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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678910/serotype-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-patients-at-an-equine-referral-hospital
#1
I M Leon, S D Lawhon, K N Norman, D S Threadgill, N Ohta, J Vinasco, H M Scott
Although Salmonella enterica can produce life-threatening colitis in horses, certain serotypes are more commonly associated with clinical disease. Our aim was to evaluate the proportional morbidity attributed to different serotypes, as well as phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital in the southern United States. Two-hundred-fifty-five Salmonella isolates were obtained from clinical samples of patients admitted to the hospital between 2007 and 2015...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620418/determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-to-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-quinolones-and-vancomycin-in-selected-human-enteric-pathogens-from-prince-edward-island-canada
#2
Babafela Awosile, Greg J German, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Matthew Elijah Saab, Luke C Heider, J Trenton McClure
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of fecal carriage of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp and Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and quinolones in humans on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Convenience fecal samples from individuals on Prince Edward Island were screened phenotypically using selective culture and genotypically using multiplex polymerase chain reactions to detect E. coli and Enterococcus spp. resistant to critically important antimicrobials...
April 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593660/genetic-platforms-of-bla-ctx-m-in-carbapenemase-producing-strains-of-k-pneumoniae-isolated-in-chile
#3
Sergio Carrasco-Anabalón, Alejandra Vera-Leiva, Mario Quezada-Aguiluz, María F Morales-Rivera, Celia A Lima, Jorge Fernández, Soledad Ulloa, Mariana Domínguez, Gerardo González-Rocha, Helia Bello-Toledo
Objective: To elucidate whether the genetic platforms of bla CTX-M contribute to the phenotypes of multi-drug-resistance (MDR) in the first carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains isolated in Chile. Method: Twenty-two carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains isolated from different Chilean patients and hospitals were studied. Their genetic relatedness was assessed by PFGE and MLST. The levels of antibiotic resistance were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of various antimicrobials...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581075/distribution-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactam-quinolone-and-carbapenem-resistance-genes-and-genetic-diversity-among-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolates-in-tehran-iran
#4
Shahla Shahbazi, Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Mehri Habibi, Atefeh Talebi, Saeid Bouzari
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic resistance among the Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial resistance in the UPEC isolates and their correlations with virulence factors. METHODS: A total of 120 E. coli isolates were collected from the patients with urinary tract infections in Tehran, Iran. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by phenotypic tests. Combination disk diffusion and modified Hodge tests (MHT) were performed for the phenotypic detection of ESBL and carbapenemase, respectively...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525835/antimicrobial-resistance-amr-nanomachines-mechanisms-for-fluoroquinolone-and-glycopeptide-recognition-efflux-and-or-deactivation
#5
REVIEW
Mary K Phillips-Jones, Stephen E Harding
In this review, we discuss mechanisms of resistance identified in bacterial agents Staphylococcus aureus and the enterococci towards two priority classes of antibiotics-the fluoroquinolones and the glycopeptides. Members of both classes interact with a number of components in the cells of these bacteria, so the cellular targets are also considered. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms include efflux pumps (MepA, NorA, NorB, NorC, MdeA, LmrS or SdrM in S. aureus and EfmA or EfrAB in the enterococci) for removal of fluoroquinolone from the intracellular environment of bacterial cells and/or protection of the gyrase and topoisomerase IV target sites in Enterococcus faecalis by Qnr-like proteins...
March 10, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519511/characterization-of-quinolone-resistance-mechanisms-in-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-europe-compath-ii-study
#6
Anno de Jong, Anaëlle Muggeo, Farid El Garch, Hilde Moyaert, Christophe de Champs, Thomas Guillard
ComPath is an ongoing European programme dedicated to monitor antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens from diseased dogs and cats. The objective was to characterize determinants associated with quinolone resistance among 160 enrofloxacin non-wild type strains (100 Escherichia coli, 45 Proteus mirabilis, 14 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1 Enterobacter cloacae) selected among 843 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in 12 European countries (2013-2014). These strains with non-wild type MICs of ≥0...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471688/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-determinants-in-enterobacteriaceae-from-urine-clinical-samples
#7
Orsolya Szabó, Dániel Gulyás, Nikolett Szabó, Katalin Kristóf, Béla Kocsis, Dóra Szabó
Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants including, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxAB, and qepA, were investigated in 214 Enterobacteriaceae strains from urine clinical samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and imipenem was performed by broth microdilution method. All strains were screened for PMQR genes by PCR. Virulence determinants, namely afa, pap, pil, sfa/foc, and kpsMT of eight Escherichia coli strains proven positive for at least one qnr gene, were investigated by PCR...
