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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310893/effect-of-fat-composition-in-enteral-nutrition-for-crohn-s-disease-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Sarah M Ajabnoor, Alastair Forbes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of enteral nutrition (EN) fat composition in regulating inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD) is not clear. There is, moreover, insufficient evidence to guide the choice of EN in CD with any confidence. We have reanalysed the findings of previous studies in a systematic review focussing on the relationship between EN fat content and remission rates (RR). METHODS: A systematic search with no language restriction was undertaken in Medline and Embase databases supplemented by a manual search in the reference lists of identified studies...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306619/comparative-study-between-conventional-fasting-versus-overnight-infusion-of-lipid-or-carbohydrate-on-insulin-and-free-fatty-acids-in-obese-patients-undergoing-elective-on-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#2
Hisham Hosny, Mohamed Ibrahim, Wael El-Siory, Amr Abdel-Monem
OBJECTIVES: Postoperative insulin resistance represents a major component of postoperative metabolic disorder. The authors compared the effects of preoperative infusion of lipid emulsion or carbohydrate to conventional preoperative fasting on postoperative insulin and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. DESIGN: A prospective randomized double-blinded study. SETTINGS: Tertiary university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287345/mass-spectrometric-imaging-of-localization-of-fat-molecules-in-water-in-oil-emulsions-containing-semi-solid-fat
#3
Makoto Shiota, Yuichi Shimomura, Mariko Kotera, Shu Taira
Firstly, we report the localization analysis of the lipid components of a water-in-oil (W/O) semi-solid emulsion by mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Uniform emulsion droplets were prepared using microchannel emulsification devices with lecithin, stearic acid-binding monoglyceride (St-MAG), and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) as emulsifiers. The mass image gives us the localization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in lecithin, St-MAG, tripalmitin (PPP), medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), and high-melting-point triglyceride tristearin (C18-TAG)...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285339/medium-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency-in-a-premature-infant
#4
Steven F Dobrowolski, Lina Ghaloul-Gonzalez, Jerry Vockley
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is identified by newborn screening (NBS). The natural history of MCADD includes metabolic decompensation with hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, seizures, coma, and death. NBS enables expectant management thus severe symptoms are rare in managed patients. We report premature birth of an MCADD affected infant and resultant management challenges. Nutritional support advanced from parenteral nutrition at 24 hours to enteral feeds. A NBS sample was collected day 2, positive results for MCADD was reported day six, and diagnostic tests were performed day seven...
November 21, 2017: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262475/-clinical-analysis-of-intestinal-lymphangiectasia-in-47-children
#5
S Guo, L Song, D X Guan, T L Mei, J Zhou, F H Yu, G L Wang, J Zhang, H Q Shen, X W Xu
Objective: To analyze the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) in children in order to improve the skills of diagnosis and treatment of IL. Method: Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, gastroscopic findings, histopathological examinations and lymphatic radionuclide imaging assessments were analyzed retrospectively among 47 IL patients who were hospitalized in the Gastroenterology Department of Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from June 2007 to December 2015...
December 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245075/evidence-of-coexisting-microemulsion-droplets-in-oil-in-water-emulsions-revealed-by-2d-dosy-1h-nmr
#6
Tarek S Awad, Dalal Asker, Laurence S Romsted
Optimizing the macroscopic properties, shelf-life and stability of emulsion products requires a better understanding of the microstructural characteristics such as the type (nano, micro and macro) and the relative distribution of components (i.e., oil and surfactant) within the emulsion droplets. We used Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY NMR) to evaluate these characteristics in model oil-in-water emulsion containing Tween 80 and medium chain triglycerides (MCT). At low MCT concentrations, the solutions were transparent but from 1 to 5 wt% MCT, they became translucent then opaque...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232418/nano-emulsions-as-vehicles-for-topical-delivery-of-forskolin
#7
Małgorzata Miastkowska, Elżbieta Sikora, Elwira Lasoń, Maria Jose Garcia-Celma, Elvira Escribano-Ferrer, Conxita Solans, Meritxell Llinas
Two O/W forskolin-loaded nano-emulsions (0.075% wt.) based on medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and stabilized by a nonionic surfactant (Polysorbate 80 or Polysorbate 40) were studied as forskolin delivery systems. The nano-emulsions were prepared by the PIC method. The mean droplet size of the nano-emulsions with Polysorbate 80 and Polysorbate 40 with oil/surfactant (O/S) ratios of 20/80 and 80% water concentration, measured by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), was of 118 nm and 111 nm, respectively. Stability of the formulations, as assessed by light backscattering for 24 h, showed that both nano-emulsions were stable at 25ºC...
