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Pilocytic astrocytoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620004/cancer-and-central-nervous-system-tumor-surveillance-in-pediatric-neurofibromatosis-1
#1
REVIEW
D Gareth R Evans, Hector Salvador, Vivian Y Chang, Ayelet Erez, Stephan D Voss, Kami Wolfe Schneider, Hamish S Scott, Sharon E Plon, Uri Tabori
Although the neurofibromatoses consist of at least three autosomal dominantly inherited disorders, neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis, NF1 represents a multisystem pleiotropic condition very different from the other two. NF1 is a genetic syndrome first manifesting in childhood; affecting multiple organs, childhood development, and neurocognitive status; and presenting the clinician with often complex management decisions that require a multidisciplinary approach. Molecular genetic testing (see article for detailed discussion) is recommended to confirm NF1, particularly in children fulfilling only pigmentary features of the diagnostic criteria...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607819/mtor-activation-is-increased-in-pilocytic-astrocytomas-from-older-adults-compared-with-children
#2
Mahlon D Johnson, Mary O'Connell, Kevin Walter, Howard Silberstein
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that the behavior and biology of WHO grade I pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) in adults is different than that associated with grade I PAs in children. METHODS: We evaluated Ki-67 labeling, BRAF abnormalities, isocitrate dehydrogenase R132 immunoreactivity phosphorylation (activation) of p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in formalin-fixed tissue from 21 adult (18 years or older, mean age 37 years) and 10 children (mean age 9...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571159/anaplastic-pleomorphic-xanthoastrocytoma-in-a-case-of-neurofibromatosis-type-1-a-case-report
#3
K Thara, Reetika Sharma, G Thiagarajan, Anita Ramdas, Renu Gboy Varghese
Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare brain tumour comprising only <1% of primary brain tumours which is seen in children and young adults. Only 9-20% of the PXA shows anaplastic features and this has a bad prognosis. PXA is a WHO grade II tumour while anaplastic PXA is a WHO grade III tumour. Neurofibromatosis type 1(NF1), which is an autosomal dominant condition, predisposes to tumours of the central nervous system; most of which are pilocytic astrocytomas. Association of PXA with NF1 is very rare and only a very few cases have been reported...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567590/evaluation-of-outcomes-after-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-pilocytic-astrocytoma
#4
Daniel M Trifiletti, M Sean Peach, Zhiyuan Xu, Ronald Kersh, Timothy N Showalter, Jason P Sheehan
Pilocytic astrocytomas are rare intracranial gliomas that are typically treated with surgical extirpation. Our aim was to report the radiologic and clinical outcomes of patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for pilocytic astrocytoma in the primary and salvage setting. Patients with pilocytic astrocytoma treated at a single institution with SRS from 1990 to 2015 were reviewed. Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics were collected and overall survival, local control, and toxicity were evaluated...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550357/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-in-differentiation-of-pediatric-posterior-fossa-tumors
#5
Soubhi Zitouni, Gonca Koc, Selim Doganay, Sibel Saracoglu, Kazim Z Gumus, Saliha Ciraci, Abdulhakim Coskun, Ekrem Unal, Huseyin Per, Ali Kurtsoy, Olgun Kontas
PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of preoperative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the differential diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. METHODS: Forty-two pediatric patients (mean age 7.76 ± 4.58 years) with intra-axial tumors in the infra-tentorial region underwent magnetic resonance imaging. ADC measurement was performed using regions of interest, obtained from the solid component of the mass lesions. ADC ratios were calculated by dividing the ADC values from the mass lesions by the ADC values from normal cerebellar parenchyma...
