in sub-Saharan African countries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: These consisted of sexual assaults (2 instances of rape and 1 of sexual interference) on sexually immature females (young girls) by patients with sexually transmitted infections (mainly HIV, syphilis) hoping they might thereby be cured. DISCUSSION: These particularly atrocious hetero-aggressive sexual practices based on magical arguments are unfortunately universal and are not limited to a specific culture...
December 5, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220598/hope-for-the-future-but-fear-the-risk-of-stigma-ethiopian-family-caregivers-lived-experience-of-caring-for-their-hiv-positive-child-two-years-after-starting-antiretroviral-treatment
#10
Mulatu Biru, Pia Lunqvist, Mitikie Molla, Degu Jerene, Inger Hallström
Family caregivers are believed to be the primary source of support for HIV-affected children. There is limited evidence about practices of support for caregivers, to strengthen them and to enhance the welfare of HIV positive children, especially in African settings. Our aim was therefore to illuminate caregivers' lived experiences of caring for a child in Ethiopia 2 years after the child was enrolled in antiretroviral therapy. Qualitative interviews with 18 family caregivers of 18 children were performed and analyzed using an inductive design with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach...
December 8, 2017: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219134/does-infant-feeding-method-influence-the-incidence-and-pattern-of-morbidities-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-uninfected-nigerian-infants
#11
Olusoga Babatunde Ogunfowora, Tinuade Adetutu Ogunlesi, Abiodun Folashade Adekanmbi, Victor Ayodeji Ayeni
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants enrolled into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program generally receive antiretroviral therapy (ARV), but the feeding methods differ based on several socioeconomic and cultural differences. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the incidence and pattern of morbidities among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) Nigerian infants and determine any relationship with infant feeding methods...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
December 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218008/improving-the-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-difficult-but-essential-task-for-a-successful-hiv-treatment-clinical-points-of-view-and-practical-considerations
#13
REVIEW
Simona A Iacob, Diana G Iacob, Gheorghita Jugulete
HIV infection is responsible for one the most devastating human pandemics. The advent of antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of the pandemic and saved millions of lives. Complex therapeutic regimens have been introduced since 1996 and have contributed to the transformation of HIV infection into a treatable chronic diseases. New types of potent antiretrovirals and their combinations, including "once daily" treatment, have simplified the regimens and diminished side effects. Nevertheless the adherence to antiretroviral therapy remains unsatisfactory and varies between 27 and 80% across different population in various studies, compared with the required level of 95%...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216967/caring-for-transgender-people-looking-beyond-the-hype
#14
Jason J Ong, Darren B Russell, Kevan Wylie
This special issue of Sexual Health presents a collection of articles that addresses issues facing transgender individuals that are particularly challenging. Issues covered range from sexual health education in schools, the need for accurate epidemiological measurements, the perils of inaccurate diagnostic labels of transgender children, legal issues, the disproportionately high prevalence of HIV and sexually transmissible infections (STIs), and the role of primary care. We need to think critically, constructively and compassionately about transgender people...
October 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216183/presentation-of-life-threatening-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-disease-in-malawian-children-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
Calman A MacLennan, Chisomo L Msefula, Esther N Gondwe, James J Gilchrist, Paul Pensulo, Wilson L Mandala, Grace Mwimaniwa, Meraby Banda, Julia Kenny, Lorna K Wilson, Amos Phiri, Jenny M MacLennan, Elizabeth M Molyneux, Malcolm E Molyneux, Stephen M Graham
Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause invasive disease in African children that is often fatal. The clinical diagnosis of these infections is hampered by the absence of a clear clinical syndrome. Drug resistance means that empirical antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and currently no vaccine is available. The study objective was to identify risk factors for mortality among children presenting to hospital with invasive Salmonella disease in Africa. We conducted a prospective study enrolling consecutive children with microbiologically-confirmed invasive Salmonella disease admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, in 2006...
December 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214899/paid-staff-or-volunteers-does-it-make-a-difference-the-impact-of-staffing-on-child-outcomes-for-children-attending-community-based-programmes-in-south-africa-and-malawi
#16
Mark Tomlinson, Lorraine Sherr, Ana Macedo, Xanthe Hunt, Sarah Skeen
BACKGROUND: Globally, and in low and middle income countries (LMIC) specifically, there is a critical shortage of workers. The use of volunteers to support such care delivery systems has been examined, there is scant literature on the impact of volunteers on child outcome in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected communities. OBJECTIVES: To examine the differential impact of paid versus volunteer workforce in Community Based Organisations (CBOs) providing care to children and families affected by the HIV epidemic in South Africa and Malawi on child outcomes over time...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214096/childbearing-intentions-among-sexually-active-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-female-adolescents-in-south-africa
#17
David H Adler, Beau Abar, Thola Bennie, Rokhsanna Sadeghi, Linda-Gail Bekker
Women of reproductive age account for nearly half of all HIV-infected people worldwide. Childbearing intention among HIV-infected women is complicated by social and reproductive concerns related to their HIV status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected sexually active South African women aged 17 to 21 in order to compare their childbearing intentions and to identify predictors of the desire to have children among women with HIV. We found the rate of childbearing intention to be similarly high among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants (80 and 79% respectively, p=0...
July 2017: Journal of AIDS and HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212460/-the-co-authors-of-pregnancy-leveraging-men-s-sense-of-responsibility-and-other-factors-for-male-involvement-in-antenatal-services-in-kinshasa-drc
#18
Michelle M Gill, John Ditekemena, Aimé Loando, Vicky Ilunga, Marleen Temmerman, Franck Fwamba
BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to improve male involvement (MI), few male partners typically attend antenatal care (ANC). MI in ANC and interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission have been demonstrated to be beneficial for the HIV-positive mother and her child. This study aimed to explore factors influencing partner attendance and highlight interventions with potential to improve MI within a Congolese context. METHODS: This was an exploratory, qualitative study conducted in two urban and two semi-urban catchment areas of Kinshasa, DRC in June-September 2016...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211793/assessing-infection-control-practices-to-protect-health-care-workers-and-patients-in-malawi-from-nosocomial-transmission-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Robert J Flick, Adamson Munthali, Katherine Simon, Mina Hosseinipour, Maria H Kim, Lameck Mlauzi, Peter N Kazembe, Saeed Ahmed
Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in health settings threatens health care workers and people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Nosocomial transmission is reduced with implementation of infection control (IC) guidelines. The objective of this study is to describe implementation of TB IC measures in Malawi. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing anonymous health worker questionnaires, semi-structured interviews with facility managers, and direct observations at 17 facilities in central Malawi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211629/report-of-the-fifth-european-expert-meeting-on-rotavirus-vaccination-eerovac-utrecht-the-netherlands-20-22-march-2017
#20
Marieke L A de Hoog, Timo Vesikari, Carlo Giaquinto, Hans-Iko Huppertz, Federico Martinon-Torres, Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen
The Fifth European Expert Meeting on Rotavirus Vaccination was convened in Utrecht, The Netherlands, in March 2017. The 2-day meeting included invited lectures as well as original oral and poster presentations and brought together experts from 21 countries. Summary findings of the meeting include: Rotavirus vaccination programmes in Europe have resulted in reductions of 60-90% in rotavirus outpatient visits and hospitalizations. Long term trends indicate this impact is sustained over the years. Herd effects, protecting unvaccinated children and neonates too young to be vaccinated have been observed in many European countries...
December 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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