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Gabriela Bergiante Kraychete, Larissa Alvarenga Batista Botelho, Eloiza Helena Campana, Renata Cristina Picão, Raquel Regina Bonelli
Plasmid-mediated qnr genes have been reported in bacteria worldwide, widely associated to other relevant determinants of resistance in multiresistance plasmids. Here, we provide an update on a previously described multiplex PCR, in order to detect all six qnr families (including qnrA, qnrS, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD and qnrVC) described until now. The proposed method makes possible the screening of these genes reducing cost and time, and may demonstrate an underestimated prevalence of the latest variants described.
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ezequiel Albornoz, Celeste Lucero, Genara Romero, María Paula Quiroga, Melina Rapoport, Leonor Guerriero, Patricia Andres, Cecilia Rodriguez, Marcelo Galas, Daniela Centrón, Alejandra Corso, Alejandro Petroni
This first nationwide study was conducted to analyze the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in phenotypically unselected (consecutive) clinical enterobacteria. We studied 1,058 isolates that had been consecutively collected in 66 hospitals of the WHONET-Argentina Resistance Surveillance Network. Overall, 26% of isolates were nonsusceptible to at least one of the three quinolones tested (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin). The overall prevalence of PMQR genes was 8...
October 11, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
S Ghafourian
The main mechanism of quinolone resistance in K pneumoniae caused via mutation on porin-related proteins and efflux pumps. The current study aimed investigates the prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistant K pneumoniae in burn patients and understanding the role of AcrAB multidrug efflux system on minimal inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. For this reason, 52 K pneumoniae collected from burn patients and evaluated for mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance. The results demonstrated 40 K pneumoniae were ciprofloxacin resistant K pneumonia and 35 showed the mutation on gyrA...
March 10, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
Cheng-Yen Kao, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Wei-Hung Lin, Chin-Chung Tseng, Jing-Jou Yan, Ming-Cheng Wang, Ching-Hao Teng, Jiunn-Jong Wu
The aim of this study was to characterize fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from bacteremia in Taiwan in 2001-2015. During the study period, 248 (21.2%) of 1171 isolates were identified as levofloxacin-resistant. The results of phylogenetic group analysis showed that 38.7% of the FQ-resistant isolates belonged to phylogenetic group B2, 23.4% to group B1, 22.6% to groupA, 14.9% to group D, and 0.4% belonged to group F. FQ-resistant isolates were highly susceptible to cefepime (91.5%), imipenem (96...
2016: Scientific Reports
David P Kateete, Ritah Nakanjako, Juliet Namugenyi, Joseph Erume, Moses L Joloba, Christine F Najjuka
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are common causes of health care associated infections worldwide. Carbapenems are effective against infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species. However, their use is threatened by the emergence of carbapenemase-producing strains. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii at Mulago Hospital in Kampala Uganda, and to establish whether the hospital environment harbors carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods...
2016: SpringerPlus
Mohamed Belmahdi, Sofiane Bakour, Charbel Al Bayssari, Abdelaziz Touati, Jean-Marc Rolain
This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods...
September 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
David Olusoga Ogbolu, Armstrong Oyebode Alli, Michael C Anorue, Oluwole Adebayo Daini, Afolabi Oluwadun
BACKGROUND: Until recently, mechanisms of resistance to quinolones in Gram-negative bacteria were believed to be only chromosome encoded. However, emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has been reported worldwide. AIM: This study investigated distribution of PMQR in Gram-negative bacteria from a tertiary hospital in eastern part of Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one nonduplicate Gram-negative bacterial isolates of eight species were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility, genotypic detection of various PMQRs, typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and analysis of plasmids present, including replicon typing...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Ning-guo Zheng, Nan Huang, Wei-wei Wang, Man Yu, Xiao-yang Chen, Yan-lai Yao, Wei-ping Wang, Chun-lai Hong
To investigate the effects of thermophilic composting process on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of swine manure source at a field scale, the abundance of four erythromycin resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and ermF), three β-lactam resistance genes (blaTEM, blaCTX and blaSHV) and two quinolone resistance genes (qnrA and qnrS) were quantified by quantitative PCR ( qPCR) during the composting process. The results suggested that the erm genes' copy numbers were significantly higher than those of the bla and qnr genes in the early stage of composting (P < 0...
May 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
David C Hooper, George A Jacoby
Quinolone antimicrobials are widely used in clinical medicine and are the only current class of agents that directly inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis. Quinolones dually target DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV binding to specific domains and conformations so as to block DNA strand passage catalysis and stabilize DNA-enzyme complexes that block the DNA replication apparatus and generate double breaks in DNA that underlie their bactericidal activity. Resistance has emerged with clinical use of these agents and is common in some bacterial pathogens...
2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Yasmin A Begum, K A Talukder, Ishrat J Azmi, Mohammad Shahnaij, A Sheikh, Salma Sharmin, A-M Svennerholm, Firdausi Qadri
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of bacterial infection leading to acute watery diarrhea in infants and young children as well as in travellers to ETEC endemic countries. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent nowadays used for the treatment of diarrhea. This study aimed to characterize ciprofloxacin resistant ETEC strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh. METHODS: A total of 8580 stool specimens from diarrheal patients attending the icddr,b Dhaka hospital was screened for ETEC between 2005 and 2009...