December 13, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209515/ketogenic-diets-as-an-adjuvant-therapy-in-glioblastoma-the-keating-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-pilot-study
#8
Kirsty J Martin-McGill, Anthony G Marson, Catrin Tudur Smith, Michael D Jenkinson
Background: Glioblastoma is the commonest form of malignant brain tumour in adults, affecting 2-3 people per 100,000 per year. Despite current treatment options including surgical resection, radiotherapy and temozolomide chemotherapy, overall survival at 2 years is approximately 27%, with a median survival of 12-14 months. The ketogenic diet (KD) is postulated to work by simulating the metabolic response to fasting by promoting the utilisation of ketones as a primary energy source, and depriving the glycolytic pathways utilised by malignant glioma cells for growth...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198120/in-situ-interfacial-conjugation-of-chitosan-with-cinnamaldehyde-during-homogenization-improves-the-formation-and-stability-of-chitosan-stabilized-emulsions
#9
Huanle Chen, David Julian McClements, Enmin Chen, Shilin Liu, Bin Li, Yan Li
The emulsifying properties of a natural cationic polysaccharide (chitosan) were improved by in situ conjugation with a natural essential oil (cinnamaldehyde, CA) during homogenization. In the absence of CA, chitosan-coated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) droplets were highly susceptible to creaming and coalescence at pH values ranging from 1 to 6.5. However, incorporation of relatively low levels of CA in the oil phase greatly improved the formation and stability of the oil-in-water emulsions. These effects were attributed to two main factors: (i) covalent binding of lipophilic CA moieties to hydrophilic chitosan chains leading to conjugates with good surface-activity; (ii) interfacial cross-linking of adsorbed chitosan layers by CA leading to the formation of a rigid polymeric coating around the lipid droplets that improved their stability against coalescence...
December 4, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161210/index-use-of-smoflipid-in-a-tertiary-intestinal-rehabilitation-and-transplantation-program
#10
Kwai Lam, Thomas Schiano, Maria Isabel Fiel, Kishore Iyer
Long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) may be complicated by PN-associated liver disease (PNALD), and some studies suggest an association between the use of soy-based fat emulsions and PNALD development. Patients' liver function typically improves and PNALD resolves after reducing or stopping a soy-based fat emulsion, and thus lipid minimization has been the primary strategy for managing PNALD in many intestinal rehabilitation programs. However, fat emulsions often cannot be stopped entirely, leading some patients to develop PNALD even after lipid reduction strategies have been implemented...
November 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161207/composite-intravenous-fat-emulsion-in-a-postsurgical-critically-ill-patient-a-case-report
#11
Gregory J Roberti, Cameron G Cangelose, Robert G Martindale
Parenteral nutrition (PN), including lipids, in high-risk or poorly nourished critically ill patients is indicated when enteral nutrition is contraindicated; however, soybean oil-based PN can stimulate proinflammatory processes. Fish oil (FO) is generally less inflammatory and has recently been shown to be active in the resolution of inflammatory processes. In this study, we look at whether the use of a blended intravenous fat emulsion that includes soybean, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and FO confers clinical benefits in critically ill patients...
November 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161196/emergence-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsions-for-use-in-parenteral-nutrition
#12
Manpreet S Mundi, Robert G Martindale, Ryan T Hurt
Since early work by Wretlind and Schuberth led to the development of a stable and safe intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) using soybean oil (SO) and egg phospholipid emulsifier, IFEs have become a crucial source of essential fatty acids and nonprotein energy in parenteral nutrition. However, largely due to their high ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and phytosterol content, SO IFEs have been associated with complications, including a proinflammatory profile and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as intestinal failure-associated liver disease...
November 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148930/use-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsion-to-improve-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-long-term-home-parenteral-nutrition-a-case-report
#13
Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a life-saving therapy for patients who are not able to use their gastrointestinal tract. There are a number of complications associated with HPN, including metabolic bone disease, intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), and catheter-related bloodstream infections. We present a case of a 32-year-old HPN patient who initially developed biopsy-proven IFALD (total bilirubin, 2.4 mg/dL) while on long-term HPN. His HPN was initiated due to myopathic intestinal dysmotility and pseudo-obstruction when he was 15 years old...
November 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123461/intestinal-absorption-and-factors-influencing-bioavailability-of-magnesium-an-update
#14
REVIEW
Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn
Background: Information on the bioavailability of the essential mineral Mg2+ is sparse. Objective/Method: Evaluation of the present knowledge on factors influencing the bioavailability and intestinal absorption of Mg2+. Results: Mg2+ is absorbed via a paracellular passive and a transcellular active pathway that involves TRPM6/7 channel proteins. The bioavailability of Mg2+ varies within a broad range, depending on the dose, the food matrix, and enhancing and inhibiting factors...
