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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526792/environmental-spread-of-ndm-1-producing-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#1
Mohammad Aminul Islam, Moydul Islam, Rashedul Hasan, M Iqbal Hossain, Ashikun Nabi, Mahdia Rahman, Wil H F Goessens, Hubert P Endtz, Alexandria B Boehm, Shah M Faruque
Resistance to carbapenem antibiotics through the production of New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) constitutes an emerging challenge in the treatment of bacterial infections. To monitor possible source of spread of these organisms in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we conducted comparative analysis of waste water samples from hospital adjacent areas (HAR) and from community areas (COM) as well as public tap water samples for the occurrence and characteristics of NDM-1 producing bacteria. Of 72 HAR samples tested 51 (71%) were positive for NDM-1-producing bacteria as evidenced by phenotypic tests and the presence of blaNDM-1 gene, compared to 5 of 41 (12...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516210/antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-surface-water-of-eutrophic-urban-lakes-are-related-to-heavy-metals-antibiotics-lake-morphology-and-anthropic-impact
#2
Yuyi Yang, Chen Xu, Xinhua Cao, Hui Lin, Jun Wang
Urban lakes are impacted by heavy human activities and represent potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, six urban lakes in Wuhan, central China were selected to analyze the distribution of sulfonamide resistance (sul) genes, tetracycline resistance (tet) genes and quinolone resistance (qnr) genes and their relationship with heavy metals, antibiotics, lake morphology and anthropic impact. sul1 and sul2 were detected in all six lakes and dominated the types of antibiotic resistance genes, which accounted for 86...
May 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482456/antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-municipal-wastewater-treatment-systems-and-receiving-waters-in-arctic-canada
#3
Kara D Neudorf, Yan Nan Huang, Colin M Ragush, Christopher K Yost, Rob C Jamieson, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
Domestic wastewater discharges may adversely impact arctic ecosystems and local indigenous people, who rely on being able to hunt and harvest food from their local environment. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficient wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which can be operated in remote communities under extreme climatic conditions. WWTPs have been identified as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this work was to quantify the presence of nine different ARG markers (int1, sul1, sul2, tet(O), erm(B), mecA, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and qnr(S)) in two passive systems (waste stabilization ponds [WSPs]) and one mechanical filtration plant operating in two smaller and one large community, respectively, in Nunavut, Canada...
May 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425875/occurrence-of-qnrb1-and-qnrb12-genes-mutation-in-gyra-and-ramr-and-expression-of-efflux-pumps-in-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carriers-of-blakpc-2
#4
Alexsandra Maria Lima Scavuzzi, Maria Amélia Vieira Maciel, Heloísa Ramos Lacerda de Melo, Luiz Carlos Alves, Fábio André Brayner, Ana Catarina Souza Lopes
PURPOSE: The occurrence of quinolone-resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB and qnrS), the presence of mutations in gyrA, gyrB and parC, as well as the expression of efflux pumps (acrB and acrF) and mutations in the gene ramR. METHODOLOGY: Were investigated in 30 blaKPC-2-positive isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae taken from infection and colonization in hospital patients from Recife-PE, Brazil. The detection of the qnr, acrB and acrF genes and analysis of the mutations in ramR and the quinolone-resistance-determining regions of gyrA, gyrB and parC were performed by PCR followed by DNA sequencing...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419869/allodemic-distribution-of-plasmids-co-harbouring-blactx-m-15-aac-6-ib-cr-qnrb-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-is-the-main-source-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-uruguay-s-paediatric-hospital
#5
V Garcia-Fulgueiras, L Araujo, I Bado, N F Cordeiro, M I Mota, G Laguna, G Algorta, R Vignoli
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the characteristics of clinical isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria (EPE) in Uruguay's paediatric hospital. METHODS: ESBLs, qnr alleles and aac(6')-Ib-cr were sought and characterised in EPE isolated between March 2010 and March 2012. Transfer of resistance determinants was assessed by conjugation. Incompatibility (Inc) groups, plasmid toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS) and plasmid size were determined in transconjugants...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352250/characteristics-of-quinolone-resistance-in-salmonella-spp-isolates-from-the-food-chain-in-brazil
#6
Bruno R Pribul, Marcia L Festivo, Marcelle S Rodrigues, Renata G Costa, Elizabeth C Dos P Rodrigues, Miliane M S de Souza, Dalia Dos P Rodrigues
Salmonella spp. is an important zoonotic pathogen related to foodborne diseases. Despite that quinolones/fluoroquinolones are considered a relevant therapeutic strategy against resistant isolates, the increase in antimicrobial resistance is an additional difficulty in controlling bacterial infections caused by Salmonella spp. Thus, the acquisition of resistance to quinolones in Salmonella spp. is worrisome to the scientific community along with the possibility of transmission of resistance through plasmids...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343745/feasibility-of-sulfate-calcined-eggshells-for-removing-pathogenic-bacteria-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-from-landfill-leachates
#7
Mao Ye, Mingming Sun, Xu Chen, Yanfang Feng, Jinzhong Wan, Kuan Liu, Da Tian, Manqiang Liu, Jun Wu, Arthur P Schwab, Xin Jiang
High abundance of human pathogen and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in landfill leachate has become an emerging threat against human health. Therefore, sulfate- and calcination-modified eggshells as green agricultural bioresource were applied to test the feasibility of removing pathogenic bacteria and ARGs from leachate. The highest removal of Escherichia coli (E. coil) and gentamycin resistant gene (gmrA) from artificial contaminated landfill leachate was achieved by the application of eggshell with combined treatment of sulfate and calcination...
