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Pilocytic astrocytoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328117/noonan-syndrome-ptpn11-mutations-and-brain-tumors-a-clinical-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Aurore Siegfried, Claude Cances, Marie Denuelle, Najat Loukh, Maïté Tauber, Hélène Cavé, Marie-Bernadette Delisle
Noonan syndrome (NS), an autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects, developmental delay, and facial dysmorphism. PTPN11 mutations are the most common cause of NS. PTPN11 encodes a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP2. Hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors are associated with NS. Among solid tumors, brain tumors have been described in children and young adults but remain rather rare. We report a 16-year-old boy with PTPN11-related NS who, at the age of 12, was incidentally found to have a left temporal lobe brain tumor and a cystic lesion in the right thalamus...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293736/5ala-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-is-not-routinely-beneficial
#2
Jonathan Roth, Shlomi Constantini
PURPOSE: Over recent years, 5-aminoluvolinic acid (5ALA) has been increasingly used for resection guidance in adult high-grade gliomas. However, amongst pediatric patients, publication of intraoperative fluorescence has been limited, with inconsistent outcomes. We describe our experience and intraoperative finding amongst children with various brain tumors that were given 5ALA prior to tumor resection. METHODS: Since October 2014, data regarding intraoperative findings amongst children that received 5ALA prior to tumor resection were prospectively collected...
March 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293477/braf-v600e-immunohistochemistry-in-a-large-series-of-glial-and-glial-neuronal-tumors
#3
Quentin Breton, Hélène Plouhinec, Delphine Prunier-Mirebeau, Blandine Boisselier, Sophie Michalak, Philippe Menei, Audrey Rousseau
INTRODUCTION: Some glial-neuronal tumors (GNT) (pleomorphic xantho-astrocytoma [PXA], ganglioglioma [GG]) display BRAF-V600E mutation, which represents a diagnostic clue to these entities. Targeted therapies against BRAF-V600 protein have shown promising results in GNT. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of BRAF-V600E immunohistochemistry (IHC, clone VE1) in daily practice in a series of 140 glial, and GNT compared to molecular biology (MB) techniques. METHODS: We performed BRAF-V600E IHC on all 140 cases...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257299/optic-pathway-glioma-of-childhood
#4
Nailyn Rasool, Jeffrey G Odel, Michael Kazim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optic pathway gliomas (OPG) are the most common tumor of the anterior visual pathway and can involve the optic nerve, chiasm, tract, and optic radiations. They are typically benign lesions, often pilocytic astrocytomas, which are diagnosed in childhood. We review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of these lesions in patients with and without neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). RECENT FINDINGS: Most commonly, patients diagnosed with OPG have NF-1 especially if the lesions are bilateral...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245445/midbrain-gliofibroma-presenting-in-adulthood-following-cure-of-a-childhood-intraventricular-pilocytic-astrocytoma
#5
Mohammad U Ahmad, Atik Barborie, Barry Pizer, David Husband, Conor Mallucci, Michael D Jenkinson
INTRODUCTION: Gliofibromas are rare biphasic tumours with a good prognosis that usually occur in childhood. Rare adult spinal cases have been treated with radiotherapy. This report describes the case of a gliofibroma occurring in a young adult 10 years after treatment for a childhood pilocytic astrocytoma. CASE: A 14-year-old female underwent complete resection of a right lateral ventricle pilocytic astrocytoma confirmed on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209310/paradoxical-ventriculomegaly-due-to-low-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-rare-complication-of-the-treatment-of-a-trapped-fourth-ventricle-case-report
#6
Neelan J Marianayagam, Netanel Ben Shalom, Saeed Yassin, Shalom Michowiz, Sagi Harnof, Gustavo Rajz
In this paper, we describe the rare phenomena of descending transtentorial herniation and paradoxical ventriculomegaly due to low pressure hydrocephalus. This resulted as a complication of treatment in a 14year old male patient, who had undergone multiple ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placements for hydrocephalus after resection of pilocytic astrocytoma. We discuss the etiology of this rare complication and our strategy for treatment. We emphasize the need for strategic placement of programmable shunts to avoid over shunting and associated complications such as tentorial herniation...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196488/application-of-fluorescein-sodium-in-the-resection-of-vermis-pilocytic-astrocytomas
#7
Ji Zhang, Fuad Al-Nahari, Zi-Feng Wang, Fu-Hua Lin, Yi-Yin Zhao, Shi-Yin Xiao, Jian-Min Liu, Chao Ke, Zheng-He Chen, Yu Jiang, Men Yang, Ke Sai, Jian Wang, Yong-Gao Mou
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are slow growing neoplasms and usually located at the cerebellum. There has been certainty regarding the truthful benefit of surgical resection for patients with PA. Gross total resection (GTR) of PAs, especially those being situated in deep regions, remains a surgical challenge. Generally, they are considered as benign and usually develop in young patients. PAs, belonging to WHO I can be cured by radical resection. The patients with PA have excellent prognosis if complete resection can be conducted...