May 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535583/molecular-testing-of-brain-tumor
#6
REVIEW
Sung-Hye Park, Jaekyung Won, Seong-Ik Kim, Yujin Lee, Chul-Kee Park, Seung-Ki Kim, Seung-Hong Choi
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors was revised in 2016 with a basis on the integrated diagnosis of molecular genetics. We herein provide the guidelines for using molecular genetic tests in routine pathological practice for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. While astrocytomas and IDH-mutant (secondary) glioblastomas are characterized by the mutational status of IDH, TP53 , and ATRX , oligodendrogliomas have a 1p/19q codeletion and mutations in IDH, CIC , FUBP1 , and the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase ( TERTp )...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534154/chemoradiation-impairs-normal-developmental-cortical-thinning-in-medulloblastoma
#7
Palak Kundu, Matthew D Li, Ben Y Durkee, Susan M Hiniker, Karl Bush, Rie von Eyben, Michelle L Monje, Kristen W Yeom, Sarah S Donaldson, Iris C Gibbs
Medulloblastoma patients are treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Radiation dose to the temporal lobe may be associated with neurocognitive sequelae. Longitudinal changes of temporal lobe cortical thickness may result from neurodevelopmental processes such as synaptic pruning. This study applies longitudinal image analysis to compare developmental change in cortical thickness in medulloblastoma (MB) patients who were treated by combined modality therapy to that of cerebellar juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) patients who were treated by surgery alone...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527006/analysis-of-surgical-and-mri-factors-associated-with-cerebellar-mutism
#8
Anjali Sergeant, Michelle Masayo Kameda-Smith, Branavan Manoranjan, Brij Karmur, JoAnn Duckworth, Tina Petrelli, Katey Savage, Olufemi Ajani, Blake Yarascavitch, M Constantine Samaan, Katrin Scheinemann, Cheryl Alyman, Saleh Almenawer, Forough Farrokhyar, Adam J Fleming, Sheila Kumari Singh, Nina Stein
The surgical risk factors and neuro-imaging characteristics associated with cerebellar mutism (CM) remain unclear and require further investigation. Therefore, we aimed to examine surgical and MRI findings associated with CM in children following posterior fossa tumor resection. Using our data registry, we retrospectively collected data from pediatric patients who acquired CM and were matched based on age and pathology type with individuals who did not acquire CM after posterior fossa surgery. The strength of association between surgical and MRI variables and CM were examined using odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495088/fluorescence-guided-resection-with-5-aminolevulinic-acid-of-a-pilomyxoid-astrocytoma-of-the-third-ventricle
#9
Luis Miguel Bernal García, Jose Manuel Cabezudo Artero, Rafael García Moreno, Maria Bella Marcelo Zamorano, Carlos Mayoral Guisado
Fluorescence-guided resection with 5-aminolevulinic acid has been shown to be useful in the resection of certain brain tumors other than high grade gliomas, facilitating the intraoperative differentiation of neoplastic tissue. The technique enables the surgeon to ensure that no tumor fragments remain, thereby achieving higher rates of complete resection. Tihan first described pilomyxoid astrocytomas in 1999. They are currently classified as grade II astrocytoma according to the WHO classification system and, because of their tendency to recur and their dissemination through the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, they are considered to be more aggressive than pilocytic astrocytoma...
May 8, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484537/dorsally-exophytic-glioblastoma-arising-from-the-medulla-oblongata-in-an-adult-presenting-as-4-th-ventricular-mass
#10
Kuntal Kanti Das, Guru Prasad Bettaswamy, Anant Mehrotra, Sushila Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari
Brainstem gliomas are relatively rare in adults (<2% of all gliomas). Exophytic gliomas are focal brainstem lesions, which project into the 4(th) ventricle or cerebellopontine angles. These exophytic lesions are usually of low-grade histology (pilocytic astrocytoma or ganglioglioma) and have a relatively better outcome compared with brainstem gliomas as a whole. Glioblastoma is the commonest primary glial cell neoplasm and mostly occurs in the supratentorial compartment. It is rather uncommon in the brainstem and seldom has been described as having an exophytic growth pattern...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484535/hydrocephalus-associated-with-spinal-intramedullary-pilocytic-astrocytoma
#11
Sumit Bansal, Sachin A Borkar, Ashok K Mahapatra
Hydrocephalus secondary to intraspinal tumors is a well-known but rare condition. We report a case of holocord intramedullary pilocytic astrocytoma associated with hydrocephalus in a 29-year-old male patient. He underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt followed by subtotal resection of the tumor.
