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Mitragynine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772071/to-test-or-not-to-test-the-value-of-toxicology-in-a-delayed-overdose-death
#1
Erin E Walsh, Elisa N Shoff, Mary Elizabeth Zaney, George W Hime, Fintan Garavan, Diane M Boland
A case demonstrating the necessity of thorough death investigation processes where toxicology plays an active role is presented. A 33-year-old white man presented to the emergency room in respiratory distress after an overdose episode where he was revived on the scene by fire rescue. His condition continued to deteriorate and he expired 6 days after the initial incident. No admission specimens were available for testing; however, there were specimens drawn 4 and 5 days after the incident. Drug paraphernalia from the scene was obtained by the laboratory through collaboration with local law enforcement...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718282/suspected-driving-under-the-influence-case-involving-mitragynine
#2
Trista H Wright
Mitragynine is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) that has emerged as a designer opioid being distributed on the street. Mitragynine, also known as kratom, has dose-dependent pharmacological effects and possesses both stimulant-like and sedative effects due to dual-binding of α-adrenergic and μ-opioid receptors. This herbal remedy readily available online has caused adverse effects including tachycardia, agitation, tremors, hallucination and death; however, this is the first reported suspected driving under the influence case involving mitragynine...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678221/determination-of-alkaloids-in-mitragyna-speciosa-kratom-raw-materials-and-dietary-supplements-by-hplc-uv-single-laboratory-validation-first-action-2017-14
#3
Elizabeth M Mudge, Paula N Brown
The AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) approved a method for the quantitation of alkaloids in Mitragynaspeciosa for consideration as First Action Official Method SM status. The previously published method summarized a single-laboratory validation of two alkaloids, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in raw materials and finished products. The methods performance was compared with the AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2015.008. With repeatability precision (RSDr ) ranging from 0.51 to 0.95% and recoveries from 93...
April 20, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667422/intestinal-permeability-of-mitragynine-in-rats-using-in-situ-absorption-model
#4
J D Yuvenesan Jagabalan, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Hadzliana Zainal, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor, Surash Ramanathan
The intestinal permeability of mitragynine was investigated in situ using a single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) absorption model, in small intestine of rat using mitragynine in the absence/presence of the permeability markers, P-gp and/or CYP3A4 inhibitors. Mitragynine demonstrated high intestinal permeability (Peff of 1.11 × 10-4  cm/s) that is in the range of highly permeable drugs such as propranolol (Peff of 1.27 × 10-4  cm/s) indicating that it readily crosses the intestine. The addition of azithromycin (P-glycoprotein inhibitor) and ciprofloxacin (CYP3A4 inhibitor) or combination of both has no effect on intestinal permeability of mitragynine across the rat small intestine...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659874/carfentanil-in-impaired-driving-cases-and-the-importance-of-drug-seizure-data
#5
Nicholas B Tiscione, Ilene Alford
Drug seizures containing carfentanil continue to increase in Palm Beach County, FL, USA despite international efforts to control the distribution of the drug. The analysis of drug seizures from the county in 2016 and 2017 demonstrated that carfentanil was the most commonly identified fentanyl analog and was most often detected in combination with heroin, fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl and/or other fentanyl analogs. Carfentanil is an ultra-potent opioid requiring a method with adequate sensitivity for detection in blood specimens from impairment cases...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626673/assessment-of-gonadotropins-and-testosterone-hormone-levels-in-regular-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-users
#6
Darshan Singh, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul Hamid, Vicknasingam Kasinather, Michelle Su Ann Chan, Eric Tatt Wei Ho, Oliver Grundmann, Nelson Jeng Yeou Chear, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels. AIM OF THE STUDY: Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558272/severity-of-pain-and-sleep-problems-during-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-cessation-among-regular-kratom-users
#7
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Walter C Prozialeck, Surash Ramanathan, Hadzliana Zainal, Sabariah Noor Harun
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is traditionally used in Southeast Asia for its medicinal value and psychoactive properties. Nonetheless, cessation from regular kratom use is reported to cause unpleasant dose-dependent withdrawal symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the severity of pain and sleep problems following the cessation of kratom tea/juice consumption among regular kratom users. A total of 170 regular users were recruited through snowball sampling for this cross-sectional study. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scales were administered to assess the severity of pain and sleep problems...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520812/nature-s-first-atypical-opioids-kratom-and-mitragynines
#8
R B Raffa, J V Pergolizzi, R Taylor, M H Ossipov
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Advances in pain research have led to an understanding that many pains are driven by more than one underlying (patho)physiologic cause (ie, they are "multimechanistic") and that better pain relief is obtained with fewer adverse effects when an analgesic is correspondingly multimechanistic. At least two of the more-modern analgesics combine opioid and non-opioid mechanisms, and have become known as "atypical opioids." Less well known is that just as Nature evolved opioids, it also evolved atypical opioids, presaging modern drug discovery efforts...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499286/baclofen-blocks-the-acquisition-and-expression-of-mitragynine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#9
Nurul H M Yusoff, Sharif M Mansor, Christian P Müller, Zurina Hassan
Mitragynine is the major alkaloid found in the leaves of M. speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), a plant that is native to Southeast Asia. This compound has been used, either traditionally or recreationally, due to its psychostimulant and opioid-like effects. Recently, mitragynine has been shown to exert conditioned place preference (CPP), indicating the rewarding and motivational properties of M. speciosa. Here, the involvement of GABAB receptors in mediating mitragynine reward is studied using a CPP paradigm in rats...
