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Medium chain triglycerides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802793/pickering-emulsions-stabilized-by-biodegradable-block-copolymer-micelles-for-controlled-topical-drug-delivery
#1
Faiza Laredj-Bourezg, Marie-Alexandrine Bolzinger, Jocelyne Pelletier, Yves Chevalier
Surfactant-free biocompatible and biodegradable Pickering emulsions were investigated as vehicles for skin delivery of hydrophobic drugs. O/w emulsions of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil droplets loaded with all-trans retinol as a model hydrophobic drug were stabilized by block copolymer nanoparticles: either poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-b-PEG) or poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-b-PEG). Those innovative emulsions were prepared using two different processes allowing drug loading either inside oil droplets or inside both oil droplets and non-adsorbed block copolymer nanoparticles...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794309/enteral-formula-containing-egg-yolk-lecithin-improves-diarrhea
#2
Tetsuro Akashi, Ayano Muto, Yayoi Takahashi, Hiroshi Nishiyama
Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791828/energy-exchangers-with-lct-as-a-precision-method-for-diet-control-in-lchadd
#3
REVIEW
Renata Mozrzymas, Klaudia Konikowska, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) is a rare genetic disease. The LCHADD treatment is mainly based on special diet. In this diet, energy from long-chain triglycerides (LCT) cannot exceed 10%, however energy intake from the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) should increase. The daily intake of energy should be compatible with energy requirements and treatment should involve frequent meals including during the night to avoid periods of fasting. In fact, there are no recommendations for total content of LCT in all of the allowed food in the LCHADD diet...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790891/adenosine-a1-receptor-antagonism-abolished-the-anti-seizure-effects-of-exogenous-ketone-supplementation-in-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#4
Zsolt Kovács, Dominic P D'Agostino, Arpád Dobolyi, Csilla Ari
The state of therapeutic ketosis can be achieved by using the ketogenic diet (KD) or exogenous ketone supplementation. It was suggested previously that the adenosinergic system may be involved in the mediating effect of KD on suppressing seizure activity in different types of epilepsies, likely by means of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs). Thus, we tested in the present study whether exogenous ketone supplements (ketone ester: KE, 2.5 g/kg/day; ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT: KSMCT, 2.5 g/kg/day) applied sub-chronically (for 7 days) by intragastric gavage can modulate absence epileptic activity in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758166/a-coconut-oil-rich-meal-does-not-enhance-thermogenesis-compared-to-corn-oil-in-a-randomized-trial-in-obese-adolescents
#5
Janna LaBarrie, Marie-Pierre St-Onge
BACKGROUND: Consumption of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in overweight adults increases thermogenesis and improves weight management. Coconut oil is a rich natural source of MCT, but its thermogenic effect is unknown. Our study evaluated the effects of a test oil enriched in coconut oil, on energy expenditure, satiety, and metabolic markers in a randomized, double blind, cross-over study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen children, age 13-18 years, body mass index >85th percentile for age and sex, were enrolled...
2017: Insights Nutr Metab
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727654/growth-and-nutritional-biomarkers-of-preterm-infants-fed-a-new-powdered-human-milk-fortifier-a-randomized-trial
#6
Jacques Rigo, Jean-Michel Hascoët, Claude Billeaud, Jean-Charles Picaud, Fabio Mosca, Amandine Rubio, Elie Saliba, Michaël Radkë, Umberto Simeoni, Bernard Guillois, Virginie de Halleux, Jonathan Jaeger, Laurent Ameye, Nicholas P Hays, Johannes Spalinger
OBJECTIVES: Assess growth and nutritional biomarkers of preterm infants fed human milk (HM) supplemented with a new powdered HM fortifier (nHMF) or a control HM fortifier (cHMF). The nHMF provides similar energy content, 16% more protein (partially hydrolyzed whey), and higher micronutrient levels than the cHMF, along with medium-chain triglycerides and docosahexaenoic acid. METHODS: In this controlled, multicenter, double-blind study, a sample of preterm infants ≤32 weeks or ≤1500 g were randomized to receive nHMF (n = 77) or cHMF (n = 76) for a minimum of 21 days...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727476/options-for-addressing-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-in-patients-receiving-enteral-nutrition-supplementation
#7
Steven D Freedman
Patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) have suboptimal secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes and experience a range of clinical symptoms related to the malabsorption of fat. In patients with EPI unable to meet their nutritional requirements, enteral nutrition (EN) support is used to augment nutritional status. In addition to protein and carbohydrate, EN formulas contain fats as a calorie source, as well as vitamins and minerals to help prevent nutritional deficiencies related to malabsorption...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718792/recombinant-lipase-from-gibberella-zeae-exhibits-broad-substrate-specificity-a-comparative-study-on-emulsified-and-monomolecular-substrate
#8
Fanghua Wang, Hui Zhang, Zexin Zhao, Ruixia Wei, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
Using the classical emulsified system and the monomolecular film technique, the substrate specificity of recombinant Gibberella zeae lipase (rGZEL) that originates from Gibberella zeae was characterized in detail. Under the emulsified reaction system, both phospholipase and glycolipid hydrolytic activities were observed, except for the predominant lipase activity. The optimum conditions for different activity exhibition were also determined. Compared with its lipase activity, a little higher ratio of glycolipid hydrolytic activity (0...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714882/vitamin-d-supplementation-enhances-c18-dihydro-ceramide-levels-in-type-2-diabetes-patients
#9
Alexander Koch, Georgios Grammatikos, Sandra Trautmann, Yannick Schreiber, Dominique Thomas, Franziska Bruns, Josef Pfeilschifter, Klaus Badenhoop, Marissa Penna-Martinez
Sphingolipids are characterized by a broad range of bioactive properties. Particularly, the development of insulin resistance, a major pathophysiological hallmark of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D), has been linked to ceramide signaling. Since vitamin D supplementation may slow down T2D progression by improving glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity, we investigated whether vitamin D supplementation impacts on plasma sphingolipid levels in T2D patients. Thus, plasma samples of 59 patients with non-insulin-requiring T2D from a placebo-controlled, randomized, and double-blind study were retrospectively analyzed...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707153/medium-chain-enriched-diacylglycerol-mce-dag-oil-decreases-body-fat-mass-in-mice-by-increasing-lipolysis-and-thermogenesis-in-adipose-tissue
#10
Haeun Kim, Jee-Hwan Choe, Jong Hun Choi, Hun Jung Kim, Soo Hyun Park, Moon Won Lee, Wooki Kim, Gwang-Woong Go
Medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) escapes the formation of chylomicrons in the small intestine, resulting in energy expenditure through beta-oxidation. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is susceptible to oxidation rather than being stored in the adipose tissue. This study was conducted to verify the effect of MCE-DAG oil on body fat mass in vivo. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 12) as follows: (1) normal diet (18% kcal from fat), (2) canola oil as a control (40% kcal from canola oil), (3) MCE-DAG10 (10% kcal from MCE-DAG + 30% kcal from canola oil), and (4) MCE-DAG20 (20% kcal from MCE-DAG + 20% kcal from canola oil)...
August 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702868/safety-and-tolerability-of-the-ketogenic-diet-used-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-childhood-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-of-published-prospective-studies
#11
REVIEW
Qian-Yun Cai, Zhong-Jie Zhou, Rong Luo, Jing Gan, Shi-Ping Li, De-Zhi Mu, Chao-Min Wan
BACKGROUND: To review the available evidence from prospective studies on the safety and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) for the treatment of refractory childhood epilepsy. METHODS: A comprehensive bibliographic search was performed with the aim of retrieving prospective studies that monitored adverse effects (AEs) in children after receiving the classic or medium-chain triglyceride KD therapy for refractory epilepsy. RESULTS: A total of 45 studies were retrieved, including 7 randomized controlled trials...
July 12, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694218/constitutive-expression-of-human-gastric-lipase-in-pichia-pastoris-and-site-directed-mutagenesis-of-key-lid-stabilizing-residues
#12
Laura Sams, Sawsan Amara, Almahdi Chakroun, Sébastien Coudre, Julie Paume, Jacqueline Giallo, Frédéric Carrière
The cDNA encoding human gastric lipase (HGL) was integrated into the genome of Pichia pastoris using the pGAPZα A transfer vector. The HGL signal peptide was replaced by the yeast α-factor to achieve an efficient secretion. Active rHGL was produced by the transformed yeast but its levels and stability were dependent on the pH. The highest activity was obtained upon buffering the culture medium at pH5, a condition that allowed preserving enzyme activity over time. A large fraction (72±2%) of secreted rHGL remained however bound to the yeast cells, and was released by washing the cell pellet with an acid glycine-HCl buffer (pH2...
July 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689741/coconut-oil-has-less-satiating-properties-than-medium-chain-triglyceride-oil
#13
R Kinsella, T Maher, M E Clegg
It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days...