February 23, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432938/first-report-on-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhi-isolated-from-human-specimens-in-luanda-angola
#8
Moisés Francisco, Sofia Santos Costa, Adriana Belas, Jorge Ramos, Isabel Couto, Constança Pomba, Miguel Viveiros
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is a common infection in Africa and in spite of scarce surveillance reports, its incidence is commonly considered high by the Angolan Health system. Drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi has emerged, turning antimicrobial susceptibility testing essential to provide clinical guidance. This is the first report analyzing antimicrobial resistance patterns and population structure of the few S. enterica ser. Typhi isolated from patients with Typhoid fever in Luanda, Angola...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415140/analysis-of-the-presence-of-erroneous-qnr-sequences-in-genbank
#9
Joaquim Ruiz
Background: Twenty years ago the first transferable mechanism of quinolone resistance (TMQR), QnrA, was described. Thereafter, innumerable TMQRs, either Qnr related or not, were described. Ten years ago the exponential description of Qnr genes/alleles led to the proposal of a common nomenclature. Objectives: This analysis aims to determine the degree of correctness of the Qnr sequences currently present in GenBank. Methods: The Qnr amino acid type sequence of the first allele (e...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391815/molecular-analysis-of-multidrug-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-shigella-spp-from-2001-2010-in-kolkata-india-role-of-integrons-plasmids-and-topoisomerase-mutations
#10
Neha Rajpara, Mrinalini Nair, Goutam Chowdhury, Asish K Mukhopadhyay, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, Ashima Kushwaha Bhardwaj
To understand the genetic basis of high drug resistance in Shigella, 95 clinical isolates of Shigella spp. (2001-2010) were obtained from the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata, India. Ninety-three isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Resistance to nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, streptomycin, and co-trimoxazole was most common in this population. Dendrogram analysis showed that S. sonnei strains were more clonally related when compared to the other Shigella species. The role of mobile genetic elements and chromosome-borne resistance factors was analyzed in detail...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360506/chromosomal-mutations-that-accompany-qnr-in-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli
#11
Laura Vinué, David C Hooper, George A Jacoby
We examined 13 qnr-positive and 14 qnr-negative clinical isolates of Escherichia coli for mutations previously seen in a qnr-containing laboratory strain exposed to supra minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin. Among the qnr-positive strains, those with ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥ 2 µg/mL had at least one mutation in gyrA. Mutations in parC were present in strains with a ciprofloxacin MIC of ≥ 128 µg/mL. The 6 most ciprofloxacin-resistant strains contained additional plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants...
March 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286015/prevalence-of-class-1-integrons-and-plasmid-mediated-qnr-genes-among-enterobacter-isolates-obtained-from-hospitalized-patients-in-ahvaz-iran
#12
Mansour Amin, Solmaz Dibachi, Mojtaba Shahin
Quinolones are frequently used classes of antimicrobials in hospitals, crucial for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The inappropriate use of quinolones and other antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections leads to a significant increase of resistant isolates. The acquisition of antimicrobial resistance may be related to achievement of resistance determinant genes mediated by plasmids, transposons and gene cassettes in integrons. The objective of this cross-sectional study, conducted from December 2015 to July 2016 at two teaching hospitals in Ahvaz, southern Iran, was to screen for the presence of class 1 integrons and quinolone resistance genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229634/genomic-insights-into-colistin-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-a-tunisian-teaching-hospital
#13
Nadia Jaidane, Rémy A Bonnin, Wejdene Mansour, Delphine Girlich, Elodie Creton, Garance Cotellon, Cherifa Chaouch, Noureddine Boujaafar, Olfa Bouallegue, Thierry Naas
The emergence of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CoR Kp ) is a public health concern, since this antibiotic has become the last line of treatment for infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram negatives. In this study, we have investigated the molecular basis of colistin resistance in 13 MDR K. pneumoniae strains isolated from 12 patients in a teaching hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to decipher the molecular mechanism of colistin resistance and to identify the resistome of these CoR Kp isolates...
