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pigmentation by heavy metals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912460/elemental-and-molecular-segregation-in-oil-paintings-due-to-lead-soap-degradation
#1
Yu-Chen Karen Chen-Wiegart, Jaclyn Catalano, Garth J Williams, Anna Murphy, Yao Yao, Nicholas Zumbulyadis, Silvia A Centeno, Cecil Dybowski, Juergen Thieme
The formation of Pb, Zn, and Cu carboxylates (soaps) has caused visible deterioration in hundreds of oil paintings dating from the 15th century to the present. Through transport phenomena not yet understood, free fatty acids in the oil binding medium migrate through the paint and react with pigments containing heavy metals to form soaps. To investigate the complex correlation among the elemental segregation, types of chemical compounds formed, and possible mechanisms of the reactions, a paint sample cross-section from a 15th century oil painting was examined by synchrotron X-ray techniques...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900193/synchrotron-based-%C3%AE-xrf-mapping-and-%C3%AE-ftir-microscopy-enable-to-look-into-the-fate-and-effects-of-tattoo-pigments-in-human-skin
#2
Ines Schreiver, Bernhard Hesse, Christian Seim, Hiram Castillo-Michel, Julie Villanova, Peter Laux, Nadine Dreiack, Randolf Penning, Remi Tucoulou, Marine Cotte, Andreas Luch
The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body. We used skin and lymphatic tissues from human corpses to address local biokinetics by means of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques at both the micro (μ) and nano (ν) scale. Additional advanced mass spectrometry-based methodology enabled to demonstrate simultaneous transport of organic pigments, heavy metals and titanium dioxide from skin to regional lymph nodes...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895513/cadmium-ion-inhibition-of-quorum-signalling-in-chromobacterium-violaceum
#3
Starla G Thornhill, Manish Kumar, Leticia M Vega, Robert J C McLean
Single-celled bacteria are capable of acting as a community by sensing and responding to population density via quorum signalling. Quorum signalling in Chromobacterium violaceum, mediated by the luxI/R homologue, cviI/R, regulates a variety of phenotypes including violacein pigmentation, virulence and biofilm formation. A number of biological and organic molecules have been described as quorum signalling inhibitors but, to date, metal-based inhibitors have not been widely tested. In this study, we show that quorum sensing is inhibited in C...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818588/comprehensive-analysis-of-fly-ash-induced-changes-in-physiological-growth-parameters-dna-damage-and-oxidative-stress-over-the-life-cycle-of-brassica-juncea-and-brassica-alba
#4
Aditi Jana, Manosij Ghosh, Arpita De, Sonali Sinha, Manivannan Jothiramajayam, Anita Mukherjee
Fly ash (FA) being a heterogeneous mixture of heavy metal affects plant system in various ways. Previous studies have shown bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the plants and disturbance in cellular activities. Here, we have studied the impacts of FA treatment through the life cycle of economically important, annual crop plant mustard (Brassica juncea and Brassica alba). Result revealed that FA did not alter germination rate and photosynthetic pigment levels. Tolerance index of B. juncea was higher compared to B...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762312/cadmium-organ-toxicity-and-therapeutic-approaches-a-review-on-brain-kidney-and-testis-damage
#5
Mariagrazia Rinaldi, Antonio Micali, Herbert Marini, Elena Bianca Adamo, Domenico Puzzolo, Antonina Pisani, Vincenzo Trichilo, Domenica Altavilla, Francesco Squadrito, Letteria Minutoli
BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal particularly hazardous for human health, as it is highly diffused and, therefore, a ubiquitous environmental toxicant. In fact, in the general population, the main sources of exposure are food, cigarette smoking, inhalation of ambient air, drinking water, contaminated soil or dust. Furthermore, an occupational exposure usually involves human during mining, fume inhalation or manufacturing nickel-cadmium battery, electroplating and paint pigments that utilize Cd...