February 14, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187964/brain-perfusion-and-diffusion-abnormalities-in-children-treated-for-posterior-fossa-brain-tumors
#8
Matthew D Li, Nils D Forkert, Palak Kundu, Cheryl Ambler, Robert M Lober, Terry C Burns, Patrick D Barnes, Iris C Gibbs, Gerald A Grant, Paul G Fisher, Samuel H Cheshier, Cynthia J Campen, Michelle Monje, Kristen W Yeom
OBJECTIVE: To compare cerebral perfusion and diffusion in survivors of childhood posterior fossa brain tumor with neurologically normal controls and correlate differences with cognitive dysfunction. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed retrospectively arterial spin-labeled cerebral blood flow (CBF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in 21 patients with medulloblastoma (MB), 18 patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), and 64 neurologically normal children. We generated ANCOVA models to evaluate treatment effects on the cerebral cortex, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and cerebral white matter at time points an average of 5...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180935/clinicopathological-features-and-microsurgical-outcomes-for-giant-pediatric-intracranial-tumor-in-60-consecutive-cases
#9
Ailing Guo, Vigneyshwar Suresh, Xianzhi Liu, Fuyou Guo
PURPOSE: Giant pediatric intracranial tumor (GPIT) remains to be a challenging disease with high morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The clinical data of 60 patients under 18 years of age operated on with GPIT (≥5 cm in diameter) were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Gross total resection was achieved in 46 cases (77%) and subtotal resection was obtained in 14 cases (23%). Ninety percent (47/52) of the cases with obstructive hydrocephalus were resolved remarkably and only 10% (5/52) of the patients needed a ventriculoperitoneal shunt after tumor resection...
February 8, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173580/multifocal-intradural-extramedullary-pilocytic-astrocytomas-of-the-spinal-cord-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Azam Basheer, Richard Rammo, Steven Kalkanis, Michelle M Felicella, Mokbel Chedid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163525/synchronous-pediatric-supratentorial-glioblastoma-multiforme-with-noncontiguous-infratentorial-pilocytic-astrocytoma-a-rare-event
#11
Jitender Chaturvedi, Bevinahalli N Nandeesh, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Anita Mahadevan, S Sampath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163514/pilocytic-midbrain-astrocytoma-presenting-with-fresh-bleed-after-twenty-one-years-survival-following-first-surgery-a-unique-case-of-longest-brainstem-glioma-survival
#12
Guru Dutta Satyarthee, M D Sudhan, V S Mehta
Brainstem glioma usually carries a poor prognosis and prolonged survival is very infrequent. In a detailed Pubmed, Medline search for prolonged survival, authors could got a longest survival only up to seventeen years, reported by Umehara et al, who was subjected to gamma knife therapy and got symptomatic, MRI brain reveled large tumor growth during pregnancy necessitating emergency surgery and histopathological diagnosis was pilocytic astrocytoma. Authors report an interesting case of midbrain glioma diagnosed 21 years back, who underwent gross resection in the year 1993, histopathology was pilocytic astrocytoma, WHO grade I, and received gamma knife surgery for residual subsequently and he presented with sudden onset left sided hemiplegia on the current admission...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137267/targeting-cd133-improves-chemotherapeutic-efficacy-of-recurrent-pediatric-pilocytic-astrocytoma-following-prolonged-chemotherapy
#13
Guifa Xi, Yuping Derek Li, Gordan Grahovac, Veena Rajaram, Nitin Wadhwani, Tatiana Pundy, Barbara Mania-Farnell, Charles David James, Tadanori Tomita
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common pediatric central nervous system neoplasms. In the majority of cases these tumors are benign and receive favorable prognosis following gross total surgical resection. In patients with progressive or symptomatic tumors, aggressive surgical resection is generally not feasible, thus radiation or chemotherapy are accepted initial or adjuvant interventions. Due to serious long-lasting side-effects, radiation is limited in young children; therefore, chemotherapy is widely practiced as an adjuvant treatment for these patients...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131206/pik3ca-mutation-in-a-mixed-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-and-rosette-forming-glioneuronal-tumor-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Philip George Eye, Laurence Davidson, Patrick J Malafronte, Sarah Cantrell, Brett J Theeler
BACKGROUND: Rosette forming glioneuronal tumors are rare, World Health Organization (WHO) grade I novel tumors frequently affecting the fourth ventricle or posterior fossa with typical neuronal pseudorosettes. RGNTs have been described as possessing additional histologic features of DNETs or pilocytic astrocytomas. Activating PIK3CA mutations have been identified as recurring genetic event in RGNTs. METHODS: We report a 35year old man who presented with binocular diplopia, headache, and was found to have a third ventricle tumor...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079349/interleukin-13-receptor-alpha-2-as-a-marker-of-poorer-prognosis-in-high-grade-astrocytomas