May 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333351/ecological-impact-of-ciprofloxacin-on-commensal-enterococci-in-healthy-volunteers
#8
Victoire de Lastours, Elena Maugy, Vincent Mathy, Françoise Chau, Benjamin Rossi, François Guérin, Vincent Cattoir, Bruno Fantin
Background: The ecological impact of ciprofloxacin on commensal enterococci is unknown. Methods: Forty-eight healthy volunteers received ciprofloxacin from day (D) 0 to D14; stools were collected on D7, D14 and D42. Fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant enterococci (FQ-SE and FQ-RE) were detected and quantified by culture, and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The relative abundance of FQ-RE over FQ-SE was determined. The genetic basis of fluoroquinolone resistance was deciphered by partial sequencing of gyrA and parC genes...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303820/characterisation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonellae-during-2014-2015-from-four-centres-across-india-an-icmr-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-network-report
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sushila Dahiya, Priyanka Sharma, Bhavana Kumari, Sangeeta Pandey, Rooma Malik, Neelam Manral, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Pallab Ray, Vikas Gautam, Sujata Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Kamini Walia, Vinod Ohri, Bimal Kumar Das, Seema Sood, Arti Kapil
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to establish 'Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network' in India and to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of clinical isolates to establish a national network across the country for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, nodal centre with clinical isolates of Salmonellae collected from four centres across India, which included Christian Medical College, Vellore; Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh and Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287903/cytotoxic-effect-associated-with-overexpression-of-qnr-proteins-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Jesús Machuca, Paula Diaz de Alba, Esther Recacha, Álvaro Pascual, José Manuel Rodriguez-Martinez
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect associated with overexpression of multiple Qnr-like plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms in Escherichia coli. METHODS: Coding regions of different PMQR genes (qnrA1, qnrB1, qnrC, qnrD1, qnrS1, and qepA2) and efsqnr were cloned into pET29a(+) vector and overexpressed in E. coli BL21. E. coli BL21 with and without an empty pET29a(+) vector were used as controls. The cytotoxic effect associated with PMQR mechanism overexpression was determined by transmission electron microscopy and viability assays...
March 13, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256471/risk-factors-associated-with-fluoroquinolone-resistant-enterococcal-urinary-tract-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-university-hospital-in-north-india
#11
Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Fluoroquinolone resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has increased with the widespread use of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli has been widely studied, though staphylococci and enterococci are also notably resistant. Enterococci being the second most common cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) fluoroquinolones are often the drug of choice. This study was undertaken to assess the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal UTI in a tertiary level health facility in north India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193670/subinhibitory-concentrations-of-ciprofloxacin-enhance-antimicrobial-resistance-and-pathogenicity-of-enterococcus-faecium
#12
Clara Sinel, Margherita Cacaci, Pierrick Meignen, François Guérin, Bryan W Davies, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Jean-Christophe Giard, Vincent Cattoir
Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a major opportunistic pathogen for 2 decades with the spread of hospital-adapted multidrug-resistant clones. As members of the intestinal microbiota, they are subjected to numerous bacterial stresses, including antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations (SICs). Since fluoroquinolones are extensively prescribed, SICs are very likely to occur in vivo, with potential effects on bacterial metabolism with subsequent modulation of opportunistic traits. The aim of this study was to evaluate globally the impact of SICs of ciprofloxacin on antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity of E...