August 1, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752307/metal-uptake-capability-of-cyperus-articulatus-l-and-its-role-in-mitigating-heavy-metals-from-contaminated-wetlands
#6
Tarek M Galal, Fatma A Gharib, Safia M Ghazi, Khalid H Mansour
Wetland plants are biological filters that play an important role in maintaining aquatic ecosystem and can take up toxic metals from sediments and water. The present study investigated the seasonal variation in the accumulation potential of heavy metals by Cyperus articulatus in contaminated watercourses. Forty quadrats, distributed equally in 8 sites (six contaminated sites along Ismailia canal and two uncontaminated sites along the River Nile), were selected seasonally for sediment, water, and plant investigations...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746396/recovery-of-metallo-tolerant-and-antibiotic-resistant-psychrophilic-bacteria-from-siachen-glacier-pakistan
#7
Muhammad Rafiq, Muhammad Hayat, Alexandre M Anesio, Syed Umair Ullah Jamil, Noor Hassan, Aamer Ali Shah, Fariha Hasan
Cultureable bacterial diversity of previously unexplored Siachen glacier, Pakistan, was studied. Out of 50 isolates 33 (66%) were Gram negative and 17 (34%) Gram positive. About half of the isolates were pigment producers and were able to grow at 4-37°C. 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed Gram negative bacteria dominated by Proteobacteria (especially γ-proteobacteria and β-proteobacteria) and Flavobacteria. The genus Pseudomonas (51.51%, 17) was dominant among γ- proteobacteria. β-proteobacteria constituted 4 (12...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740127/three-dimensional-imaging-of-biological-tissue-by-cryo-x-ray-ptychography
#8
S H Shahmoradian, E H R Tsai, A Diaz, M Guizar-Sicairos, J Raabe, L Spycher, M Britschgi, A Ruf, H Stahlberg, M Holler
High-throughput three-dimensional cryogenic imaging of thick biological specimens is valuable for identifying biologically- or pathologically-relevant features of interest, especially for subsequent correlative studies. Unfortunately, high-resolution imaging techniques at cryogenic conditions often require sample reduction through sequential physical milling or sectioning for sufficient penetration to generate each image of the 3-D stack. This study represents the first demonstration of using ptychographic hard X-ray tomography at cryogenic temperatures for imaging thick biological tissue in a chemically-fixed, frozen-hydrated state without heavy metal staining and organic solvents...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732951/application-of-ultrasonically-modified-cloud-point-extraction-method-for-simultaneous-enrichment-of-cadmium-and-lead-in-sera-of-different-types-of-gallstone-patients
#9
Mustafa Khan, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Hasan Imran Afridi, Muhammad Bilal, Asma Akhtar, Naeem Ullah, Sabir Khan, Sehrish Talpur
A novel and greener ultrasonically assisted/modified cloud point extraction procedure for the simultaneous preconcentration of lead and cadmium in serum samples of different types of gallstone patients was developed. The chelates of the under study metals, formerly formed with 8-hydroxyquinoline, were extracted in the micelles of a nonionic surfactant prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). After the arrival of the cloud point, the critical micellar mass produced was homogenously dispersed in the aqueous phase with the help of ultrasound energy...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710445/microplastics-in-eviscerated-flesh-and-excised-organs-of-dried-fish
#10
Ali Karami, Abolfazl Golieskardi, Yu Bin Ho, Vincent Larat, Babak Salamatinia
There is a paucity of information about the occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in edible fish tissues. Here, we investigated the potential presence of MPs in the excised organs (viscera and gills) and eviscerated flesh (whole fish excluding the viscera and gills) of four commonly consumed dried fish species (n = 30 per species). The MP chemical composition was then determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy and elemental analysis with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Out of 61 isolated particles, 59...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643849/prevalence-of-exposure-of-heavy-metals-and-their-impact-on-health-consequences
#11
Kanwal Rehman, Fiza Fatima, Iqra Waheed, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Even in the current era of growing technology, the concentration of heavy metals present in drinking water is still not within the recommended limits as set by the regulatory authorities in different countries of the world. Drinking water contaminated with heavy metals namely; arsenic, cadmium, nickel, chromium, mercury, chromium, zinc and lead is becoming a major health concern for public and health care professionals. Occupational exposure to heavy metals is known to occur by the utilization of these metals in various industrial processes and/or contents including color pigments and alloys...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600794/citric-acid-enhanced-the-antioxidant-defense-system-and-chromium-uptake-by-lemna-minor-l-grown-in-hydroponics-under-cr-stress
#12
Rasham Sallah-Ud-Din, Mujahid Farid, Rashid Saeed, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer, Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari
Phytoextraction is a cost-effective and eco-friendly technique for the removal of pollutants, mainly heavy metal(loids) especially from polluted water and metal-contaminated soils. The phytoextraction of heavy metals is, in general, limited due to the low availability of heavy metals in the growth medium. Organic chelators can help to improve the phytoextraction by increasing metal mobility and solubility in the growth medium. The present research was carried out to examine the possibility of citric acid (CA) in improving chromium (Cr) phytoextraction by Lemna minor (duckweed)...
July 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474750/heavy-metal-induced-toxicity-in-the-indian-green-frog-biochemical-and-histopathological-alterations
#13
Uthpala Apekshani Jayawardena, Preethika Angunawela, Deepthi Devika Wickramasinghe, Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya, Preethi Vidya Udagama
Heavy metal contamination may have adverse effects on wetland biota, particularly on amphibians. Severe immunotoxic effects elicited in Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Indian green frog) because of metal exposure (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the Bellanwila-Attidiya Sanctuary, a polluted urban wetland in Sri Lanka, provided the rationale for the present study. We evaluated the biochemical and histopathological effects of this metal contamination with a reference E. hexadactylus population and a laboratory exposure group that was subjected to 28 d of exposure to a mixture of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn (5 ppm in each mixture)...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458244/cadmium-lead-and-bromine-in-beached-microplastics
#14
Angelo Massos, Andrew Turner
Samples of microplastic (n = 924) from two beaches in south west England have been analysed by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry, configured in a low-density mode and with a small-spot facility, for the heavy metals, Cd and Pb, and the halogen, Br. Primary plastics in the form of pre-production pellets were the principal type of microplastic (>70%) on both beaches, with secondary, irregularly-shaped fragments representing the remainder of samples. Cadmium and Pb were detected in 6...
