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community acquired pneumonia AND children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634021/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-and-health-outcomes-in-children-with-asthma
#1
Pamela R Wood, Jordan C Kampschmidt, Peter H Dube, Marianna P Cagle, Paola Chaparro, Norma S Ketchum, Thirumalai R Kannan, Harjinder Singh, Jay I Peters, Joel B Baseman, Edward G Brooks
BACKGROUND: Acute infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) have been associated with worsening asthma in children. Mp can be present in the respiratory tract for extended periods; it is unknown whether the long-term persistence of Mp in the respiratory tract affects long-term asthma control. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Mp on asthma control. METHODS: We enrolled 31 pediatric subjects 3 to 10 years of age with persistent asthma who completed up to 8 visits over a 24-month period...
June 17, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594619/managing-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children
#2
Bruce C Schuster, Clare Hoare, Atanu Mukherjee, Siba Prosad Paul
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bronchiolitis, viral-induced wheeze and croup, account for more primary care consultations than any other illness group and are the most likely reason for a parent or carer to contact a health professional. The majority of RTIs in fully immunised children are usually self-limiting. However, in a small percentage of children RTIs may become life threatening and it is crucial that all front-line health professionals are able to recognise and identify these children who are at risk of deterioration...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583371/bacterial-infections-after-pediatric-heart-transplantation-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#3
Christina A Rostad, Karla Wehrheim, James K Kirklin, David Naftel, Elizabeth Pruitt, Timothy M Hoffman, Thomas L'Ecuyer, Katie Berkowitz, William T Mahle, Janet N Scheel
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in heart transplant recipients. However, data describing the epidemiology and outcomes of these infections in children are limited. METHODS: We analyzed the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database of patients transplanted between 1993 and 2014 to determine the etiologies, risk factors and outcomes of children with bacterial infections post-heart transplantation. RESULTS: Of 4,458 primary transplants in the database, there were 4,815 infections that required hospitalization or intravenous therapy, 2,047 (42...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575364/the-incremental-value-of-repeated-induced-sputum-and-gastric-aspirate-samples-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-young-children-with-acute-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
David P Moore, Melissa M Higdon, Laura L Hammitt, Christine Prosperi, Andrea N DeLuca, Pedro Da Silva, Vicky L Baillie, Peter V Adrian, Azwifarwi Mudau, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel R Feikin, David R Murdoch, Katherine L O'Brien, Shabir A Madhi
Background.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) contributes to the pathogenesis of childhood acute community-acquired pneumonia in settings with a high tuberculosis burden. The incremental value of a repeated induced sputum (IS) sample, compared with a single IS or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, is not well known. Methods.: Two IS samples were obtained for Mtb culture from children enrolled as cases in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study in South Africa...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575362/the-diagnostic-utility-of-induced-sputum-microscopy-and-culture-in-childhood-pneumonia
#5
David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel R Feikin, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Peter V Adrian, Dilruba Ahmed, Muntasir Alam, Juliet O Awori, Andrea N DeLuca, Melissa M Higdon, Ruth A Karron, Geoffrey Kwenda, Eunice M Machuka, Sirirat Makprasert, Jessica McLellan, David P Moore, John Mwaba, Salim Mwarumba, Daniel E Park, Christine Prosperi, Ornuma Sangwichian, Seydou Sissoko, Milagritos D Tapia, Scott L Zeger, Stephen R C Howie
Background.: Sputum microscopy and culture are commonly used for diagnosing the cause of pneumonia in adults but are rarely performed in children due to difficulties in obtaining specimens. Induced sputum is occasionally used to investigate lower respiratory infections in children but has not been widely used in pneumonia etiology studies. Methods.: We evaluated the diagnostic utility of induced sputum microscopy and culture in patients enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study, a large study of community-acquired pneumonia in children aged 1-59 months...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575360/microscopic-analysis-and-quality-assessment-of-induced-sputum-from-children-with-pneumonia-in-the-perch-study
#6
David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel R Feikin, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Dilruba Ahmed, Juliet O Awori, Andrea N DeLuca, Bernard E Ebruke, Melissa M Higdon, Possawat Jorakate, Ruth A Karron, Sidi Kazungu, Geoffrey Kwenda, Lokman Hossain, Sirirat Makprasert, David P Moore, Azwifarwi Mudau, John Mwaba, Sandra Panchalingam, Daniel E Park, Christine Prosperi, Rasheed Salaudeen, Aliou Toure, Scott L Zeger, Stephen R C Howie
Background.: It is standard practice for laboratories to assess the cellular quality of expectorated sputum specimens to check that they originated from the lower respiratory tract. The presence of low numbers of squamous epithelial cells (SECs) and high numbers of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are regarded as indicative of a lower respiratory tract specimen. However, these quality ratings have never been evaluated for induced sputum specimens from children with suspected pneumonia. Methods...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562556/low-utility-of-blood-culture-in-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia-an-observational-study-on-2705-patients-admitted-to-the-emergency-department
#7
Jae Hyun Kwon, Jung Heon Kim, Jeong-Yong Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Chang Hwan Sohn, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim
To investigate the utility of blood cultures performed on previously healthy children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) at a tertiary care hospital emergency department (ED).We reviewed 3235 patients with CAP aged 6 months to 18 years who underwent blood cultures at the ED from 2009 through 2016. CAP was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes for pneumonia and the requirement of antibiotic treatment plus any of the following: radiologically confirmed, hospitalized, or moderate to severe disease...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558982/decrease-in-the-incidence-and-in-hospital-mortality-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-in-spain-2001-2014
#8
Isabel Jimenez Trujillo, Ana Lopez de Andres, Valentin Hernandez-Barrera, Maria A Martinez-Huedo, Javier de Miguel-Diez, Rodrigo Jimenez-Garcia
OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in the incidence and outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalizations among Spanish children from 2001 to 2014 and to assess the effect of the pneumococcal vaccination (PCV) coverage in this period. METHODS: This study was conducted using the Spanish National Hospital Database from 2001 to 2014 including subjects <18years. We selected discharges with a primary diagnosis of CAP. Study variable included age, sex, comorbid conditions, procedures, isolated pathogens and hospital outcome variables...