2016: PloS One
Yanping Wen, Xiaoying Pu, Wei Zheng, Guang Hu
Effluents from hospital and aquaculture are considered important sources of quinolone resistance. However, little information is available on the impact of this effluent on nearby rivers. In this study, 188 ciprofloxacin-resistant bacterial isolates obtained from rivers near hospitals and aquaculture were screened for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. Species identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and PMQR gene transferability assessment were conducted for PMQR-positive bacteria...
2016: PloS One
A Farra, T Frank, L Tondeur, P Bata, J C Gody, M Onambele, C Rafaï, M Vray, S Breurec
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in faeces of healthy children aged 0-59 months in Bangui (Central African Republic). METHODS: Stool samples of 134 children, recruited for a matched case-control study, were cultured on a commercial ESBL-selective chromogenic medium (CHROMagar ESBL, France). The phenotypic resistance patterns of isolated strains were investigated, as well as the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance...
July 9, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Amir Peymani, Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Reza Najafipour, Samaneh Mansouri
INTRODUCTION: Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) is a growing clinical concern worldwide. The main aims of this study were to detect qnr-encoding genes and to evaluate the clonal relatedness of qnr-positive Enterobacter cloacae isolates. METHODS: A total of 116 E. cloacae isolates that were not susceptible to quinolone were obtained from seven hospitals in Tehran, five hospitals in Qazvin, and two hospitals in Karaj (Iran). Bacterial identification was performed using standard laboratory methods and API 20E strips...
May 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Lei Yan, Hai Xu
Quinolone antibacterial drugs, developing from the treatment of urinary tract infection in early time and now from the treatment of intestinal infection and respiratory infection, have been widely used in clinical, animal husbandry and aquaculture. Bacteria gradually become resistant to them and resistance mechanism is more and more complicated. Quinolone resistance mechanism is mainly divided into chromosome mediated resistance and plasmid mediated resistance, the latter plays an important role in spreading of antibiotic resistance...
February 4, 2016: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Acta Microbiologica Sinica
Jesús Machuca, Jesús Agüero, Elisenda Miró, María Del Carmen Conejo, Jesús Oteo, Germán Bou, Juan José González-López, Antonio Oliver, Ferran Navarro, Álvaro Pascual, Luis Martínez-Martínez
BACKGROUND: Quinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae species has increased over the past few years, and is significantly associated to beta-lactam resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of chromosomal- and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in acquired AmpC β-lactamase and/or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates. METHODS: The presence of chromosomal- and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms [mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC and qnr, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qepA genes] was evaluated in 289 isolates of acquired AmpC β-lactamase- and/or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae collected between February and July 2009 in 35 Spanish hospitals...
June 23, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Branka Bedenić, Nataša Firis, Vesna Elveđi-Gašparović, Marija Krilanović, Krešimir Matanović, Iva Štimac, Josefa Luxner, Jasmina Vraneš, Tomislav Meštrović, Gernot Zarfel, Andrea Grisold
BACKGROUND: An increased frequency of Proteus mirabilis isolates resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins was observed recently in a long-term care facility in Zagreb (Godan). The aim of this study was the molecular characterization of resistance mechanisms to new cephalosporins in P. mirabilis isolates from this nursing home. METHODS: Thirty-eight isolates collected from 2013-2015 showing reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime were investigated. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by broth microdilution method...
June 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Jianming Cao, Meimei Li, Chunquan Xu, Tieli Zhou, Jia Du, Yao Sun, Ling Qin, Jiru Xu
BACKGROUND: Proteeae isolates displaying multidrug-resistance (MDR) are the second most common causes of hospital-associated infections. The aim of this study was to screen class 1-3 integrons and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in Proteeae isolates from the First Affiliated Hospital of the Wenzhou Medical University. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 176 Proteeae isolates were collected from clinical specimens of inpatients between January 2011 and December 2013...
May 25, 2016: Chemotherapy
Magdaléna Röderová, Miroslava Htoutou Sedláková, Vendula Pudová, Kristýna Hricová, Romana Silová, Peter Eghonghon Odion Imwensi, Jan Bardoň, Milan Kolář
The aims were to investigate the level of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospital and urban wastewater and to determine the similarity of isolates obtained from wastewater and hospitalized patients. Wastewater samples were collected in September 2013 and 2014. After identification using MALDI-TOF MS, beta-lactamase production was determined by relevant phenotypic tests. Genes responsible for the production of single beta-lactamase groups and Qnr proteins were established. The epidemiological relationship of the isolates from wastewater and hospitalized patients was determined by PFGE...
April 2016: New Microbiologica
Hafizah Yousuf Chenia
An increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp., which are both fish and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. Quinolone-resistant Aeromonas spp. isolates are increasingly being observed in clinical and environmental settings, and this has been attributed primarily to target gene alterations, efflux, and transferable quinolone resistance. Thirty-four Aeromonas spp., obtained from freshwater aquaculture systems, were screened for the presence of GyrA and ParC substitutions, efflux activity and the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnr and aac-6'-Ib-cr...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Gülşah Güler, Bayrı Eraç
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen which is one of the most important agents of nosocomial infections. Being resistant to many antibiotics, complicates the treatment of the infections caused. Fluoroquinolones are used in the treatment of nosocomial and community-acquired infections and it is important to determine the mechanisms of resistance to these antibiotics. The aims of this study were to investigate ciprofloxacin (CIP) and levofloxacin (LEV) minimum inhibitor concentrations (MIC), clonal relationships, mutations that occur in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes and overexpression of efflux pumps in nosocomial A...
April 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
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