keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Mitragynine

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893147/update-on-the-pharmacology-and-legal-status-of-kratom
#1
Walter C Prozialeck
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to stave off fatigue and to manage pain and opioid withdrawal. In a comprehensive review published in 2012, Prozialeck et al presented evidence that kratom had been increasingly used for the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain in the United States. At the time, kratom was classified as a legal herbal product by the US Drug Enforcement Administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752985/suspected-adulteration-of-commercial-kratom-products-with-7-hydroxymitragynine
#2
Alicia G Lydecker, Abhisheak Sharma, Christopher R McCurdy, Bonnie A Avery, Kavita M Babu, Edward W Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725074/determination-of-mitragynine-in-mitragyna-speciosa-raw-materials-and-finished-products-by-liquid-chromatography-with-uv-detection-single-laboratory-validation
#3
Elizabeth M Mudge, Paula N Brown
Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a tree indigenous to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used in herbal formulations because they contain indole alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxy (7-OH) mitragynine. An HPLC method was developed, optimized, and validated using single-laboratory validation guidelines to quantify mitragynine in kratom raw materials and finished products. The method optimization evaluated several extraction parameters including solvent type, solvent volume, time, and extraction method. The separation of the mitragynine alkaloids was achieved in 18 min with a fused-core C18 EVO column using gradient separation with ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9...
October 8, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669103/do-you-get-what-you-paid-for-an-examination-of-products-advertised-as-kratom
#4
O Hayden Griffin, Jace A Daniels, Elizabeth A Gardner
Although some novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are newly discovered chemicals, others are traditional or indigenous substances that are introduced to new markets. One of these latter substances is a plant many people refer to as kratom. Indigenous to Southeast Asia and used for a variety of instrumental and recreational purposes, kratom has recently become available to Western drug users. Kratom is somewhat unique in that the plant contains two different psychoactive chemicals, which have both stimulant (mitragynine) and narcotic (7-hydroxymitragynine) properties...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556704/mitragynine-corynantheidine-pseudoindoxyls-as-opioid-analgesics-with-mu-agonism-and-delta-antagonism-which-do-not-recruit-%C3%AE-arrestin-2
#5
András Váradi, Gina F Marrone, Travis C Palmer, Ankita Narayan, Márton R Szabó, Valerie Le Rouzic, Steven G Grinnell, Joan J Subrath, Evelyn Warner, Sanjay Kalra, Amanda Hunkele, Jeremy Pagirsky, Shainnel O Eans, Jessica M Medina, Jin Xu, Ying-Xian Pan, Attila Borics, Gavril W Pasternak, Jay P McLaughlin, Susruta Majumdar
Natural products found in Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom, represent diverse scaffolds (indole, indolenine, and spiro pseudoindoxyl) with opioid activity, providing opportunities to better understand opioid pharmacology. Herein, we report the pharmacology and SAR studies both in vitro and in vivo of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl (3), an oxidative rearrangement product of the corynanthe alkaloid mitragynine. 3 and its corresponding corynantheidine analogs show promise as potent analgesics with a mechanism of action that includes mu opioid receptor agonism/delta opioid receptor antagonism...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260674/mitragynine-and-its-potential-blocking-effects-on-specific-cardiac-potassium-channels
#6
Yea Lu Tay, Yi Fan Teah, Yoong Min Chong, Mohd Fadzly Amar Jamil, Sina Kollert, Mohd Ilham Adenan, Habibah Abdul Wahab, Frank Döring, Erhard Wischmeyer, Mei Lan Tan
Mitragyna speciosa Korth is known for its euphoric properties and is frequently used for recreational purposes. Several poisoning and fatal cases involving mitragynine have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac IKr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. On the other hand, IK1, a Kir current mediated by Kir2.1 channel and IKACh, a receptor-activated Kir current mediated by GIRK channel are also known to be important in maintaining the cardiac function...
August 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192616/synthetic-and-receptor-signaling-explorations-of-the-mitragyna-alkaloids-mitragynine-as-an-atypical-molecular-framework-for-opioid-receptor-modulators
#7
Andrew C Kruegel, Madalee M Gassaway, Abhijeet Kapoor, András Váradi, Susruta Majumdar, Marta Filizola, Jonathan A Javitch, Dalibor Sames
Mu-opioid receptor agonists represent mainstays of pain management. However, the therapeutic use of these agents is associated with serious side effects, including potentially lethal respiratory depression. Accordingly, there is a longstanding interest in the development of new opioid analgesics with improved therapeutic profiles. The alkaloids of the Southeast Asian plant Mitragyna speciosa, represented by the prototypical member mitragynine, are an unusual class of opioid receptor modulators with distinct pharmacological properties...