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478813/exophytic-bulbar-pilocytic-astrocytoma-and-post-operative-cerebral-salt-wasting-syndrome
#12
P O Champagne, A Sajadi, C Huot, M Traistaru, C Mercier, A G Weil, L Crevier
Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a well-described consequence of several neurological disorders. Although the exact etiology of CSWS is still not completely elucidated, it is believed that the hypothalamus plays a pivotal role in the genesis of this disorder. We report for the first time 3 cases of CSWS occurring during the post-operative course following surgical resection of exophytic bulbar pilocytic astrocytomas in children. Since these 3 cases shared in common a medial implication of the medulla, we suggest that specific interconnectivity between the dorso-medial portion of the medulla oblongata and the hypothalamus might thus represent an anatomical pathway of interest in the pathogenesis of CSWS...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469330/profile-of-primary-pediatric-brain-and-spinal-cord-tumors-from-north-india
#13
Nadia Shirazi, Meenu Gupta, Nowneet Kumar Bhat, Braham Prakash Kalra, Ranjit Kumar, Manju Saini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The study was carried out to find the profile of pediatric brain and spinal cord tumors during 2006-2015 in a tertiary referral center of North India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a retrospective medical record-based observational study. All children <18 years of age with confirmed histopathological diagnosis of cancer were included in the study. RESULTS: Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constituted 5.6% of all pediatric solid malignancies in our hospital...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468611/clinical-association-analysis-of-ependymomas-and-pilocytic-astrocytomas-reveals-elevated-fgfr3-and-fgfr1-expression-in-aggressive-ependymomas
#14
Birgitta Lehtinen, Annina Raita, Juha Kesseli, Matti Annala, Kristiina Nordfors, Olli Yli-Harja, Wei Zhang, Tapio Visakorpi, Matti Nykter, Hannu Haapasalo, Kirsi J Granberg
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are well-known proto-oncogenes in several human malignancies and are currently therapeutically targeted in clinical trials. Among glioma subtypes, activating FGFR1 alterations have been observed in a subpopulation of pilocytic astrocytomas while FGFR3 fusions occur in IDH wild-type diffuse gliomas, resulting in high FGFR3 protein expression. The purpose of this study was to associate FGFR1 and FGFR3 protein levels with clinical features and genetic alterations in ependymoma and pilocytic astrocytoma...
May 3, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453743/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-pediatric-neuro-oncology-patients-improves-diagnosis-identifies-pathogenic-germline-mutations-and-directs-targeted-therapy
#15
Cassie N Kline, Nancy M Joseph, James P Grenert, Jessica van Ziffle, Eric Talevich, Courtney Onodera, Mariam Aboian, Soonmee Cha, David R Raleigh, Steve Braunstein, Joseph Torkildson, David Samuel, Michelle Bloomer, Alejandra G de Alba Campomanes, Anuradha Banerjee, Nicholas Butowski, Corey Raffel, Tarik Tihan, Andrew W Bollen, Joanna J Phillips, W Michael Korn, Iwei Yeh, Boris C Bastian, Nalin Gupta, Sabine Mueller, Arie Perry, Theodore Nicolaides, David A Solomon
Background.: Molecular profiling is revolutionizing cancer diagnostics and leading to personalized therapeutic approaches. Herein we describe our clinical experience performing targeted sequencing for 31 pediatric neuro-oncology patients. Methods.: We sequenced 510 cancer-associated genes from tumor and peripheral blood to identify germline and somatic mutations, structural variants, and copy number changes. Results.: Genomic profiling was performed on 31 patients with tumors including 11 high-grade gliomas, 8 medulloblastomas, 6 low-grade gliomas, 1 embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 uveal ganglioneuroma, 1 choroid plexus carcinoma, 1 chordoma, and 1 high-grade neuroepithelial tumor...
