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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096153/plasmidic-qnr-genes-confer-clinical-resistance-to-ciprofloxacin-under-urinary-tract-physiological-conditions
#1
Guillermo Martín-Gutiérrez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Álvaro Pascual, Jerónimo Rodríguez-Beltrán, Jesús Blázquez
Escherichia coli variants expressing plasmid-mediated qnr genes are usually susceptible to fluoroquinolones by standard susceptibility testing. Here we show that, under specific urinary tract physiological conditions, susceptible laboratory and clinical strains harboring qnr determinants become fully resistant to ciprofloxacin. Therefore, physiological conditions, mainly urine pH values, should be considered for susceptibility testing of CIP activity against E. coli in UTIs and for selecting appropriate antibiotics for UTI treatment...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094345/bacterial-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-aquatic-environments-in-china
#2
Lei Yan, Dan Liu, Xin-Hua Wang, Yunkun Wang, Bo Zhang, Mingyu Wang, Hai Xu
Emerging antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to human's health in the 21(st) century. Understanding and combating this issue requires a full and unbiased assessment of the current status on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes and their correlation with each other and bacterial groups. In aquatic environments that are known reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes, we were able to reach this goal on plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes that lead to resistance to quinolones and possibly also to the co-emergence of resistance to β-lactams...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011969/comparison-of-quinolone-and-beta-lactam-resistance-among-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections
#3
Zahra Tayebi, Hamid Heidari, Hossein Kazemian, Seyed Mohammad Ghafoori, Shahram Boroumandi, Hamidreza Houri
The growing frequency of antibiotic resistances is now a universal problem. Increasing resistance to new generations of β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates is considered an emergency health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs). In our study ESBL-producing isolates were assessed by screening methods. After determination of antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of ESBLs and quinolone resistance genes was performed...
1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912841/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-two-decades-on
#4
REVIEW
José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús Machuca, María Eliecer Cano, Jorge Calvo, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Alvaro Pascual
After two decades of the discovery of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), three different mechanisms have been associated to this phenomenon: target protection (Qnr proteins, including several families with multiple alleles), active efflux pumps (mainly QepA and OqxAB pumps) and drug modification [AAC(6')-Ib-cr acetyltransferase]. PMQR genes are usually associated with mobile or transposable elements on plasmids, and, in the case of qnr genes, are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889879/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae-a-systematic-review-with-a-focus-on-mediterranean-countries
#5
REVIEW
B Yanat, J-M Rodríguez-Martínez, A Touati
Quinolones are a family of synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs. These molecules have been widely prescribed to treat various infectious diseases and have been classified into several generations based on their spectrum of activity. Quinolones inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis by interfering with the action of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Mutations in the genes encoding these targets are the most common mechanisms of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance. Moreover, three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998 and include Qnr proteins, the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ib-cr, and plasmid-mediated efflux pumps QepA and OqxAB...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812489/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-qnr-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-collected-from-several-hospitals-of-qazvin-and-zanjan-provinces-iran
#6
Maryam Rezazadeh, Hamid Baghchesaraei, Amir Peymani
OBJECTIVES: Escherichia coli is regarded as the most important etiological agent of urinary tract infections. Fluoroquinolones are routinely used in the treatment of these infections; however, in recent years, a growing rate of resistance to these drugs has been reported globally. The aims of this study were to detect plasmid-mediated qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes among the quinolone-nonsusceptible E. coli isolates and to investigate their clonal relatedness in Qazvin and Zanjan Provinces, Iran...