June 1, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178014/traditional-and-non-traditional-uses-of-mitragynine-kratom-a-survey-of-the-literature
#8
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam Vicknasingam
INTRODUCTION: The objective of the paper was to highlight the differences in the traditional and non-traditional users of kratom in the South East Asian and Western contexts. METHOD: A literature survey of published kratom studies among humans was conducted. Forty published studies relevant to the objective were reviewed. RESULTS: Apart from the differences in the sources of supply, patterns of use and social acceptability of kratom within these two regions, the most interesting finding is its evolution to a recreational drug in both settings and the severity of the adverse effects of kratom use reported in the West...
September 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018165/neurobiology-of-kratom-and-its-main-alkaloid-mitragynine
#9
Farah W Suhaimi, Nurul H M Yusoff, Rahimah Hassan, Sharif M Mansor, Visweswaran Navaratnam, Christian P Müller, Zurina Hassan
Kratom or its main alkaloid, mitragynine is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth which is indigenous to Southeast Asian countries. This substance has become widely available in other countries like Europe and United States due to its opium- and coca-like effects. In this article, we have reviewed available reports on mitragynine and other M. speciosa extracts. M. speciosa has been proven to have a rewarding effect and is effective in alleviating the morphine and ethanol withdrawal effects. However, studies in human revealed that prolonged consumption of this plant led to dependence and tolerance while cessation caused a series of aversive withdrawal symptoms...
September 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006637/behavioural-and-electrophysiological-evidence-of-impaired-learning-and-memory-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-following-subchronic-exposure-to-standardised-methanolic-extract-of-mitragyna-speciosa-korth
#10
Mohd Ulul Ilmie, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor, Jafri Malin Abdullah
BACKGROUND: Mitragyna speciosa (MS) or ketum is primarily found in Southeast Asia, particularly in northern Malaysia and Thailand. The medicinal value of this plant has attracted significant attention from both herbal medicine practitioners and scientists worldwide. Despite having illegal consumption status, the plant merits study. We conducted a series of experiments to test our hypothesis that ketum impairs both learning and memory in rats. METHODS: Ketum leaves were extracted using methanol and standardised for the amount of its pure compound, mitragynine...
December 2015: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001139/mitragynine-kratom-monitoring-in-sports-drug-testing
#11
Sven Guddat, Christian Görgens, Vanessa Steinhart, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
In 2014, mitragynine (Kratom) was placed on the Monitoring List of the World Anti-Doping Agency to gain information of its current use in professional sports. Therefore, analytical strategies in sports drug testing are presented and the first Kratom case in professional sports is described. It is outlined that thorough monitoring by anti-doping laboratories is of utmost importance to obtain data on Kratom's misuse and to protect athletes from potential health hazards. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...
November 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26990882/chronic-mitragynine-kratom-enhances-punishment-resistance-in-natural-reward-seeking-and-impairs-place-learning-in-mice
#12
Nurul Iman W Ismail, Nanthini Jayabalan, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor, Christian P Müller, Mustapha Muzaimi
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a widely abused herbal drug preparation in Southeast Asia. It is often consumed as a substitute for heroin, but imposing itself unknown harms and addictive burdens. Mitragynine is the major psychostimulant constituent of kratom that has recently been reported to induce morphine-like behavioural and cognitive effects in rodents. The effects of chronic consumption on non-drug related behaviours are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic mitragynine treatment on spontaneous activity, reward-related behaviour and cognition in mice in an IntelliCage® system, and compared them with those of morphine and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
March 17, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26688378/comparative-effects-of-mitragyna-speciosa-extract-mitragynine-and-opioid-agonists-on-thermal-nociception-in-rats
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jessica M Carpenter, Catherine A Criddle, Helaina K Craig, Zulfiqar Ali, Zhihao Zhang, Ikhlas A Khan, Kenneth J Sufka
This study sought to compare the effects of Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. extract, alkaloids fraction, and mitragynine, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, to that of morphine and oxycodone in a test of thermal nociception. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered test articles intraperitoneally (IP) 30 min prior to testing to compare the effects of M. speciosa articles to opioid reference compounds on the hotplate assay. Test articles were vehicle, 10 mg/kg morphine, 3 mg/kg oxycodone, 300 mg/kg M...
March 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511390/the-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-kratom-from-traditional-herb-to-drug-of-abuse
#14
REVIEW
Marcus L Warner, Nellie C Kaufman, Oliver Grundmann
Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae), commonly known as kratom, is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom has gained popularity for use as a recreational drug across the globe. Relatively new to the illicit market and used in a manner different from its traditional applications, preparations of kratom are touted by many as a safe and legal psychoactive product that improves mood, relieves pain, and may provide benefits in opiate addiction...
