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pigmentation by heavy metals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329098/effect-of-organic-amendments-on-cadmium-stress-to-pea-a-multivariate-comparison-of-germinating-vs-young-seedlings-and-younger-vs-older-leaves
#1
Saliha Shamshad, Muhammad Shahid, Marina Rafiq, Sana Khalid, Camille Dumat, Muhammad Sabir, Behzad Murtaza, Abu Bakr Umer Farooq, Noor S Shah
Despite significant recent advancement in research, biogeochemical behavior of heavy metals with respect to their applied form is still topical. Moreover, metal toxicity to plants may vary with their stage of development/maturity. Therefore, this study for the first time evaluated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) on cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity to germinating and young pea seedlings as well as in younger and older leaves. The experimental setup of current study consisted of two separate studies...
January 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318746/pigmented-macrophages-and-related-aggregates-in-the-spleen-of-european-sea-bass-dosed-with-heavy-metals-ultrastructure-and-explorative-morphometric-analysis
#2
Maurizio Manera, Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli, Joseph A DePasquale, Luisa Giari
The ultrastructure and morphometrics of pigmented macrophages (PMs) were assessed in the spleen of European sea bass experimentally dosed with Cd and Hg. PMs occurred either as solitary cells or as variably structured aggregations, defined as macrophage aggregates (MAs). Light microscopy revealed a high degree of morphological heterogeneity amongst MAs of all experimental groups. At the ultrastructural level, MAs showed a heterogeneous pigment content that was not influenced by the treatment. Cytoplasm rarefaction/vacuolation and euchromatic nuclei, were observed in PMs of dosed fish...
January 10, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277314/molecular-dynamics-of-palmitic-acid-and-lead-palmitate-in-cross-linked-linseed-oil-films-implications-from-deuterium-magnetic-resonance-for-lead-soap-formation-in-traditional-oil-paintings
#3
Jaclyn Catalano, Anna Murphy, Yao Yao, Nicholas Zumbulyadis, Silvia A Centeno, Cecil Dybowski
Many oil paintings, dating from the 15th century to the present, are affected by the formation of heavy-metal carboxylates (soaps) that alter the structural integrity and appearance of the works. Through transport phenomena not yet understood, free fatty acids formed from oils used as binders migrate through the paint film and react with heavy-metal ions that are constituents of pigments and/or driers, forming metal carboxylates. The local molecular dynamics of fatty acids and metal carboxylates are factors influencing material transport in these systems...
December 22, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177781/bioaccumulation-of-selected-heavy-metals-and-histopathological-and-hematobiochemical-alterations-in-backyard-chickens-reared-in-an-industrial-area-india
#4
Indrajit Kar, Sunit Kumar Mukhopadhayay, Amlan Kumar Patra, Saktipada Pradhan
This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of four heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co), and histopathological lesions in tissues of chickens reared in an industrial area of West Bengal, India. In particular, Mejhia Block was selected as a heavy metal-exposed area and Vatar Block (120 km away from industrially polluted areas) as a reference site. Samples were collected from the backyard chickens in these areas. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil, water, feedstuffs, tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and muscle), and droppings were greater (p < 0...
November 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124423/effects-of-mutual-intercropping-on-the-cadmium-accumulation-in-accumulator-plants-stellaria-media-malachium-aquaticum-and-galium-aparine
#5
Qiyu Lu, Jianhua Li, Fabo Chen, Ming'an Liao, Lijin Lin, Yi Tang, Dong Liang, Hui Xia, Yunsong Lai, Xun Wang, Cheng Chen, Wei Ren
Intercropping affects heavy-metal uptake in plants. In this study, three cadmium (Cd)-accumulator species (Stellaria media, Malachium aquaticum, and Galium aparine) were intercropped together in Cd-contaminated soil to study the effects of intercropping on co-remediation. Mutual intercropping significantly increased the biomasses of S. media, M. aquaticum, and G. aparine compared with their respective monocultures. The photosynthetic pigment contents of three species were not significantly affected by mutual intercropping...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053350/melatonin-affects-the-growth-and-cadmium-accumulation-of-malachium-aquaticum-and-galinsoga-parviflora
#6
Yi Tang, Lijin Lin, Yongdong Xie, Ji Liu, Guochao Sun, Huanxiu Li, Ming'an Liao, Zhihui Wang, Dong Liang, Hui Xia, Xun Wang, Jing Zhang, Zejing Liu, Zhi Huang, Zhongqun He, Lihua Tu
Phytoremediation technology has become one of the main techniques for remediating soils polluted by heavy metals because it does not damage the environment, but heavy metal-tolerant plants have the disadvantages of low biomass and slow growth. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of melatonin (Mel) on growth and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the Cd accumulator Malachium aquaticum and hyperaccumulator Galinsoga parviflora by spraying different concentrations of Mel on them. The results showed that shoot biomass, photosynthetic pigment content and antioxidant enzyme activity were increased in both species after Mel was sprayed on their leaves...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018594/comparative-study-of-cd-uptake-and-tolerance-of-two-italian-ryegrass-lolium-multiflorum-cultivars
#7