July 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689308/triheptanoin-a-rescue-therapy-for-cardiogenic-shock-in-carnitine-acylcarnitine-translocase-deficiency
#14
Sidharth Mahapatra, Amitha Ananth, Nancy Baugh, Mihaela Damian, Gregory M Enns
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency is a rare long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder (LC-FAOD) with high mortality due to cardiomyopathy or lethal arrhythmia. Triheptanoin (UX007), an investigational drug composed of synthetic medium odd-chain triglycerides, is a novel therapy in development for LC-FAOD patients. However, cases of its safe and efficacious use to reverse severe heart failure in CACT deficiency are limited. Here, we present a detailed report of an infant with CACT deficiency admitted in metabolic crisis that progressed into severe cardiogenic shock who was successfully treated by triheptanoin...
July 9, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682459/neuronal-decanoic-acid-oxidation-is-markedly-lower-than-that-of-octanoic-acid-a-mechanistic-insight-into-the-medium-chain-triglyceride-ketogenic-diet
#15
Aziza Khabbush, Michael Orford, Yi-Chen Tsai, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnell, Simon Eaton, Simon J R Heales
OBJECTIVE: The medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet contains both octanoic (C8) and decanoic (C10) acids. The diet is an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Although the exact mechanism for its efficacy is not known, it is emerging that C10, but not C8, interacts with targets that can explain antiseizure effects, for example, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (eliciting mitochondrial biogenesis and increased antioxidant status) and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor...
July 6, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652538/the-role-of-acylated-ghrelin-in-the-regulation-of-sucrose-intake
#16
Tetsuya Kouno, Nobuteru Akiyama, Takahito Ito, Kumiko Fujieda, Isamu Nanchi, Tomohiko Okuda, Mitsuru Notoya, Takanori Iwasaki, Hideo Yukioka
The octanoyl modification of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is essential for exerting its physiologic actions. Since exogenous acylated-ghrelin has shown to stimulate food intake in humans and rodents, GOAT has been regarded as a promising target for modulating appetite, thereby treating obesity and diabetes. However, GOAT-knockout (KO) mice have been reported to show no meaningful body weight reduction, when fed a high-fat diet. In this study, we sought to determine whether GOAT has a role in the regulation of body weight and food intake when fed a dietary sucrose...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650328/studies-on-self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-system-of-flurbiprofen-employing-long-medium-and-short-chain-triglycerides
#17
Junaid Daar, Ahmad Khan, Jallat Khan, Amjad Khan, Gul Majid Khan
The aim of the study was to successfully design, formulate and evaluate self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of poorly aqueous soluble drug viz. flurbiprofen using long (LCT), medium (MCT) and short chain triglycerides (SCT). The SNEDDS are thermodynamically stable lipid based drug delivery systems which consist of mixture of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Upon aqueous dilution, this mixture produces nano-emulsion spontaneously on slight agitation. The excipients intended to be used were screened for their potential to dissolve the drug and to form clear dispersion upon aqueous dilution...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645741/chylous-ascites-due-to-idiopathic-chronic-pancreatitis-managed-with-endoscopic-stenting
#18
Amit Kumar, Harshal S Mandavdhare, Surinder S Rana, Rajesh Gupta, Vishal Sharma
Chylous ascites is an uncommon clinical entity, which usually results from congenital or acquired abnormality in proper lymphatic flow. While the common causes are related to trauma, malignancy or tuberculosis, pancreatic disorders can occasionally result in chylous ascites. Sporadic cases of chylous ascites due to acute or chronic pancreatitis or surgery for pancreatitis have been reported. The usual management is with medium chain triglycerides (MCT), total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. We report a case of a young male with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis who presented with chylous ascites which did not respond to MCT based diet and octreotide...
June 20, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637888/maternal-bmi-and-glycemia-impact-the-fetal-metabolome
#19
William L Lowe, James R Bain, Michael Nodzenski, Anna C Reisetter, Michael J Muehlbauer, Robert D Stevens, Olga R Ilkayeva, Lynn P Lowe, Boyd E Metzger, Christopher B Newgard, Denise M Scholtens
OBJECTIVE: We used targeted metabolomics to determine associations of maternal BMI and glucose levels with cord blood metabolites and associations of cord blood metabolites with newborn birth weight and adiposity in mother-offspring dyads. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Targeted metabolomic assays were performed on cord blood serum samples from European ancestry, Afro-Caribbean, Thai, and Mexican American newborns (400 from each ancestry group) whose mothers participated in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study and who had anthropometric measurements at birth...
July 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637324/the-effects-of-phytosterols-on-the-sexual-behavior-and-reproductive-function-in-the-japanese-quail-coturnix-coturnix-japonica
#20
Mohammad Ibrahim Qasimi, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
Phytosterols (PS) are plant origin sterols naturally found in many foods and added as food additives. Since 1950, PS have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to lower serum cholesterol and inhibit cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent studies have found that PS act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals in laboratory animals. Therefore, this study was aimed at finding the mechanism(s) for PS effects on the sexual behaviors and reproductive functions in male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
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