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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665998/lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-including-bladder-outlet-obstruction-what-s-new-in-diagnostics
#1
REVIEW
Stavros Gravas, Iason Kyriazis, Adam P Klausner
It is well known that lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have a multifactorial etiology. Therefore, there is an increased need for improved diagnostics for the optimal assessment of patients with LUTS in order to identify the various causes of symptoms and improve disease phenotyping. Research has focused on the development of improved urodynamic technologies and the development of noninvasive tests that could replace urodynamic studies. This mini-review will present the most recently published studies on the topic including new technologies in the diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction, novel metrics for bladder sensation, analysis of filling phase rhythm, measurement of detrusor wall tension, and brain imaging during urodynamic studies...
April 14, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624560/sexual-behaviors-of-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-and-factors-associated-with-sexual-transmitted-infection-in-south-africa
#2
Dvora Joseph Davey, Remco P H Peters, Noah Kojima, Maanda Mudau, Lindsey De Vos, Dawie Olivier, James A McIntyre, Jeffrey D Klausner, Andrew Medina-Marino
BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviors in HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa are not well understood. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited into a prospective cohort at first antenatal care visit. Sociodemographic information and self-collected vulvovaginal swab samples were collected from participants. Vulvovaginal swab samples were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using GeneXpert®. We investigated sexual behaviors, alcohol use and factors associated with condomless sex during pregnancy and prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI) among our cohort...
April 5, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596225/use-of-oral-fluid-with-a-rapid-treponemal-test-for-syphilis-evaluation
#3
Claire C Bristow, Chelsea Shannon, Sasha Herbst de Cortina, Jeffrey D Klausner
We aimed to determine if rapid treponemal tests intended for whole blood specimens could be used to detect treponemal antibody in oral fluid. We found a high sensitivity of oral fluid rapid testing, which increased with increasing RPR titer, suggesting potential for the development of accurate rapid oral syphilis tests.
March 29, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528996/short-report-acceptability-and-feasibility-of-rapid-chlamydial-gonococcal-and-trichomonal-screening-and-treatment-in-pregnant-women-in-six-low-to-middle-income-countries
#4
C L Shannon, C C Bristow, N A Hoff, A Wynn, M Nguyen, A Medina-Marino, J Cabeza, A W Rimoin, J D Klausner
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infections during pregnancy are linked with adverse birth outcomes. However, few countries have prenatal CT, NG, or TV screening programs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of CT, NG, and TV screening and treatment among pregnant women across six low-to-middle income countries. METHODS: A total 1,817 pregnant women were screened for CT, NG, and TV in Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Haiti, South Africa, and Vietnam...
March 9, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509566/prevalence-of-mycoplasma-genitalium-and-azithromycin-resistant-infections-among-remnant-clinical-specimens-los-angeles
#5
Lao-Tzu Allan-Blitz, Elisa Mokany, Shelley Miller, Rachel Wee, Chelsea Shannon, Jeffrey D Klausner
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases. Diagnosis and susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma genitalium are limited by the fastidious nature of the organism. Therefore, the prevalence of infection and azithromycin resistance are poorly studied. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory study on remnant clinical specimens. We collected remnant DNA from urine samples and clinical swabs (cervical/vaginal, rectal, and pharyngeal) previously tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis using the Cobas 4800 CT/NG assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA) between March-April 2017 from across the University of California, Los Angeles Health System...
March 5, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489420/syphilis-incidence-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-comorbidity-and-the-importance-of-integrating-sexually-transmitted-infection-prevention-into-hiv-care
#6
Oliver N Refugio, Jeffrey D Klausner
Syphilis continues to be a growing epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly for those living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2016, MSM accounted for 80% of primary and secondary syphilis diagnoses in men in the United States; almost half of who were also HIV-infected. The synergistic relationship between HIV and syphilis has significant implications not only for HIV patient management, but also for sexually transmitted infection (STI) control among MSM. Areas covered: We review the literature on STI screening and treatment barriers at the patient-, provider-, and health system-levels, and present strategies to incorporate STI prevention into HIV care settings...