May 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529026/the-use-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-for-rapid-bacterial-identification-in-patients-with-smear-positive-bacterial-meningitis
#9
Boaz Bishop, Yuval Geffen, Adi Plaut, Ola Kassis, Roni Bitterman, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in rapid identification of bacteria from smear-positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a cohort of patients with meningitis. METHODS: Single-center observational study, including adults and children with community-acquired or postneurosurgical bacterial meningitis. Meningitis was defined using established criteria. CSF samples that had a positive CSF Gram stain were directly examined by MALDI-TOF-MS...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520948/relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-outcomes-among-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#10
Anna M Bramley, Carrie Reed, Lyn Finelli, Wesley H Self, Krow Ampofo, Sandra R Arnold, Derek J Williams, Carlos G Grijalva, Evan J Anderson, Chris Stockmann, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Robert Balk, Jonathan A McCullers, Andrew T Pavia, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink, Seema Jain
Background: The effect of body mass index (BMI) on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity is unclear. Methods: We investigated the relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes [hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation] in hospitalized CAP patients from the CDC Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, adjusting for age, demographics, underlying conditions, and smoking status (adults only)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520818/evaluation-of-a-real-time-method-of-simultaneous-amplification-and-testing-in-diagnosis-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-children-with-pneumonia
#11
Wei Li, You-Hong Fang, Hong-Qiang Shen, De-Hua Yang, Qiang Shu, Shi-Qiang Shang
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection can cause community acquired pneumonia in children. A real-time method of simultaneous amplification and testing of M. pneumoniae (SAT-MP) was developed to diagnose M. pneumoniae targeting a region of the ribosomal RNA. The SAT-MP assay can accurately identify M. pneumoniae with a detection range from 101 to 107 CFU/ml. In this study, the specimens from 315 children with pneumonia were collected and analyzed by SAT-MP in parallel with real-time PCR method and IgM ELISA assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506958/enhancing-comparative-effectiveness-research-with-automated-pediatric-pneumonia-detection-in-a-multi-institutional-clinical-repository-a-phis-pilot-study
#12
Stephane Meystre, Ramkiran Gouripeddi, Joel Tieder, Jeffrey Simmons, Rajendu Srivastava, Samir Shah
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity. Administrative data are often used to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) with sufficient sample sizes to enhance detection of important outcomes. However, such studies are prone to misclassification errors because of the variable accuracy of discharge diagnosis codes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an automated, scalable, and accurate method to determine the presence or absence of pneumonia in children using chest imaging reports...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486675/short-course-versus-long-course-oral-antibiotic-treatment-for-infections-treated-in-outpatient-settings-a-review-of-systematic-reviews
#13
Elizabeth E Dawson-Hahn, Sharon Mickan, Igho Onakpoya, Nia Roberts, Matthew Kronman, Chris C Butler, Matthew J Thompson
Purpose.: To summarize the evidence comparing the effectiveness of short and long courses of oral antibiotics for infections treated in outpatient settings. Methods.: We identified systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for children and adults with bacterial infections treated in outpatient settings from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The Database of Review of Effects. Data were extracted on the primary outcome of clinical resolution and secondary outcomes...