May 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448514/a-new-gtf2i-braf-fusion-mediating-mapk-pathway-activation-in-pilocytic-astrocytoma
#16
Tajana Tešan Tomić, Josefin Olausson, Annica Wilzén, Magnus Sabel, Katarina Truvé, Helene Sjögren, Sándor Dósa, Magnus Tisell, Birgitta Lannering, Fredrik Enlund, Tommy Martinsson, Pierre Åman, Frida Abel
Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric brain tumor. A recurrent feature of PA is deregulation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway most often through KIAA1549-BRAF fusion, but also by other BRAF- or RAF1-gene fusions and point mutations (e.g. BRAFV600E). These features may serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers, and also facilitate development of targeted therapy. The aims of this study were to characterize the genetic alterations underlying the development of PA in six tumor cases, and evaluate methods for fusion oncogene detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446265/a-case-of-leptomeningeal-dissemination-of-pilocytic-astrocytoma-in-a-child
#17
Yu-Feng Su, Chih-Hui Chang, Shyh-Shin Chiou, Chee-Yin Chai, Shiuh-Lin Hwang, Joon-Khim Loh
We present the case of a 2-year-old boy with progressive left-sided weakness and a cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showing a lesion with a cystic component in the right thalamus and basal ganglia. The lesion was subtotally resected and diagnosed as a pilocytic astrocytoma by histopathology. Tumor seeding along the surgical tract was seen on MRI 16 days and 10 weeks after surgery. The patient received vincristine and carboplatin, and MRI performed 4 months after chemotherapy revealed no additional or residual lesions...
April 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425761/adult-pilocytic-astrocytoma-of-conus-medullaris-clinical-considerations-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
José Pedro Lavrador, Edson Oliveira, José Pimentel, Sérgio Livraghi
Astrocytomas are responsible for 30% of all primitive intramedullary tumors with cervicothoracic predominance. However, only about one hundred cases of intramedullary pilocytic astrocytomas were described. The authors described the case of a 69 year-old patient presenting with a broad-base gait, bilateral pain and dysesthesia of inferior limbs with a diagnosis of an intra-axial cystic lesion centered to the conus medullaris, diagnosed as pilocytic astrocytoma of conus medullaris (PACM) after surgery. To the best of our knowledge, only two previous reports concerning PACM were made...
April 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412241/cathepsin-l-silencing-increases-as2o3-toxicity-in-malignantly-transformed-pilocytic-astrocytoma-mpa58-cells-by-activating-caspases-3-7
#19
Monika Primon, Peter C Huszthy, Helena Motaln, Krishna M Talasila, Hrvoje Miletic, Nadia A Atai, Rolf Bjerkvig, Tamara Lah Turnšek
Low-grade, pilocytic astrocytomas are treated by resection, but additional therapy is necessary for those tumors with anaplastic features. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is emerging as an effective chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of malignant glioblastoma multiforme, where Cathepsin L silencing enables lower, less harmful As2O3 concentrations to achieve the desired cytotoxic effect. Here, we evaluated the effects of As2O3 combined with stable Cathepsin L shRNA silencing on cell viability/metabolic activity, and apoptosis in primary cultures of recurrent malignantly transformed pilocytic astrocytoma (MPA)...
April 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388012/methylation-profiling-of-paediatric-pilocytic-astrocytoma-reveals-variants-specifically-associated-with-tumour-location-and-predictive-of-recurrence
#20
Alexandra Sexton-Oates, Andrew Dodgshun, Volker Hovestadt, David T W Jones, David M Ashley, Michael Sullivan, Duncan MacGregor, Richard Saffery
Childhood pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) are low grade tumours with an excellent prognosis. However, a minority, particularly those in surgically inaccessible locations, have poorer long term outcome. At present it is unclear whether anatomical location in isolation, or in combination with underlying biological variation, determines clinical behaviour. Here we have tested the utility of DNA methylation profiling to inform tumour biology and to predict behaviour in paediatric PA. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were generated for 117 paediatric PAs...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Oncology
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