August 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455875/effects-of-heavy-metal-pollution-on-pigmented-macrophages-in-kidney-of-vardar-chub-squalius-vardarensis-karaman
#15
Maja Jordanova, Katerina Rebok, Zrinka Dragun, Sheriban Ramani, Lozenka Ivanova, Vasil Kostov, Damir Valić, Nesrete Krasnići, Vlatka Filipović Marijić, Damir Kapetanović
Pollution with heavy metals may influence the immune system of fish, leading to impairment of their health or even increase their mortality. The fish kidney is one of the first fish organs to be affected by water contamination. Amounts of kidney macrophages (MACs), which are involved in fish immune response, as well as the qualitative and quantitative changes in the pigmented MACs in fish kidney, are used as biomarkers of pollution. Therefore, in this study, we have evaluated relative and total volumes of trunk kidney pigmented MACs, and analyzed the pigments accumulated within them...
April 28, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411512/evaluating-biochemical-response-of-filamentous-algae-integrated-with-different-water-bodies
#16
Abuzer Çelekli, Emine Kapı, Çiğdem Soysal, Hamdullah Arslanargun, Hüseyin Bozkurt
The present study prompted the second attempts to evaluate biochemical responses of filamentous algae under different physico-chemical variables in various water bodies in Turkey. These variables were investigated by use of multivariate approach in the years of 2013 (May and November) and 2014 (May and October). Studied ecoregions had the different geographic position, climate, land-use, and anthropogenic activities, could strongly affect physico-chemical variables of water bodies, which caused to change or regulate in algal biomass composition due to the different response of filamentous species...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343753/limnothrix-sp-ko05-a-newly-characterized-cyanobacterial-biosorbent-for-cadmium-removal-the-enzymatic-and-non-enzymatic-antioxidant-reactions-to-cadmium-toxicity
#17
Omid Haghighi, Shahab Shahryari, Mojgan Ebadi, Sima Modiri, Hossein Shahbani Zahiri, Hadi Maleki, Kambiz Akbari Noghabi
In this study, we isolated five indigenous cyanobacterial strains from different aqueous environments, with heavy metals contamination, in East Azerbaijan Province (northwest portion of Iran). A strain was identified by morphological and 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Limnothrix sp. KO05 and selected for further studies as having the greatest potential for cadmium uptake. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated cyanobacterium Limnothrix sp. KO05 forms filamentous structures and is straight or curved to some extent...
April 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260133/stoichiometry-and-kinetics-of-mercury-uptake-by-photosynthetic-bacteria
#18
Mariann Kis, Gábor Sipka, Péter Maróti
Mercury adsorption on the cell surface and intracellular uptake by bacteria represent the key first step in the production and accumulation of highly toxic mercury in living organisms. In this work, the biophysical characteristics of mercury bioaccumulation are studied in intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria by use of analytical (dithizone) assay and physiological photosynthetic markers (pigment content, fluorescence induction, and membrane potential) to determine the amount of mercury ions bound to the cell surface and taken up by the cell...
May 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246038/the-wheat-mutant-della-encoding-gene-rht-b1c-affects-plant-photosynthetic-responses-to-cadmium-stress
#19
Anelia G Dobrikova, Ekaterina K Yotsova, Andreas Börner, Svetlana P Landjeva, Emilia L Apostolova
Тhe sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) stress of two near-isogenic wheat lines with differences at the Rht-B1 locus, Rht-B1a (tall wild type, encoding DELLA proteins) and Rht-B1c (dwarf mutant, encoding modified DELLA proteins), was investigated. The effects of 100 μM CdCl2 on plant growth, pigment content and functional activity of the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat seedlings grown on a nutrient solution were evaluated through a combination of PAM chlorophyll fluorescence, oxygen evolution, oxidation-reduction kinetics of P700 and 77 K fluorescence...
May 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231504/effect-of-biochar-on-cadmium-bioavailability-and-uptake-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-grown-in-a-soil-with-aged-contamination
#20
Tahir Abbas, Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Farhat Abbas, Fakhir Hannan, Jörg Rinklebe, Yong Sik Ok
Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known and widespread toxic heavy metal while the effects of biochar (BC) on Cd bioavailability and toxicity in wheat, especially in soils with aged contamination are largely unknown. In the present study, the effect of rice straw BC on Cd immobilization in soil and uptake by wheat in an agricultural contaminated-soil was investigated. Different levels of rice straw BC (0%, 1.5%, 3.0% and 5% w/w) were incorporated into the soil and incubated for two weeks. After this, wheat plants were grown in the amended soil until maturity...
June 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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