June 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459087/identification-of-five-mitragyna-alkaloids-in-urine-using-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#10
Stephanie Basiliere, Kelsie Bryand, Sarah Kerrigan
Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a psychoactive plant that has recently emerged as a recreational drug. Mitragyna alkaloids are not within the scope of traditional forensic toxicology screening methods, which may contribute to under-reporting. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS) were used to identify five alkaloids in urine. Target analytes included the two known psychoactive compounds, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, in addition to speciociliatine, speciogynine, and paynantheine...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287305/development-of-an-immunochromatographic-strip-incorporating-anti-mitragynine-monoclonal-antibody-conjugated-to-colloidal-gold-for-kratom-alkaloids-detection
#11
Supattra Limsuwanchote, Waraporn Putalun, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Satoshi Morimoto, Niwat Keawpradub, Juraithip Wungsintaweekul
A lateral flow-based immunochromatographic strip was developed for the rapid detection of mitragynine (MG), a dominant alkaloid found in the leaves of kratom. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) against MG (anti-MG mAb) was conjugated to colloidal gold and used as a recognition probe. MG-ovalbumin conjugate (MG-OVA) and goat anti-mouse IgG were immobilized on the strip to produce a test zone and control zone, respectively. Based on the principle of a competitive assay, MG in a test sample competed with MG-OVA resident in the test zone to bind with colloidal gold-anti-MG mAb, resulting in an inverse relation of color intensity at the test zone and MG amount...
December 29, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248503/method-validation-in-quantitative-analysis-of-phase-i-and-phase-ii-metabolites-of-mitragynine-in-human-urine-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#12
Mei Jin Lee, Surash Ramanathan, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor, Keng Yoon Yeong, Soo Choon Tan
A method using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to quantitatively detect mitragynine, 16-carboxy mitragynine, and 9-O-demethyl mitragynine in human urine samples was developed and validated. The relevant metabolites were identified using multiple reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode using nalorphine as an internal standard. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, recovery, linearity, and lower limit of quantitation. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were found in the range of 83...
February 15, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248450/evaluating-the-hematological-and-clinical-chemistry-parameters-of-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-users-in-malaysia
#13
Darshan Singh, Christian P Müller, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul Hamid, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Bonnie Avery, Nelson Jeng Yeou Chear, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) from the Rubiaceae family is an indigenous tropical medicinal tree of Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves have been used for decades in Malaysia and Thailand in traditional context for its perceived vast medicinal value, and as a mild stimulant among manual labourers. Kratom consumption has been reported to cause side-effects in kratom users. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate kratom's effects towards hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters among regular kratom users in Malaysia...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190268/synthetic-cannabinoid-and-mitragynine-exposure-of-law-enforcement-agents-during-the-raid-of-an-illegal-laboratory-nevada-2014
#14
Loren Tapp, Jessica G Ramsey, Anita Wen, Roy Gerona
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), commonly known by the street name "Spice," are designer drugs of abuse that mimic the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Intentional SC use has resulted in multiple toxicities (1,2), but little is known about occupational SC exposure. After a federal agency's law enforcement personnel in Nevada reported irritability and feeling "high" after raiding illegal SC laboratories and processing seized SCs, a request for a health hazard evaluation was made by the agency to CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2014 to evaluate agents' occupational SC exposures...