March 5, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476278/human-primary-cell-based-organotypic-microtissues-for-modeling-small-intestinal-drug-absorption
#7
Seyoum Ayehunie, Tim Landry, Zachary Stevens, Alex Armento, Patrick Hayden, Mitchell Klausner
PURPOSE: The study evaluates the use of new in vitro primary human cell-based organotypic small intestinal (SMI) microtissues for predicting intestinal drug absorption and drug-drug interaction. METHODS: The SMI microtissues were reconstructed using human intestinal fibroblasts and enterocytes cultured on a permeable support. To evaluate the suitability of the intestinal microtissues to model drug absorption, the permeability coefficients across the microtissues were determined for a panel of 11 benchmark drugs with known human absorption and Caco-2 permeability data...
February 23, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465686/prevalence-and-detection-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-pregnant-women
#8
Collin M Price, Remco P H Peters, Janré Steyn, Maanda Mudau, Dawie Olivier, Lindsey De Vos, Erika Morikawa, Marleen M Kock, Andrew Medina-Marino, Jeffrey D Klausner
BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is a STI associated with increased transmission of HIV and significant adverse birth outcomes; culture and PCR are commonly used in diagnosis. METHODS: Consenting HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited from clinics in South Africa and screened for T. vaginalis using PCR. PCR-positive women provided an additional sample for culture. We compared T. vaginalis detection between PCR and culture, and investigated how PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values differ among culture results...
November 7, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465685/ciprofloxacin-may-be-efficacious-in-treating-wild-type-gyrase-a-genotype-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infections
#9
Lao-Tzu Allan-Blitz, Peera Hemarajata, Romney M Humphries, Mabel Kimble, Sam Elias, Jeffrey D Klausner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371068/treating-chlamydial-infections-in-pregnancy-and-preventing-adverse-birth-outcomes
#10
Paul C Adamson, Jeffrey D Klausner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367246/human-papillomavirus-16-e7-stabilizes-apobec3a-protein-by-inhibiting-cullin-2-dependent-protein-degradation
#11
Joseph A Westrich, Cody J Warren, Michael J Klausner, Kejun Guo, Chang-Wei Liu, Mario L Santiago, Dohun Pyeon
APOBEC3 (A3) mutation signatures have been observed in a variety of human cancer genomes, including those of cervical and head and neck cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, the driving forces that promote off-target A3 activity remain mostly unclear. Here, we report a mechanism for the dramatic increase of A3A protein levels in HPV-positive keratinocytes. We show that expression of the viral protein E7 from high-risk HPVs, but not E7 from low-risk HPVs, significantly prolongs the cellular half-life of A3A protein in human keratinocytes and HPV-positive cancer cell lines...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354653/comparison-of-2d-and-3d-ultrasound-methods-to-measure-serial-bladder-volumes-during-filling-steps-toward-development-of-non-invasive-ultrasound-urodynamics
#12
Anna S Nagle, Rachel J Bernardo, Jary Varghese, Laura R Carucci, Adam P Klausner, John E Speich
OBJECTIVES: Non-invasive methods to objectively characterize overactive bladder (OAB) and other forms of voiding dysfunction using real-time ultrasound are currently under development but require accurate and precise serial measurements of bladder volumes during filling. This study's objective was to determine the most accurate and precise ultrasound-based method of quantifying serial bladder volumes during urodynamics (UD). METHODS: Twelve female participants with OAB completed an extended UD procedure with the addition of serial bladder ultrasound images captured once per minute...
2018: Bladder
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329176/a-cost-analysis-of-gyrase-a-testing-and-targeted-ciprofloxacin-therapy-versus-recommended-2-drug-therapy-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infection
#13
Lao-Tzu Allan-Blitz, Peera Hemarajata, Romney M Humphries, Adriane Wynn, Eddy R Segura, Jeffrey D Klausner
BACKGROUND: Novel approaches to combating drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections are urgently needed. Targeted therapy with ciprofloxacin has been made possible by a rapid assay for genotyping the gyrase A (gyrA) gene; a nonmutated gene reliably predicts susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. METHODS: We determined the costs of running the gyrA assay, 500 mg of ciprofloxacin, 250 mg of ceftriaxone injection, and 1000 mg of azithromycin. Cost estimates for gyrA testing included assay reagents and labor...
