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Anaplastic astrocytoma

Hong-Qing Cai, Peng-Fei Wang, Hai-Peng Zhang, Zhi-Jian Cheng, Shou-Wei Li, Jie He, Yu Zhang, Jia-Jie Hao, Ming-Rong Wang, Chang-Xiang Yan, Jing-Hai Wan
AIM: To identify biomarkers for accurate classification of glioma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), phosphorylated Hsp27 (p-Hsp27), ATRX and IDH1R132H proteins using immunohistochemistry in 421 glioma tissues. The χ2 test was used to assess the relationship between molecular alterations and clinico-pathological parameters. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed, and differences were detected by the log-rank test. RESULTS: We found that Hsp27 and p-Hsp27 were mainly expressed in aggressive astrocytic gliomas...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Luis V Syro, Fabio Rotondo, Leon D Ortiz, Kalman Kovacs
Temozolomide is an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent used in malignant neuroendocrine neoplasia, melanoma, brain metastases, and an essential component of adjuvant therapy in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma. Since 2006 it has been used for the treatment of pituitary carcinomas and aggressive pituitary adenomas. Here, we discuss the current indications and results of temozolomide therapy in pituitary tumors, as well as frequently asked questions regarding temozolomide treatment, duration of therapy, dosage, tumor recurrence, and resistance...
March 13, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Debajyoti Chatterjee, Bishan Dass Radotra, Narendra Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Vasishta, Sunil Kumar Gupta
Background: According to the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors (2016), histological diagnosis of gliomas should be supplemented by molecular information. This study was carried out to determine the frequency of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 ( IDH 1), ATRX , and BRAF V600E mutations in different grade astrocytomas and their prognostic value. Methods: Eighty cases of astrocytoma (15 pilocytic astrocytoma, 25 diffuse astrocytoma, 15 anaplastic astrocytoma, and 25 glioblastoma) with follow-up information were analyzed using immunohistochemistry for IDH1 mutant protein, ATRX, p53, and BRAF...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Akane Suzuki, Takashi Maruyama, Masayuki Nitta, Takashi Komori, Soko Ikuta, Mikhail Chernov, Manabu Tamura, Takakazu Kawamata, Yoshihiro Muragaki
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was evaluation of the prognostic significance of DNA ploidy assessed with intraoperative flow cytometry (iFC) during resection of low-grade gliomas (LGG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 102 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed WHO grade II supratentorial gliomas, surgical removal of which was accompanied by iFC, was done. There were 46 diffuse astrocytomas (DA) and 56 oligodendrogliomas (OD). According to iFC, 68 tumors (67%) were considered non-aneuploid and 34 (33%) aneuploid...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Laura Milanese, Chiara Martini, Carla Scaroni, Francesca Dassie, Filippo Ceccato, Alessandro Della Puppa, Luca Denaro, Giulia Bommarito, Valentina Citton, Mario Ermani, Pietro Maffei, Renzo Manara
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy (RT) effectiveness on hormonal reduction is proven in acromegaly; however, collateral long-term effects are still undetermined. This transversal neuroimaging study on a large cohort of acromegalic patients aimed to investigate the rate of parenchymal and vascular changes after RT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six acromegalic patients underwent RT (RT+) after unsuccessful surgery and were compared to RT- acromegalic patients matched for age, gender, adenoma features, clinical and surgical history...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Selçuk Ozdogan, Cumhur Kaan Yaltirik, Seda Gulec Yilmaz, Mustafa Kaya, Ali Haluk Duzkalir, Nail Demirel, Ali Kafadar, Turgay Isbir
BACKGROUND/AIM: High-grade gliomas (HGG) consist of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme. The present study aimed to evaluate TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism in a Turkish population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study that included 45 patients with HGG and 49 healthy individuals. All patients were operated for intracranial tumors and the pathology results consist of high grade (Grade3 and 4) glial tumors...
