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community acquired pneumonia AND children

Lesley J Scott
Intravenous ceftaroline fosamil (Zinforo™), a prodrug that is rapidly converted to its active metabolite ceftaroline, is approved for use in adults and children (from 2 months of age) with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In several multinational trials, ceftaroline fosamil was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment in adult and paediatric patients with cSSTIs or CAP. In the phase 3 CANVAS trials, ceftaroline fosamil treatment was noninferior to vancomycin plus aztreonam in adults with cSSTIs...
October 20, 2016: Drugs
Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy, Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna
BACKGROUND: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. METHODS: Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Wei-Ju Lee, Eng-Yen Huang, Chih-Min Tsai, Kuang-Che Kuo, Yi-Chuan Huang, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Chen-Kuang Niu, Hong-Ren Yu
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is an important causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection is important so that appropriate antibiotic treatment can be initiated to reduce the misuse of drugs and resistance rates. Anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an indicator of recent primary infection, but can persist for several months after initial infection. It has been suggested that anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin A (IgA) can be a reliable indicator for recent M...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Heloise Buys, Rudzani Muloiwa, Colleen Bamford, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is a significant paediatric bloodstream pathogen in children. There is little data from Africa. In this study we describe the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (KPBSI) at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of KPBSI from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2011 using conventional descriptive and inferential statistical methods...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Surinder Kumar, Sanjeev R Saigal, Gulshan Rai Sethi, Sanchit Kumar
CONTEXT: Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and upper respiratory tract infections. Since it is difficult to detect C. pneumoniae in clinical practice, specific etiological diagnosis is established only in a minority of cases. AIMS: To investigate the role of C. pneumoniae in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children, with the use of serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Tessa R Davis, Hannah R Evans, Jennifer Murtas, Aimee Weisman, J Lynn Francis, Ahmed Khan
AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the utility of blood cultures in children admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia. The primary outcome was the number of positive blood culture results, and secondary outcomes included the effect of positive blood culture results on management, and the identification of other clinical/biochemical variables that could predict blood culture results or the course of illness. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis was carried out on all children admitted to Gosford Hospital during the 2-year period from July 2013 to June 2015...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Tatyana V Spichak, Svetlana B Yatsyshina, Lubov К Кatosova, Svetlana S Кim, Matti O Korppi
: The role that rhinoviruses, enteroviruses, parainfluenza viruses, coronaviruses and human bocavirus play in pediatric pneumonia is insufficiently studied. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to study 9 virus groups, including 16 different viruses or viral strains, in 56 ambulatory children with radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The same tests were carried out on 474 apparently healthy control children of the same age and sex. The mean age of children with CAP was 6...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Samia Hamouda, Karima Chraiet, Fatma Khalsi, Imen Bel Hadj, Ines Brini, Hanen Smaoui, Sihem Barsaoui, Azza Samoud, Saida Ben Becher, Najla Ben Jaballah, Amel Kechrid, Faten Tinsa, Khadija Boussetta
Background Community-acquired pleuropneumonia (CPP) is a common complication of pneumonia in children. It is serious given its high morbidity and significant mortality. Aim To study clinical and paraclinical features of CPP in children and to establish a common therapeutic strategy. Methods Our retrospective study included patients who were hospitalized for CPP between 2004 and 2012. All data were collected from patients' medical files. Statistical analysis was made by Epi-Info 6. Results One hundred and sixty four patients were registered...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Pneumococcal infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients throughout the world. This microorganism remains the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia and is associated with a considerable burden of disease and health-care costs in both developed and developing countries. Emerging antibiotic resistance has been a concern because of its potential negative impact on the outcome of patients who receive standard antibiotic therapy. However, there have been substantial changes in the epidemiology of this pathogen in recent years, not least of which has been due to the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children, with subsequent herd protection in unvaccinated adults and children...
2016: F1000Research
Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Carlos G Grijalva, Wesley H Self, Frank E Harrell, Carrie Reed, Chris Stockmann, Sandra R Arnold, Krow K Ampofo, Evan J Anderson, Anna M Bramley, Richard G Wunderink, Jonathan A McCullers, Andrew T Pavia, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards
BACKGROUND: Substantial morbidity and excessive care variation are seen with pediatric pneumonia. Accurate risk-stratification tools to guide clinical decision-making are needed. METHODS: We developed risk models to predict severe pneumonia outcomes in children (<18 years) by using data from the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study, a prospective study of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations conducted in 3 US cities from January 2010 to June 2012...