May 9, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482381/-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-ventilation-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-under-five-years-of-age-a-prospective-multi-center-clinical-study
#14
J Liu, Q Wang, S Y Qian, W M Xu, L L Li, L M Ning, X X Ren, F Lyu, Y B Cheng, L J Gao, C F Liu, W Xu, L Pei, G P Lu, W M Chen
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years of age and analyze the safety and efficiency of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) ventilation for CAP in this population. Method: This was a prospective multicenter study. Children who were admitted to these six centers with CAP and met the NCPAP ventilation indications, aged from 29 d to 5 years, were continuously included during November 2013 to October 2015. The baseline data were collected and NCPAP ventilation were then followed up by operation standards, and the vital signs and arterial blood gas change at special time points were observed and recorded...
May 4, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480248/oseltamivir-use-among-children-and-adults-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#15
Ikwo K Oboho, Anna Bramley, Lyn Finelli, Alicia Fry, Krow Ampofo, Sandra R Arnold, Wesley H Self, Derek J Williams, D Mark Courtney, Yuwei Zhu, Evan J Anderson, Carlos G Grijalva, Jonathan A McCullers, Richard G Wunderink, Andrew T Pavia, Kathryn M Edwards, Seema Jain
BACKGROUND: Data on oseltamivir treatment among hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients are limited. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with CAP at 6 hospitals during the 2010-2012 influenza seasons were included. We assessed factors associated with oseltamivir treatment using logistic regression. RESULTS: Oseltamivir treatment was provided to 89 of 1627 (5%) children (<18 years) and 143 of 1051 (14%) adults. Among those with positive clinician-ordered influenza tests, 39 of 61 (64%) children and 37 of 48 (77%) adults received oseltamivir...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475737/evolution-of-acute-infection-with-atypical-bacteria-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-receiving-amoxicillin
#16
Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho, Gabriel Xavier-Souza, Ana-Luisa Vilas-Boas, Maria-Socorro H Fontoura, Aldina Barral, Mirja Puolakkainen, Olli Ruuskanen
Background: Atypical bacteria are treatable causative agents of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there is no conclusive evidence that a child with CAP should receive empirical treatment against such agents. Objectives: We assessed the possibility of association between clinical failure and acute infection by these bacteria among children with CAP treated with amoxicillin. Patients and methods: Patients aged 2-59 months with non-severe CAP received amoxicillin during prospective follow-up...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474099/a-three-step-diagnosis-of-pediatric-pneumonia-at-the-emergency-department-using-clinical-predictors-c-reactive-protein-and-pneumococcal-pcr
#17
Gabriel Alcoba, Kristina Keitel, Veronica Maspoli, Laurence Lacroix, Sergio Manzano, Mario Gehri, René Tabin, Alain Gervaix, Annick Galetto-Lacour
Recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) advocate that, in the absence of the clinical and laboratory findings typical of bacterial CAP, antibiotics are not required. However, the true value of the clinical and laboratory predictors of pediatric CAP still needs to be assessed. This prospective cohort study in three emergency departments enrolled 142 children with radiological pneumonia. Pneumonia with lung consolidation was the primary endpoint; complicated pneumonia (bacteremia, empyema, or pleural effusion) was the secondary endpoint...
May 4, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463942/diagnostic-practices-for-suspected-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infection-in-the-post-conjugate-vaccine-era
#18
Natalie Banniettis, Saumya Joshi, Shubhi Kaushik, Stephan Kohlhoff, Margaret R Hammerschlag
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic practices for suspected community-acquired central nervous system (CNS) infection in an urban pediatric population. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective single-center review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in children, 1 month to 21 years old, evaluated for suspected CNS infection from 2004 to 2014. Cases of suspected nosocomial meningitis were excluded. The frequency of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR ab) encephalitis was analyzed from 2010 to 2014...
May 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414567/disease-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-y-old-in-china-a-population-based-survey
#19
Yan Li, Zhijie An, Dapeng Yin, Yanmin Liu, Zhuoying Huang, Yujie Ma, Hui Li, Qi Li, Huaqing Wang
BACKGROUND: To obtain the baseline data on the incidence and cost of community acquired pneumonia among under-5 children for future studies, and provide evidence for shaping China's strategies regarding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). METHODS: Three townships from Heilongjiang, Hebei and Gansu Province and one community in Shanghai were selected as study areas. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on incidence and cost of pneumonia among children under 5 y old in 2012...
April 17, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403117/association-of-the-ace-gstm1-il-6-nos3-and-cyp1a1-polymorphisms-with-susceptibility-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-chinese-children
#20
Jie Zhao, Wen Zhang, Li Shen, Xiaomeng Yang, Yi Liu, Zhongtao Gai
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the clinical presentation of mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) varies widely. Genetic variability affecting the host response may also influence the susceptibility to MPP. Several studies have investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of some genes and the risks of CAP; however, the results were inconsistent. Here, we investigated the association of 5 functional genes and the risks of MPP, including ACE (rs4340), GSTM1 (Ins/del), IL-6 (rs1800795), NOS3 (rs1799983), and CYP1A1 (rs2606345) in a total of 715 subjects (415 cases, 300 controls) by using tetra-primer allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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