December 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186455/recommendations-for-toxicological-investigation-of-drug-impaired-driving-and-motor-vehicle-fatalities-2017-update
#15
Barry K Logan, Amanda L D'Orazio, Amanda L A Mohr, Jennifer F Limoges, Amy K Miles, Colleen E Scarneo, Sarah Kerrigan, Laura J Liddicoat, Karen S Scott, Marilyn A Huestis
This report describes the outcomes of a process undertaken to review and update the National Safety Council's Alcohol, Drugs and Impairment Division's recommendations for the toxicological investigation of suspected alcohol and drug-impaired driving cases and motor vehicle fatalities. The updates to the recommendations are made based on a survey of practices in laboratories in the USA and Canada performing testing in these cases, consideration of existing epidemiological crash and arrest data, current drug use patterns, and practical considerations of widely available technology platforms in laboratories performing this work...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076424/physicochemical-characterization-of-mitragyna-speciosa-alkaloid-extract-and-mitragynine-using-in-vitro-high-throughput-assays
#16
Wai Mun Kong, Zamri Chik, Zahurin Mohamed, Mohammed A Alshawsh
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Mitragynine, a major active alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, acts as an agonist on µ-opioid receptors, producing effects similar to morphine and other opioids. It has been traditionally utilized to alleviate opiate withdrawal symptoms. Besides consideration about potency and selectivity, a good drug must possess a suitable pharmacokinetic profile, with suitable absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox) profile, in order to have a high chance of success in clinical trials...
2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966251/enhancement-of-endothelial-barrier-permeability-by-mitragynine
#17
Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Yoshifumi Morikawa, Kyoko Kamase, Misato Horinouchi, Yasuhide Sasajima, Koichi Suenami, Kiyohito Sato, Yuji Takekoshi, Satoshi Endo, Ossama El-Kabbani, Akira Ikari
Persistent inhalation of mitragynine (MG), a major alkaloid in the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, causes various systemic adverse effects such as seizure, diarrhea and arthralgias, but its toxicity to endothelial cells and effects on barrier function of the cells are poorly understood. In this study, we compared toxicities of MG and mitraphylline, another constituent of the leaves, against human aortic endothelial (HAE), bronchial BEAS-2B, neuronal SK-N-SH, hepatic HepG2, kidney HEK293, gastric MKN45, colon DLD1, lung A549, breast MCF7 and prostate LNCaP cells, and found that MG, but not mitraphylline, shows higher toxicity to HAE cells compared to the other cells...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950813/a-review-on-the-antinociceptive-effects-of-mitragyna-speciosa-and-its-derivatives-in-animal-model
#18
Kok-Yong Chin, Wun Fui Mark-Lee
Mitragyna speciosa is a tropical plant with narcotic effects. The antinociceptive effects of its crude extracts, bioactive compounds and structurally modified derivatives have been examined in rodent models. This review aims to summarize the evidence on the antinociceptive effects of M. speciosa and its derivatives and explore whether they can offer an alternative to morphine in pain management. Methanolic and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa were shown to attenuate the nociceptive response in rodents. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine offered better antinociceptive effects than crude extracts...
September 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868040/novel-psychoactive-substances-recent-progress-on-neuropharmacological-mechanisms-of-action-for-selected-drugs
#19
REVIEW
Zurina Hassan, Oliver G Bosch, Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, B Vicknasingam Kasinather, Erich Seifritz, Johannes Kornhuber, Boris B Quednow, Christian P Müller
A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830758/the-medicinal-chemistry-and-neuropharmacology-of-kratom-a-preliminary-discussion-of-a-promising-medicinal-plant-and-analysis-of-its-potential-for-abuse
#20
REVIEW
Andrew C Kruegel, Oliver Grundmann
The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom), a tree endogenous to parts of Southeast Asia, have been used traditionally for their stimulant, mood-elevating, and analgesic effects and have recently attracted significant attention due to increased use in Western cultures as an alternative medicine. The plant's active alkaloid constituents, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, have been shown to modulate opioid receptors, acting as partial agonists at mu-opioid receptors and competitive antagonists at kappa- and delta-opioid receptors...
August 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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