September 29, 2016: Pediatrics
Eduardo Jorge da Fonseca Lima, Maria Júlia Gonçalves Mello, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Maria Isabella Londres Lopes, George Henrique Cordeiro Serra, Debora Ellen Pessoa Lima, Jailson Barros Correia
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia plays an important role in children's morbidity and mortality. In Brazil, epidemiological and social changes occurred concomitantly with the universal introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This study identified risk factors for pneumonia following the implementation of a pneumococcal vaccination program. METHODS: A hospital-based, case-control study involving incident cases of pneumonia in children aged 1-59 months was conducted between October 2010 and September 2013 at a tertiary hospital in northeastern Brazil...
September 22, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Nara Vasconcelos Cavalcanti, Leuridan Cavalcante Torres, Marina Cadena da Matta, Carolina Duarte Lindoso, Luana Nobre de Abreu Carvalho, Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte, Jailson Barros Correia
Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that are mainly involved in the migratory patterns of immune cells. Few studies have evaluated levels of chemokines in children with acute bacterial infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum levels of chemokines MCP-1, RANTES, MIG and IP-10 in children with sepsis, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and skin abscess. Serum levels of MCP-1, RANTES, MIG and IP-10 were measured in 37 children with sepsis, 27 children with CAP, 25 children with skin abscess and 20 controls with no signs of infection...
September 16, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Le Wang, Mengchuan Zhao, Zhongren Shi, Zhishan Feng, Weiwei Guo, Shuo Yang, Lanping Liu, Guixia Li
The GeXP-based assay has recently been developed for simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens. So far, the application of the GeXP assay to test larger clinical samples has hardly been reported. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death in children worldwide and a substantial proportion of childhood CAP is caused by viruses. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of virus infection is important for the clinical management of CAP. In this study, we explored the GeXP assay for simultaneous detection of 20 types/subtypes of viruses in hospitalized children with CAP...
2016: PloS One
Dwight J Hardy, David Vicino, Prabhavathi Fernandes
There has been an increase in the number of pertussis cases reported since the introduction of the acellular pertussis vaccine. While children that present with pertussis have a characteristic whooping cough, adults can simply have a persistent, non-specific cough and remain undiagnosed. Macrolide antibiotics, such as azithromycin, are the currently recommended treatment for pertussis. Solithromycin is a new macrolide and the first fluoroketolide, with broad activity against a wide spectrum of bacterial pathogens and has completed clinical development for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP)...
September 12, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Francesca Perez-Marques, Pippa Simpson, Ke Yan, Michael W Quasney, Nadine Halligan, Daniel Merchant, Mary K Dahmer
BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated a strong association between lung injury in African American children with pneumonia and a polymorphic (TG)mTn region in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance (CFTR) involved in the generation of a nonfunctional CFTR protein lacking exon 9. A number of splicing factors that regulate the inclusion/exclusion of exon 9 have been identified. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variants in these splicing factors were associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children with pneumonia...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Kachaporn Nimdet, Win Techakehakij
BACKGROUND: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the most common cardiac complications of pneumonia in adulthood that leads to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. However, little is known of CHF and pneumonia in children. This study aims to explore the characteristics and factors associated with the presence of CHF in under-5 children with pneumonia and respiratory failure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was conducted in hospitalized patients aged 2-59 months with community-acquired pneumonia and respiratory failure from June 2011 to June 2014 at Suratthani Hospital, Thailand...
September 2, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Junko Hasegawa, Mitsuru Mori, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Takeshi Tsugawa, Tsukasa Hori, Yuko Yoto, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi
BACKGROUND: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to Japan in 2009, after which there was a rapid decline in invasive pneumococcal disease. However, there is little data on the effectiveness of PCV7 against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We conducted an ambispective cohort study among children aged 0-6 years old who attended day care centers. METHODS: A total of 624 children at 10 day care centers in Sapporo, Japan participated in the study...
September 2, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Frédéric Samson, Inigo Gorostiza, Andrés González, María Landa, Lucía Ruiz, Miguel Grau
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the applicability and utility of point-of-care lung ultrasonography (POCLUS) for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a pediatric emergency department. METHODS: A prospective observational study on children with suspected CAP was carried out in a pediatric emergency department from August to December 2014. The evaluation of the chest radiography (CR) by two independent radiologists was considered as a reference standard...
August 17, 2016: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
Krishna Kumar Yadav, Shally Awasthi
India has the highest number of global deaths of children under 5 years of age. In the year 2015, it was reported that there were 5.9 million deaths of children under 5 years of age globally, of which 1.2 million (20%) occurred in India alone. Currently, India has an under 5 mortality rate of 48 per 1000 live births. Community-acquired pneumonia contributes to about one sixth of this mortality. Fast breathing is the key symptom of community-acquired pneumonia. The World Health Organization recently categorized community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age into two, pneumonia, and severe pneumonia...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
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