November 2017: Current Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118979/the-effects-of-starter-microbiota-and-the-early-life-feeding-of-medium-chain-triglycerides-on-the-gastric-transcriptome-profile-of-2-or-3-week-old-cesarean-delivered-piglets
#15
Paolo Trevisi, Davide Priori, Vincenzo Motta, Diana Luise, Alfons J M Jansman, Sietse-Jan Koopmans, Paolo Bosi
Background: The stomach is an underestimated key interface between the ingesta and the digestive system, affecting the digestion and playing an important role in several endocrine functions. The quality of starter microbiota and the early life feeding of medium chain triglycerides may affect porcine gastric maturation. Two trials (T1, T2) were carried out on 12 and 24 cesarean-delivered piglets (birth, d0), divided over two microbiota treatments, but slaughtered and sampled at two or three weeks of age, respectively...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097302/a-new-lipid-excipient-phosphorylated-tocopherol-mixture-tpm-enhances-the-solubilisation-and-oral-bioavailability-of-poorly-water-soluble-coq10-in-a-lipid-formulation
#16
Anna C Pham, Paul Gavin, Roksan Libinaki, Gisela Ramirez, Ben J Boyd
Phosphorylated tocopherols are a new class of lipid excipients that have demonstrated potential in pharmaceutical applications. Their ability to solubilise poorly water soluble drugs indicates their potential utility in improving bioavailability of drugs where solubility limits their bioavailability. In this study a commercial mixture of phosphorylated tocopherols, TPM was combined with medium chain triglyceride (MCT) as a formulation for CoQ10, and in vitro and in vivo performance compared to the effect of addition of alternative tocopherol-based excipients...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094997/-lipid-emulsion-selection-in-parenteral-nutrition-biochemical-and-hematological-paramaters
#17
Josep Llop Talaveron, Elisabet Leiva Badosa, Ana Novak, Núria Sanmarti Martinez, Ramon Jódar Masanes, Josep Maria Suñé Negre, Josep Ramon Ticó Grau, Maria Badia Tahull
INTRODUCTION: Lipid emulsions (LE) are a component of parenteral nutrition (PN) and its fatty acid (FA) profile determines various physiological responses. OBJECTIVES: To assess the adequacy of a clinical not restricted protocol in the choice of LE by studying complementary biochemical and hematological parameters (BHP) at the beginning of the PN. METHODS: A 4-year retrospective observational study of LE administered to patients with PN. Demographic, clinical, nutritional and analytical variables at the beginning of the PN were collected...
July 28, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079969/coconut-products-improve-signs-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#18
Sunil K Panchal, Sharyn Carnahan, Lindsay Brown
Increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome warrants identification of potential therapeutic options for intervention. This study tested commercially available Virgin Coconut Oil and Coconut Nourish, as coconuts are rich sources of lauric and myristic acids. Male Wistar rats were fed either corn starch diet (C); high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H); high-carbohydrate, high-virgin coconut oil diet (HV); or high-carbohydrate, high-coconut Nourish diet (HN) for 16 weeks. Metabolic, liver, and cardiovascular health parameters were measured during and at the end of the study...
December 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077838/dietary-manipulations-that-induce-ketosis-activate-the-hpa-axis-in-male-rats-and-mice-a-potential-role-for-fibroblast-growth-factor-21
#19
Karen K Ryan, Amy E B Packard, Karlton R Larson, Jayna Stout, Sarah M Fourman, Abigail M K Thompson, Kristen Ludwick, Kirk M Habegger, Kerstin Stemmer, Nobuyuki Itoh, Diego Perez-Tilve, Matthias H Tschöp, Randy J Seeley, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
In response to an acute threat to homeostasis or well-being, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is engaged. A major outcome of this HPA axis activation is the mobilization of stored energy, to fuel an appropriate behavioral and/ or physiological response to the perceived threat. Importantly, the extent of HPA axis activity is thought to be modulated by an individual's nutritional environment. In this study, we report that nutritional manipulations signaling a relative depletion of dietary carbohydrates, thereby inducing nutritional ketosis, acutely and chronically activate the HPA axis...
October 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072377/-congenital-ileal-stenosis-late-clinical-manifestations-of-early-prenatal-suspicion
#20
Avi On, Mary Abdo, Sammi Haddad, Wail Naser, Said Abozaid
Congenital stenosis (partial obstruction) of the small intestine is uncommon in comparison to atresia (complete obstruction). The clinical manifestations of stenosis could be delayed up to several weeks post-delivery. We present a case wherein a baby with a prenatal ultrasound examination showed a suspicious picture of small bowel obstruction. However, the clinical manifestations after delivery and imaging studies were misleading and non-classic; therefore, the resection of the stenotic portion of the ileum was delayed until the baby was one month of age...
October 2017: Harefuah
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