#15
Masahiko Wanibuchi, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Masanori Sasaki, Shinichi Oka, Yayoi Otsuka, Miki Yamaguchi, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Shunya Ohtaki, Shouhei Noshiro, Satoshi Ookawa, Takeshi Mikami, Nobuhiro Mikuni, Osamu Honmou
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL13Rα2) is considered a prognostic marker for gliomas according to the World Health Organization (WHO) grade. However, the expression levels of the marker vary from case to case, even within the same grade. We investigated whether IL13Rα2 could serve as a predictor of poorer prognosis in gliomas. METHODS: mRNA expression of IL13Rα2 was measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 52 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded glioma samples (4 pilocytic astrocytomas, 9 diffuse astrocytomas, 12 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 27 glioblastomas, grade IV)...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039365/complete-prevalence-of-malignant-primary-brain-tumors-registry-data-in-the-united-states-compared-with-other-common-cancers-2010
#16
Adah S Zhang, Quinn T Ostrom, Carol Kruchko, Lisa Rogers, David M Peereboom, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan
BACKGROUND: Complete prevalence proportions illustrate the burden of disease in a population. This study estimates the 2010 complete prevalence of malignant primary brain tumors overall and by Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) histology groups, and compares the brain tumor prevalence estimates to the complete prevalence of other common cancers as determined by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) by age at prevalence (2010): children (0-14 y), adolescent and young adult (AYA) (15-39 y), and adult (40+ y)...
December 29, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028335/utility-of-squash-smear-cytology-in-intraoperative-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-tumors
#17
Savita S Patil, Jyoti K Kudrimoti, Rachana D Agarwal, Meenal V Jadhav, Ashish Chuge
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) squash cytology (CSC) has established itself as a technically simple, rapid, inexpensive, fairly accurate, and dependable intraoperative diagnostic tool. It helps neurosurgeons immensely when management is dependent on it. AIMS: This study aimed at finding out the utility of CSC as an intraoperative diagnostic tool from a neurosurgeon's perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty prospectively registered patients with clinical diagnosis of CNS tumors were enrolled in the study...
October 2016: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024978/pilocytic-astrocytoma-of-fornix-mimicking-a-colloid-cyst-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Guive Sharifi, Reza Rahmanzadeh, Mahmoud Lotfinia, Ramin Rahmanzade
BACKGROUND: Colloid cyst is a gelatin-containing cyst in the brain almost always found in the third ventricle. The specific shape and location of these cysts, a round well-delineated mass in the rostral part of the third ventricle adjacent to the foramen of Monro, on imaging are the main findings for diagnosis. Several masses of the third ventricle masquerading colloid cysts on images have been reported yet. Based on different surgical approach, pre-operative misdiagnosis of colloid cyst may have great impact on prognosis...
December 23, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009226/report-of-effective-trametinib-therapy-in-2-children-with-progressive-hypothalamic-optic-pathway-pilocytic-astrocytoma-documentation-of-volumetric-response
#19
Catherine Miller, Daniel Guillaume, Kathryn Dusenbery, H Brent Clark, Christopher Moertel
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor in childhood, and astrocytomas account for the largest proportion of these tumors. Increasing sophistication in genetic testing has allowed for the detection of specific mutations within tumor subtypes that may represent targets for individualized tumor treatment. The mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and, more specifically, BRAF mutations have been shown to be prevalent in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and may represent one such area to target...
March 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002790/establishment-and-application-of-a-novel-patient-derived-kiaa1549-braf-driven-pediatric-pilocytic-astrocytoma-model-for-preclinical-drug-testing
#20
Florian Selt, Juliane Hohloch, Thomas Hielscher, Felix Sahm, David Capper, Andrey Korshunov, Diren Usta, Sebastian Brabetz, Johannes Ridinger, Jonas Ecker, Ina Oehme, Jan Gronych, Viktoria Marquardt, David Pauck, Heidi Bächli, Charles D Stiles, Andreas von Deimling, Marc Remke, Martin U Schuhmann, Stefan M Pfister, Tilman Brummer, David T W Jones, Olaf Witt, Till Milde
Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most frequent pediatric brain tumor. Activation of the MAPK pathway is well established as the oncogenic driver of the disease. It is most frequently caused by KIAA1549:BRAF fusions, and leads to oncogene induced senescence (OIS). OIS is thought to be a major reason for growth arrest of PA cells in vitro and in vivo, preventing establishment of PA cultures. Hence, valid preclinical models are currently very limited, but preclinical testing of new compounds is urgently needed...
December 17, 2016: Oncotarget
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