Zhigang Fang, Laiqing Lou, Zhenglan Tai, Yufeng Wang, Lei Yang, Zhubing Hu, Qingsheng Cai
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals and is difficult to be removed from contaminated soil and water. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), as an energy crop, exhibits a valuable potential to develop Cd polluted sites due to its use as a biofuel rather than as food and forage. Previously, via a screening for Cd-tolerant ryegrass, the two most extreme cultivars (IdyII and Harukaze) with high and low Cd tolerance during seed germination, respectively, were selected. However, the underlying mechanism for Cd tolerance was not well investigated...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987995/separation-identification-and-quantification-of-carotenoids-and-chlorophylls-in-dietary-supplements-containing-chlorella-vulgaris-and-spirulina-platensis-using-high-performance-thin-layer-chromatography
#8
Veronika Hynstova, Dagmar Sterbova, Borivoj Klejdus, Josef Hedbavny, Dalibor Huska, Vojtech Adam
In this study, 14 commercial products (dietary supplements) containing alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis, originated from China and Japan, were analysed. UV-vis spectrophotometric method was applied for rapid determination of chlorophylls, carotenoids and pheophytins; as degradation products of chlorophylls. High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was used for effective separation of these compounds, and also Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for determination of heavy metals as indicator of environmental pollution...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912460/elemental-and-molecular-segregation-in-oil-paintings-due-to-lead-soap-degradation
#9
Yu-Chen Karen Chen-Wiegart, Jaclyn Catalano, Garth J Williams, Anna Murphy, Yao Yao, Nicholas Zumbulyadis, Silvia A Centeno, Cecil Dybowski, Juergen Thieme
The formation of Pb, Zn, and Cu carboxylates (soaps) has caused visible deterioration in hundreds of oil paintings dating from the 15th century to the present. Through transport phenomena not yet understood, free fatty acids in the oil binding medium migrate through the paint and react with pigments containing heavy metals to form soaps. To investigate the complex correlation among the elemental segregation, types of chemical compounds formed, and possible mechanisms of the reactions, a paint sample cross-section from a 15th century oil painting was examined by synchrotron X-ray techniques...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900193/synchrotron-based-%C3%AE-xrf-mapping-and-%C3%AE-ftir-microscopy-enable-to-look-into-the-fate-and-effects-of-tattoo-pigments-in-human-skin
#10
Ines Schreiver, Bernhard Hesse, Christian Seim, Hiram Castillo-Michel, Julie Villanova, Peter Laux, Nadine Dreiack, Randolf Penning, Remi Tucoulou, Marine Cotte, Andreas Luch
The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body. We used skin and lymphatic tissues from human corpses to address local biokinetics by means of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques at both the micro (μ) and nano (ν) scale. Additional advanced mass spectrometry-based methodology enabled to demonstrate simultaneous transport of organic pigments, heavy metals and titanium dioxide from skin to regional lymph nodes...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895513/cadmium-ion-inhibition-of-quorum-signalling-in-chromobacterium-violaceum
#11
Starla G Thornhill, Manish Kumar, Leticia M Vega, Robert J C McLean
Single-celled bacteria are capable of acting as a community by sensing and responding to population density via quorum signalling. Quorum signalling in Chromobacterium violaceum, mediated by the luxI/R homologue, cviI/R, regulates a variety of phenotypes including violacein pigmentation, virulence and biofilm formation. A number of biological and organic molecules have been described as quorum signalling inhibitors but, to date, metal-based inhibitors have not been widely tested. In this study, we show that quorum sensing is inhibited in C...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818588/comprehensive-analysis-of-fly-ash-induced-changes-in-physiological-growth-parameters-dna-damage-and-oxidative-stress-over-the-life-cycle-of-brassica-juncea-and-brassica-alba
#12
Aditi Jana, Manosij Ghosh, Arpita De, Sonali Sinha, Manivannan Jothiramajayam, Anita Mukherjee
Fly ash (FA) being a heterogeneous mixture of heavy metal affects plant system in various ways. Previous studies have shown bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the plants and disturbance in cellular activities. Here, we have studied the impacts of FA treatment through the life cycle of economically important, annual crop plant mustard (Brassica juncea and Brassica alba). Result revealed that FA did not alter germination rate and photosynthetic pigment levels. Tolerance index of B. juncea was higher compared to B...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762312/cadmium-organ-toxicity-and-therapeutic-approaches-a-review-on-brain-kidney-and-testis-damage
#13
Mariagrazia Rinaldi, Antonio Micali, Herbert Marini, Elena Bianca Adamo, Domenico Puzzolo, Antonina Pisani, Vincenzo Trichilo, Domenica Altavilla, Francesco Squadrito, Letteria Minutoli
BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal particularly hazardous for human health, as it is highly diffused and, therefore, a ubiquitous environmental toxicant. In fact, in the general population, the main sources of exposure are food, cigarette smoking, inhalation of ambient air, drinking water, contaminated soil or dust. Furthermore, an occupational exposure usually involves human during mining, fume inhalation or manufacturing nickel-cadmium battery, electroplating and paint pigments that utilize Cd...