March 2018: In Vivo
Toshihiko Iuchi, Takahiro Sugiyama, Miki Ohira, Hajime Kageyama, Sana Yokoi, Tsukasa Sakaida, Yuzo Hasegawa, Taiki Setoguchi, Makiko Itami
In this study, we retrospectively compared the prognostic value of the 2016 WHO classification with the former classification in 387 patients with glioma treated at our institution. According to the new classification, diagnoses included oligodendroglioma with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion (5.4%), anaplastic oligodendroglioma with IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion (3.4%), diffuse astrocytoma IDH-mutated (3.9%), anaplastic astrocytoma IDH-mutated (2.8%), glioblastoma IDH-mutated (7...
February 22, 2018: Brain Tumor Pathology
Serena Trubini, Alessandro Ubiali, Carlo Terenzio Paties, Luigi Cavanna
In melanoma, a number of specific genetic and genomic aberrations have been identified to be important in tumorigenesis. In particular, the mutant B-Raf proto-oncogene, Serine/Threonine kinase (BRAF) gene is the target of tailored therapy with kinase inhibitor molecules. Identification of the array of mutations in patients with melanoma will be useful in determining a genetic profile of the tumor with potential implications for treatment decisions. A rare aminoacidic insertion in codon 599 of the BRAF gene (c...
March 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Ewa Toton, Aleksandra Romaniuk, Natalia Konieczna, Johann Hofmann, Jan Barciszewski, Maria Rybczynska
BACKGROUND: Several efforts have been focused on identification of pathways involved in malignancy, progression, and response to treatment in Glioblastoma (GB). Overexpression of PKCε was detected in histological samples from GB, anaplastic astrocytoma, and gliosarcoma and is considered an important marker of negative disease outcome. In multiple studies on GB, autophagy has been shown as a survival mechanism during cellular stress, contributing to resistance against anti-cancer agents...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
W Li, Y R Wang, W Song, W Chang, X Guo, Y Liu, X Y Wang, B Zhang
Objective: To investigate the changes of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time(TT), fibrinogen(FIB) and platelet counts(PLT) in plasma of patients with glioma, and to explore the correlations between PT, APTT, TT, FIB and PLT with malignant grades of glioma. Methods: One hundred and seventy-two patients with glioma and 47 health controls were investigated in a retrospective analysis. All patients were diagnosed and identified the WHO grade by pathologist after operation...
January 30, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Arif N Ali, Peixin Zhang, W K Alfred Yung, Yuhchyau Chen, Benjamin Movsas, Raul C Urtasun, Christopher U Jones, Kwang N Choi, Jeff M Michalski, A Jennifer Fischbach, Arnold M Markoe, Christopher J Schultz, Marta Penas-Prado, Madhur K Garg, Alan C Hartford, Harold E Kim, Minhee Won, Walter J Curran
From 1990 to 1994, patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas were enrolled and randomized between hyperfractionated radiation (HFX) of 72.0 Gy in 60 fractions given twice daily and 60.0 Gy in 30 fractions given once daily. All patients received 80 mg/m2 of 1,3 bis(2 chloroethyl)-1 nitrosourea on days 1-3 q8 weeks for 1 year. Patients were stratified by age, KPS, and histology. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), with secondary endpoints including progression-free survival (PFS) and toxicity...
March 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Bette K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Jean M Mulcahy Levy
BACKGROUND: H3 K27M mutation was originally described in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), but has been recently recognized to occur also in adult midline diffuse gliomas, as well as midline tumors with other morphologies, including gangliogliomas (GGs), anaplastic GGs, pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs), and posterior fossa ependymomas. In a few patients with H3 K27M-mutant tumors with these alternate morphologies, longer survival has been reported, making grading difficult for the neuropathologist...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
Yuanyuan Liu, Feng Gao, Hongjun Hao, Weiping Sun, Yining Huang
RATIONALE: An acute presentation with diffuse magnetic resonance imaging lesions can have a broad differential. Demyelination and malignancy are important considerations. Therefore, sometimes it is hard to differentiate glioma from some demyelinating diseases solely on imaging because of the similar clinical presentation and imaging features. Detection of highly specific serum autoantibody marker aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG positivity has helped to define a category of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), but the test of AQP4 antibody has not been reported in patients with glioma...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alissa Thomas, Marc Rosenblum, Sasan Karimi, Lisa M DeAngelis, Antonio Omuro, Thomas J Kaley
Interpretation of MRI abnormalities in patients with malignant gliomas (MG) treated with bevacizumab is challenging. Recent reports describe quantitative analyses of diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities not available in standard clinical settings, to differentiate tumor recurrence from treatment necrosis. We retrospectively reviewed bevacizumab treated MG patients who underwent surgery or autopsy to correlate radiographic recurrence patterns with pathologic findings. 32 patients with MG (26 glioblastoma, three anaplastic astrocytoma and three anaplastic oligodendroglioma) were identified...