May 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193666/qnre1-a-member-of-a-new-family-of-plasmid-located-quinolone-resistance-genes-originated-from-the-chromosome-of-enterobacter-species
#13
Ezequiel Albornoz, Nathalie Tijet, Denise De Belder, Sonia Gomez, Florencia Martino, Alejandra Corso, Roberto G Melano, Alejandro Petroni
qnrE1, found in a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate, was undetectable by PCR assays used for the six qnr families. qnrE1 was located on a conjugative plasmid (ca. 185 kb) and differed from qnrB alleles by 25%. Phylogenetic reconstructions of qnr genes and proteins and analysis of the qnrE1 surroundings showed that this gene belongs to a new qnr family and was likely mobilized by ISEcp1 from the chromosome of Enterobacter spp. to plasmids of K. pneumoniae.
May 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096153/plasmidic-qnr-genes-confer-clinical-resistance-to-ciprofloxacin-under-urinary-tract-physiological-conditions
#14
Guillermo Martín-Gutiérrez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Álvaro Pascual, Jerónimo Rodríguez-Beltrán, Jesús Blázquez
Escherichia coli variants expressing plasmid-mediated qnr genes are usually susceptible to fluoroquinolones by standard susceptibility testing. Here we show that, under specific urinary tract physiological conditions, susceptible laboratory and clinical strains harboring qnr determinants become fully resistant to ciprofloxacin (CIP). Therefore, physiological conditions, mainly urine pH values, should be considered when performing susceptibility testing of CIP activity against E. coli in treating urinary tract infection (UTI) and for selecting appropriate antibiotics for UTI treatment...
April 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094345/bacterial-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-aquatic-environments-in-china
#15
Lei Yan, Dan Liu, Xin-Hua Wang, Yunkun Wang, Bo Zhang, Mingyu Wang, Hai Xu
Emerging antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to human's health in the 21(st) century. Understanding and combating this issue requires a full and unbiased assessment of the current status on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes and their correlation with each other and bacterial groups. In aquatic environments that are known reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes, we were able to reach this goal on plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes that lead to resistance to quinolones and possibly also to the co-emergence of resistance to β-lactams...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011969/comparison-of-quinolone-and-beta-lactam-resistance-among-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections
#16
Zahra Tayebi, Hamid Heidari, Hossein Kazemian, Seyed Mohammad Ghafoori, Shahram Boroumandi, Hamidreza Houri
The growing frequency of antibiotic resistances is now a universal problem. Increasing resistance to new generations of β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates is considered an emergency health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs). In our study ESBL-producing isolates were assessed by screening methods. After determination of antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of ESBLs and quinolone resistance genes was performed...
December 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912841/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-two-decades-on
#17
REVIEW
José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús Machuca, María Eliecer Cano, Jorge Calvo, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Alvaro Pascual
After two decades of the discovery of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), three different mechanisms have been associated to this phenomenon: target protection (Qnr proteins, including several families with multiple alleles), active efflux pumps (mainly QepA and OqxAB pumps) and drug modification [AAC(6')-Ib-cr acetyltransferase]. PMQR genes are usually associated with mobile or transposable elements on plasmids, and, in the case of qnr genes, are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889879/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae-a-systematic-review-with-a-focus-on-mediterranean-countries
#18
REVIEW
B Yanat, J-M Rodríguez-Martínez, A Touati
Quinolones are a family of synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs. These molecules have been widely prescribed to treat various infectious diseases and have been classified into several generations based on their spectrum of activity. Quinolones inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis by interfering with the action of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Mutations in the genes encoding these targets are the most common mechanisms of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance. Moreover, three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998 and include Qnr proteins, the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ib-cr, and plasmid-mediated efflux pumps QepA and OqxAB...
March 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812489/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-qnr-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-collected-from-several-hospitals-of-qazvin-and-zanjan-provinces-iran
#19
Maryam Rezazadeh, Hamid Baghchesaraei, Amir Peymani
OBJECTIVES: Escherichia coli is regarded as the most important etiological agent of urinary tract infections. Fluoroquinolones are routinely used in the treatment of these infections; however, in recent years, a growing rate of resistance to these drugs has been reported globally. The aims of this study were to detect plasmid-mediated qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes among the quinolone-nonsusceptible E. coli isolates and to investigate their clonal relatedness in Qazvin and Zanjan Provinces, Iran...
October 2016: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765017/high-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-prevalence-rate-among-neonatal-infections-in-dakar-senegal
#20
Sebastien Breurec, Coralie Bouchiat, Jean-Marie Sire, Olivier Moquet, Raymond Bercion, Moussa Fafa Cisse, Philippe Glaser, Ousmane Ndiaye, Sidy Ka, Helene Salord, Abdoulaye Seck, Haby Signate Sy, Remy Michel, Benoit Garin
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal's most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. METHODS: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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