October 2016: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765017/high-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-prevalence-rate-among-neonatal-infections-in-dakar-senegal
#7
Sebastien Breurec, Coralie Bouchiat, Jean-Marie Sire, Olivier Moquet, Raymond Bercion, Moussa Fafa Cisse, Philippe Glaser, Ousmane Ndiaye, Sidy Ka, Helene Salord, Abdoulaye Seck, Haby Signate Sy, Remy Michel, Benoit Garin
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal's most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. METHODS: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736767/updated-multiplex-pcr-for-detection-of-all-six-plasmid-mediated-qnr-gene-families
#8
Gabriela Bergiante Kraychete, Larissa Alvarenga Batista Botelho, Eloiza Helena Campana, Renata Cristina Picão, Raquel Regina Bonelli
Plasmid-mediated qnr genes have been reported in bacteria worldwide and are widely associated with other relevant determinants of resistance in multiresistance plasmids. Here, we provide an update on a previously described multiplex PCR in order to detect all six qnr families (including qnrA, qnrS, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, and qnrVC) described until now. The proposed method makes possible the screening of these genes, reducing cost and time, and it may demonstrate an underestimated prevalence of the latest variants described...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728774/prevalence-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-clinical-enterobacteria-from-argentina
#9
Ezequiel Albornoz, Celeste Lucero, Genara Romero, María Paula Quiroga, Melina Rapoport, Leonor Guerriero, Patricia Andres, Cecilia Rodriguez, Marcelo Galas, Daniela Centrón, Alejandra Corso, Alejandro Petroni
This first nationwide study was conducted to analyze the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in phenotypically unselected (consecutive) clinical enterobacteria. We studied 1,058 isolates that had been consecutively collected in 66 hospitals of the WHONET-Argentina Resistance Surveillance Network. Overall, 26% of isolates were nonsusceptible to at least one of the three quinolones tested (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin). The overall prevalence of PMQR genes was 8...
October 11, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618426/mutation-and-efflux-system-are-responsible-for-ciprofloxacin-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#10
S Ghafourian
The main mechanism of quinolone resistance in K pneumoniae caused via mutation on porin-related proteins and efflux pumps. The current study aimed investigates the prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistant K pneumoniae in burn patients and understanding the role of AcrAB multidrug efflux system on minimal inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. For this reason, 52 K pneumoniae collected from burn patients and evaluated for mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance. The results demonstrated 40 K pneumoniae were ciprofloxacin resistant K pneumonia and 35 showed the mutation on gyrA...
March 10, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573927/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-determinants-in-quinolone-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-patients-with-bacteremia-in-a-university-hospital-in-taiwan-2001-2015
#11
Cheng-Yen Kao, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Wei-Hung Lin, Chin-Chung Tseng, Jing-Jou Yan, Ming-Cheng Wang, Ching-Hao Teng, Jiunn-Jong Wu
The aim of this study was to characterize fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from bacteremia in Taiwan in 2001-2015. During the study period, 248 (21.2%) of 1171 isolates were identified as levofloxacin-resistant. The results of phylogenetic group analysis showed that 38.7% of the FQ-resistant isolates belonged to phylogenetic group B2, 23.4% to group B1, 22.6% to groupA, 14.9% to group D, and 0.4% belonged to group F. FQ-resistant isolates were highly susceptible to cefepime (91.5%), imipenem (96...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547682/carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-at-mulago-hospital-in-kampala-uganda-2007-2009
#12
David P Kateete, Ritah Nakanjako, Juliet Namugenyi, Joseph Erume, Moses L Joloba, Christine F Najjuka
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are common causes of health care associated infections worldwide. Carbapenems are effective against infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species. However, their use is threatened by the emergence of carbapenemase-producing strains. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii at Mulago Hospital in Kampala Uganda, and to establish whether the hospital environment harbors carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530851/molecular-characterisation-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-plasmid-ampc-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-broilers-in-b%C3%A3-ja%C3%A3-a-algeria
#13
Mohamed Belmahdi, Sofiane Bakour, Charbel Al Bayssari, Abdelaziz Touati, Jean-Marc Rolain
This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods...