January 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26452798/determination-of-mitragynine-in-urine-matrices-by-bar-adsorptive-microextraction-and-hplc-analysis
#15
N R Neng, S M Ahmad, H Gaspar, J M F Nogueira
Bar adsorptive microextraction combined with liquid desorption followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (BAµE-LD/HPLC-DAD) is proposed for the determination of the psychoactive alkaloid mitragynine (MG) in human urine matrices. By using a modified N-vinylpyrrolidone polymer (P2) sorbent phase, high selectivity and efficiency is achieved. Assays performed by BAµE(P2)-LD/HPLC-DAD on 25 mL water samples spiked at the 8.0 µg L(-1) level yielded average recoveries around 100% of MG, under optimized experimental conditions...
November 1, 2015: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25995615/pharmacokinetics-of-mitragynine-in-man
#16
Satariya Trakulsrichai, Korbtham Sathirakul, Saranya Auparakkitanon, Jatupon Krongvorakul, Jetjamnong Sueajai, Nantida Noumjad, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Winai Wananukul
BACKGROUND: Kratom, known botanically as Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.), is an indigenous tree in Southeast Asia. Kratom is currently easily available worldwide via special shops and the Internet to use as a drug of abuse, opioid alternative, or pain killer. So far, the pharmacokinetics of this plant has been studied only in animals, and there is no such study in humans. The major abundant active alkaloid in Kratom, mitragynine, is one of the promising new chemical substances to be developed as a new drug...
2015: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25950592/social-functioning-of-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-users-in-malaysia
#17
Darshan Singh, Christian P Müller, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Sharif M Mansor
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is an indigenous plant known for its traditional medicinal use, and for its addiction potential, in Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom and its major alkaloid, mitragynine, spread worldwide with largely unknown effects on behavior and mental health. Recent studies show that kratom use can lead to dependence and that mitragynine works as an addictive drug in animal studies. Nevertheless, kratom preparations were also suggested as a less harmful substitute in opiate withdrawal...
April 2015: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25857873/identification-and-characterization-of-indole-and-oxindole-alkaloids-from-leaves-of-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-using-liquid-chromatography-accurate-qtof-mass-spectrometry
#18
Bharathi Avula, Satyanarayanaraju Sagi, Yan-Hong Wang, Mei Wang, Zulfiqar Ali, Troy J Smillie, Jerry Zweigenbaum, Ikhlas A Khan
Alkaloids have been reported to be the major physiologically active constituents in Mitragyna. An analytical method was developed to provide an alternative, fast method for characterization of alkaloids from various M. speciosa samples. The separation was achieved using an RP octylsilyl (C8) column, MS detection, and a water-acetonitrile with formic acid gradient as the mobile phase. Ultra-HPLC/quadrupole time-of-flight MS analysis and characterization were performed on 12 corynanthe-type indole/oxindole alkaloids obtained from the leaves of M...
January 2015: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25825913/effects-of-mitragynine-and-a-crude-alkaloid-extract-derived-from-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-on-permethrin-elimination-in-rats
#19
Kachamas Srichana, Benjamas Janchawee, Sathaporn Prutipanlai, Pritsana Raungrut, Niwat Keawpradub
Detoxification and elimination of permethrin (PM) are mediated by hydrolysis via carboxylesterase (CES). Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) contains mitragynine (MG) and other bioactive alkaloids. Since PM and MG have the same catalytic site and M. speciosa is usually abused by adding other ingredients such as pyrethroid insecticides, the effects of MG and an alkaloid extract (AE) on the elimination of PM were investigated in rats. Rats were subjected to single and multiple pretreatment with MG and AE prior to receiving a single oral dose (460 mg/kg) of PM...
2015: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25793541/understanding-the-physicochemical-properties-of-mitragynine-a-principal-alkaloid-of-mitragyna-speciosa-for-preclinical-evaluation
#20
Surash Ramanathan, Suhanya Parthasarathy, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Enrico Magosso, Soo Choon Tan, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
Varied pharmacological responses have been reported for mitragynine in the literature, but no supportive scientific explanations have been given for this. These studies have been undertaken without a sufficient understanding of the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. In this work a UV spectrophotometer approach and HPLC-UV method were employed to ascertain the physicochemical properties of mitragynine. The pKa of mitragynine measured by conventional UV (8.11 ± 0.11) was in agreement with the microplate reader determination (8...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
keyword
keyword
57646
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"