August 1, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752307/metal-uptake-capability-of-cyperus-articulatus-l-and-its-role-in-mitigating-heavy-metals-from-contaminated-wetlands
#14
Tarek M Galal, Fatma A Gharib, Safia M Ghazi, Khalid H Mansour
Wetland plants are biological filters that play an important role in maintaining aquatic ecosystem and can take up toxic metals from sediments and water. The present study investigated the seasonal variation in the accumulation potential of heavy metals by Cyperus articulatus in contaminated watercourses. Forty quadrats, distributed equally in 8 sites (six contaminated sites along Ismailia canal and two uncontaminated sites along the River Nile), were selected seasonally for sediment, water, and plant investigations...
September 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746396/recovery-of-metallo-tolerant-and-antibiotic-resistant-psychrophilic-bacteria-from-siachen-glacier-pakistan
#15
Muhammad Rafiq, Muhammad Hayat, Alexandre M Anesio, Syed Umair Ullah Jamil, Noor Hassan, Aamer Ali Shah, Fariha Hasan
Cultureable bacterial diversity of previously unexplored Siachen glacier, Pakistan, was studied. Out of 50 isolates 33 (66%) were Gram negative and 17 (34%) Gram positive. About half of the isolates were pigment producers and were able to grow at 4-37°C. 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed Gram negative bacteria dominated by Proteobacteria (especially γ-proteobacteria and β-proteobacteria) and Flavobacteria. The genus Pseudomonas (51.51%, 17) was dominant among γ- proteobacteria. β-proteobacteria constituted 4 (12...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740127/three-dimensional-imaging-of-biological-tissue-by-cryo-x-ray-ptychography
#16
S H Shahmoradian, E H R Tsai, A Diaz, M Guizar-Sicairos, J Raabe, L Spycher, M Britschgi, A Ruf, H Stahlberg, M Holler
High-throughput three-dimensional cryogenic imaging of thick biological specimens is valuable for identifying biologically- or pathologically-relevant features of interest, especially for subsequent correlative studies. Unfortunately, high-resolution imaging techniques at cryogenic conditions often require sample reduction through sequential physical milling or sectioning for sufficient penetration to generate each image of the 3-D stack. This study represents the first demonstration of using ptychographic hard X-ray tomography at cryogenic temperatures for imaging thick biological tissue in a chemically-fixed, frozen-hydrated state without heavy metal staining and organic solvents...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732951/application-of-ultrasonically-modified-cloud-point-extraction-method-for-simultaneous-enrichment-of-cadmium-and-lead-in-sera-of-different-types-of-gallstone-patients
#17
Mustafa Khan, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Hasan Imran Afridi, Muhammad Bilal, Asma Akhtar, Naeem Ullah, Sabir Khan, Sehrish Talpur
A novel and greener ultrasonically assisted/modified cloud point extraction procedure for the simultaneous preconcentration of lead and cadmium in serum samples of different types of gallstone patients was developed. The chelates of the under study metals, formerly formed with 8-hydroxyquinoline, were extracted in the micelles of a nonionic surfactant prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). After the arrival of the cloud point, the critical micellar mass produced was homogenously dispersed in the aqueous phase with the help of ultrasound energy...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710445/microplastics-in-eviscerated-flesh-and-excised-organs-of-dried-fish
#18
Ali Karami, Abolfazl Golieskardi, Yu Bin Ho, Vincent Larat, Babak Salamatinia
There is a paucity of information about the occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in edible fish tissues. Here, we investigated the potential presence of MPs in the excised organs (viscera and gills) and eviscerated flesh (whole fish excluding the viscera and gills) of four commonly consumed dried fish species (n = 30 per species). The MP chemical composition was then determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy and elemental analysis with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Out of 61 isolated particles, 59...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643849/prevalence-of-exposure-of-heavy-metals-and-their-impact-on-health-consequences
#19
Kanwal Rehman, Fiza Fatima, Iqra Waheed, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Even in the current era of growing technology, the concentration of heavy metals present in drinking water is still not within the recommended limits as set by the regulatory authorities in different countries of the world. Drinking water contaminated with heavy metals namely; arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury, chromium, zinc, and lead is becoming a major health concern for public and health care professionals. Occupational exposure to heavy metals is known to occur by the utilization of these metals in various industrial processes and/or contents including color pigments and alloys...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600794/citric-acid-enhanced-the-antioxidant-defense-system-and-chromium-uptake-by-lemna-minor-l-grown-in-hydroponics-under-cr-stress
#20
Rasham Sallah-Ud-Din, Mujahid Farid, Rashid Saeed, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer, Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari
Phytoextraction is a cost-effective and eco-friendly technique for the removal of pollutants, mainly heavy metal(loids) especially from polluted water and metal-contaminated soils. The phytoextraction of heavy metals is, in general, limited due to the low availability of heavy metals in the growth medium. Organic chelators can help to improve the phytoextraction by increasing metal mobility and solubility in the growth medium. The present research was carried out to examine the possibility of citric acid (CA) in improving chromium (Cr) phytoextraction by Lemna minor (duckweed)...
July 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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