February 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207706/detection-of-bla-ctx-m-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhi-in-a-tertiary-care-centre
#14
Aishwarya Ramachandran, Mariappan Shanthi, Uma Sekar
Introduction: Infections caused by Salmonella are an important public health threat in tropical and subtropical countries. Due to the emergence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (multidrug resistant salmonellae) in the late 1980s, fluoroquinolones and extended spectrum cephalosporins became the drugs of choice. Resistance to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone due to the production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin have emerged resulting in treatment failure...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151995/the-molecular-study-of-antibiotic-resistance-to-quinolones-in-salmonella-enterica-strains-isolated-in-tehran-iran
#15
Shirin Malehmir, Reza Ranjbar, Naser Harzandi
Introduction: Salmonella is known as one of the most important causes of gastrointestinal disease in the world. Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are used successfully in the treatment of salmonellosis particularly for infections that have become resistant to several antibiotics. But non-susceptible isolates to quinolones have been reported in several countries. The data are limited about the prevalence of quinolone-resistant isolates in our country. Therefore, this study investigated the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Salmonella enterica isolated in Children's Medical Center in Tehran during 2014-2015...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148877/characterization-and-horizontal-transfer-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-and-integrons-in-bacteria-isolated-from-cooked-meat-products-in-china
#16
Tao Yu, Xiaobing Jiang, Yu Liang, Yanping Zhu, Jinhe Tian, Hao Ying, Xuannian Wang, Lei Shi
The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance and the presence and transferability of corresponding resistance genes and integrons in bacteria isolated from cooked meat samples in the People's Republic of China. A total of 150 isolates (22 species belonging to 15 genera) were isolated from 49 samples. Resistance of these isolates to antimicrobials was commonly observed; 42.7, 36.0, and 25.3% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, and ampicillin, respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed in 41 (27...
December 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111483/involvement-of-topoisomerase-mutations-qnr-and-aac-6-ib-cr-genes-in-conferring-quinolone-resistance-to-the-clinical-isolates-of-vibrio-and-shigella-spp-1998-to-2009-from-kolkata-india
#17
Kittappa Vinothkumar, Shaileshkumar R Bhalara, Aneri Shah, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, G Naresh Kumar, Ashima Kushwaha Bhardwaj
BACKGROUND: Quinolone antibiotics have been widely used to treat diarrheal diseases caused by the bacterial agents such as those belonging to Vibrio spp. and Shigella spp. As these pathogens are accumulating quinolone resistance, treating the infections caused by them has become complicated. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, isolates of Vibrio and Shigella species, obtained from the diarrhea patients from Kolkata, India were analyzed for quinolone resistance. In total, nine V...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106520/increased-expression-of-qnr-is-sufficient-to-confer-clinical-resistance-to-ciprofloxacin-in-escherichia-coli
#18
Linnéa Garoff, Kavita Yadav, Diarmaid Hughes
Background: Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, targets two essential bacterial enzymes, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Plasmid-borne qnr genes, encoding proteins that protect DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from inhibition by fluoroquinolones, contribute to resistance development. However, the presence of a plasmid-borne qnr gene alone is insufficient to confer clinical resistance. Objectives: We asked whether the level of expression of qnr was a limiting factor in its ability to confer clinical resistance and whether expression could be increased without reducing fitness or viability...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044980/phenotypic-and-genotypic-profile-of-clinical-and-animal-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-isolates-from-mexico
#19
S Aguilar-Montes de Oca, M Talavera-Rojas, E Soriano-Vargas, J Barba-León, J Vázquez-Navarrete, J Acosta-Dibarrat, C Salgado-Miranda
AIMS: The objective of this study was to obtain a phenotypic and genotypic profile of Salmonella enterica including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from food-producing animals and clinical isolates, as well as their genetic relatedness in two different States of Mexico (Jalisco and State of Mexico). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 243 isolates were evaluated in terms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and related genes through a disk diffusion method and PCR respectively; we found 16 MDR isolates, all of them harbouring the blaCMY gene but not qnr genes, these isolates represent less than 10% of the collection...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039707/first-detection-of-ctx-m-1-in-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-seafood-from-tunisia
#20
Leila Ben Said, Mouna Hamdaoui, Ahlem Jouini, Abdellatif Boudabous, Karim Ben Slama, Carmen Torres, Naouel Klibi
The purpose of this study was to determine the carriage rate of Escherichia coli isolates in seafood, to analyze the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in the recovered isolates, and to characterize extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli producers. E. coli isolates were recovered from 24 (34.3%) of the 70 seafood samples analyzed, and one isolate per sample was further characterized. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the disk diffusion method in the 24 isolates, with the following results (number of resistant isolates): tetracycline (8), streptomycin (7), ampicillin (6), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (4), chloramphenicol (4), ciprofloxacin (3), cefotaxime (2), and ceftazidime (2)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
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