September 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510669/distribution-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-gram-negative-bacteria-from-a-tertiary-hospital-in-nigeria
#14
David Olusoga Ogbolu, Armstrong Oyebode Alli, Michael C Anorue, Oluwole Adebayo Daini, Afolabi Oluwadun
BACKGROUND: Until recently, mechanisms of resistance to quinolones in Gram-negative bacteria were believed to be only chromosome encoded. However, emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has been reported worldwide. AIM: This study investigated distribution of PMQR in Gram-negative bacteria from a tertiary hospital in eastern part of Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one nonduplicate Gram-negative bacterial isolates of eight species were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility, genotypic detection of various PMQRs, typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and analysis of plasmids present, including replicon typing...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506057/-effects-of-thermophilic-composting-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-args-of-swine-manure-source
#15
Ning-guo Zheng, Nan Huang, Wei-wei Wang, Man Yu, Xiao-yang Chen, Yan-lai Yao, Wei-ping Wang, Chun-lai Hong
To investigate the effects of thermophilic composting process on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of swine manure source at a field scale, the abundance of four erythromycin resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and ermF), three β-lactam resistance genes (blaTEM, blaCTX and blaSHV) and two quinolone resistance genes (qnrA and qnrS) were quantified by quantitative PCR ( qPCR) during the composting process. The results suggested that the erm genes' copy numbers were significantly higher than those of the bla and qnr genes in the early stage of composting (P < 0...
May 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449972/topoisomerase-inhibitors-fluoroquinolone-mechanisms-of-action-and-resistance
#16
REVIEW
David C Hooper, George A Jacoby
Quinolone antimicrobials are widely used in clinical medicine and are the only current class of agents that directly inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis. Quinolones dually target DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV binding to specific domains and conformations so as to block DNA strand passage catalysis and stabilize DNA-enzyme complexes that block the DNA replication apparatus and generate double breaks in DNA that underlie their bactericidal activity. Resistance has emerged with clinical use of these agents and is common in some bacterial pathogens...
2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428376/resistance-pattern-and-molecular-characterization-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-etec-strains-isolated-in-bangladesh
#17
Yasmin A Begum, K A Talukder, Ishrat J Azmi, Mohammad Shahnaij, A Sheikh, Salma Sharmin, A-M Svennerholm, Firdausi Qadri
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of bacterial infection leading to acute watery diarrhea in infants and young children as well as in travellers to ETEC endemic countries. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent nowadays used for the treatment of diarrhea. This study aimed to characterize ciprofloxacin resistant ETEC strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh. METHODS: A total of 8580 stool specimens from diarrheal patients attending the icddr,b Dhaka hospital was screened for ETEC between 2005 and 2009...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427763/high-prevalence-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-and-incq-plasmids-carrying-qnrs2-gene-in-bacteria-from-rivers-near-hospitals-and-aquaculture-in-china
#18
Yanping Wen, Xiaoying Pu, Wei Zheng, Guang Hu
Effluents from hospital and aquaculture are considered important sources of quinolone resistance. However, little information is available on the impact of this effluent on nearby rivers. In this study, 188 ciprofloxacin-resistant bacterial isolates obtained from rivers near hospitals and aquaculture were screened for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. Species identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and PMQR gene transferability assessment were conducted for PMQR-positive bacteria...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404368/high-rate-of-faecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-healthy-children-in-bangui-central-african-republic
#19
A Farra, T Frank, L Tondeur, P Bata, J C Gody, M Onambele, C Rafaï, M Vray, S Breurec
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in faeces of healthy children aged 0-59 months in Bangui (Central African Republic). Stool samples of 134 children, recruited for a matched case-control study, were cultured on a commercial ESBL-selective chromogenic medium (CHROMagar ESBL, France). The phenotypic resistance patterns of isolated strains were investigated, as well as the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance. The factors associated with increased risk for ESBL-E carriage were also studied...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384824/high-prevalence-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-determinants-in-enterobacter-cloacae-isolated-from-hospitals-of-the-qazvin-alborz-and-tehran-provinces-iran
#20
Amir Peymani, Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Reza Najafipour, Samaneh Mansouri
INTRODUCTION: Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) is a growing clinical concern worldwide. The main aims of this study were to detect qnr-encoding genes and to evaluate the clonal relatedness of qnr-positive Enterobacter cloacae isolates. METHODS: A total of 116 E. cloacae isolates that were not susceptible to quinolone were obtained from seven hospitals in Tehran, five hospitals in Qazvin, and two hospitals in Karaj (Iran). Bacterial identification was performed using standard laboratory methods and API 20E strips...
May 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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