February 1, 2018: CNS Oncology
Lei Qin, Angie Li, Jinrong Qu, Katherine Reinshagen, Xiang Li, Su-Chun Cheng, Annie Bryant, Geoffrey S Young
Mixed reports leave uncertainty about whether normalization of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to a within-subject white matter reference is necessary for assessment of tumor cellularity. We tested whether normalization improves the previously reported correlation of resection margin ADC with 15-month overall survival (OS) in HGG patients. Spin-echo echo-planar DWI was retrieved from 3 T MRI acquired between maximal resection and radiation in 37 adults with new-onset HGG (25 glioblastoma; 12 anaplastic astrocytoma)...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Victor A Levin, Sandra E Ictech, Kenneth R Hess
This review covers the literature between 1989 and 2007 on studies relevant to the neuro-oncology usage of eflornithine (α-difluoromethylornithine), an oral agent that irreversibly inhibits the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase. It covers the use of eflornithine, alone or in combination, to treat high-grade gliomas. In addition, we provide an update on overall survival from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program and Clinical Trials Data Office that demonstrates a meaningful benefit in overall survival for eflornithine as a single agent and in combination with nitrosourea-based therapies for anaplastic gliomas...
January 30, 2018: CNS Oncology
Roberta Soares Faccion, Paula Sabbo Bernardo, Giselle Pinto Faria de Lopes, Leonardo Soares Bastos, Cristina Lordello Teixeira, José Antonio de Oliveira, Priscila Valverde Fernandes, Luiz Gustavo Dubois, Leila Chimelli, Raquel Ciuvalschi Maia
PURPOSE: Diffuse astrocytic tumors are the most frequently occurring primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Their histological sub-classification into diffuse astrocytoma (DA), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma (GB) is challenging and the available prognostic factors are limited to age and tumor subtype. Biomarkers that may improve the histological sub-classification and/or serve as prognostic factors are, therefore, urgently needed. The relationship between survivin and p53 in diffuse astrocytic tumor progression and survival is currently unclear...
January 26, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Jing Liu, Ningning Li, Ruofan Sheng, Rui Wang, Zude Xu, Ying Mao, Yin Wang, Ying Liu
The present study investigated the altered expression of p2X purinoceptor (P2X7 R) in astrocytoma. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to determine the P2X7 R expression in glioblastoma (GBM) and surrounding normal brain tissue. DNA methylation levels of P2X7 R gene promoter in GBM were analyzed using a Sequenom MassARRAY® System. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression of P2X7 R in astrocytoma at different malignancy grades, including diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and GBM...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
Jung Ho Im, Je Beom Hong, Se Hoon Kim, Junjeong Choi, Jong Hee Chang, Jaeho Cho, Chang-Ok Suh
We assessed the appropriateness of current radiotherapy volume for WHO grade III gliomas. The records of 73 patients with WHO grade III gliomas who received postoperative radiotherapy between 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the 2016 WHO classification, 25/73 (34.2%) patients had anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted; 11/73 (15.1%) patients had anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant; and 37/73 (50.7%) patients had anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype. The extent of resection (EOR) was total in 43 patients (58...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephanie Prater, Neil Anand, Lawrence Wei, Neil Horner
Aphasia describes a spectrum of speech impairments due to damage in the language centers of the brain. Insult to the inferior frontal gyrus of the dominant cerebral hemisphere results in Broca's aphasia - the inability to produce fluent speech. The left cerebral hemisphere has historically been considered the dominant side, a characteristic long presumed to be related to a person's "handedness". However, recent studies utilizing fMRI have shown that right hemispheric dominance occurs more frequently than previously proposed and despite a person's handedness...
September 2017: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
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