February 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315111/the-growing-epidemic-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-adolescents-a-neglected-population
#14
Chelsea L Shannon, Jeffrey D Klausner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence is on the rise in the United States. The increase is especially pronounced in adolescents (15-24 years of age). Despite making up only a quarter of the population, adolescents account for approximately half of new STIs in the United States every year. This review summarizes recent developments in the field of STIs, excluding HIV, in adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we examine the epidemiology, screening, management, and prevention of STIs in adolescents...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313193/the-relationship-between-risk-perception-and-frequency-of-hiv-testing-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-lima-peru
#15
S K Vargas, K A Konda, S R Leon, B Brown, J D Klausner, C Lindan, C F Caceres
HIV infections in Peru are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). HIV testing rates among them remain low, delaying entrance into care. We assessed the prevalence of frequent HIV testing (at least every 6 months) and associated factors among 310 MSM and TW who attend sexual health clinics in Lima, Peru, and who reported that they were HIV seronegative or unaware of their status. Only 39% of participants tested frequently, and 22% had never tested; 29% reported that they were at low or no risk for acquiring HIV...
January 8, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304083/combined-evaluation-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-and-infant-hiv-transmission
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Nava Yeganeh, Margaret Camarca, Mariza G Morgado, D Heather Watts, Lynne M Mofenson, Valdilea G Veloso, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Mariana Ceriotto, Daisy Maria Machado, Yvonne J Bryson, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Jack Moye, Jeffrey D Klausner, Claire C Bristow, Ruth Dickover, Mark Mirochnick, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) may lead to adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. The role of combined maternal STIs in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated in mother-infant pairs from NICHD HPTN 040. METHODOLOGY: Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women during labor were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CT, NG, and CMV...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275831/-advances-in-the-management-of-cervical-lymphadenopathies-of-unknown-primary-advances-in-diagnostic-imaging-and-surgical-modalities-and-new-international-staging-system
#17
REVIEW
Idriss Troussier, Guillaume Klausner, Sylvain Morinière, Eivind Blais, Jean-Christophe Faivre, Ambroise Champion, Lionnel Geoffrois, Carole Pflumio, Emmanuel Babin, Philippe Maingon, Juliette Thariat
INTRODUCTION: Cervical lymphadenopathies of unknown primary represent 3 % of head and neck cancers. Their diagnostic work up has largely changed in recent years. This review provides an update on diagnostic developments and their potential therapeutic impact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a systematic review of the literature. RESULTS: In recent years, changes in epidemiology-based prognostic factors such as human papilloma virus (HPV) cancers, advances in imaging and minimally invasive surgery have been integrated in the management of cervical lymphadenopathies of unknown primary...
February 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240781/comparing-mail-in-self-collected-specimens-sent-via-united-states-postal-service-versus-clinic-collected-specimens-for-the-detection-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-extra-genital-sites
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Katheryn R Salow, Adam C Cohen, Claire C Bristow, Mark R McGrath, Jeffrey D Klausner
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the concordance between clinic-collected extra-genital specimens and self-collected mailed-in extra-genital specimens among participants seeking sexually transmitted infection testing at a free clinic in Hollywood, CA. METHODS: A convenience sample of 210 men who have sex with men were enrolled between February 29, 2016 and December 21, 2016 and received mail-in testing kits for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). All testing was performed using the GeneXpert® CT/NG (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239823/getting-hiv-self-test-kits-into-the-home-for-young-african-american-msm-in-los-angeles-a-qualitative-report
#19
Joseph Daniels, Robert Marlin, Alex Medline, Greg Wilson, Sean Young, Lina Rosengren, Emily Huang, Jeffrey D Klausner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223960/systematic-reviews-of-point-of-care-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-urogenital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infections
#20
REVIEW
Helen Kelly, Cordelia E M Coltart, Nitika Pant Pai, Jeffrey D Klausner, Magnus Unemo, Igor Toskin, Rosanna W Peeling
BACKGROUND: WHO estimates that 131 million new cases of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections occur globally every year. Most infections are asymptomatic. Untreated infection in women can lead to severe complications. Screening and treatment of at-risk populations is a priority for prevention and control. OBJECTIVES: To summarise systematic reviews of the performance characteristics of commercially available point-of-care tests (POCT) for screening and diagnosis of urogenital CT infection...
December 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
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