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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432938/first-report-on-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhi-isolated-from-human-specimens-in-luanda-angola
#1
Moisés Francisco, Sofia Santos Costa, Adriana Belas, Jorge Ramos, Isabel Couto, Constança Pomba, Miguel Viveiros
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is a common infection in Africa and in spite of scarce surveillance reports, its incidence is commonly considered high by the Angolan Health system. Drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi has emerged, turning antimicrobial susceptibility testing essential to provide clinical guidance. This is the first report analyzing antimicrobial resistance patterns and population structure of the few S. enterica ser. Typhi isolated from patients with Typhoid fever in Luanda, Angola...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415140/analysis-of-the-presence-of-erroneous-qnr-sequences-in-genbank
#2
Joaquim Ruiz
Background: Twenty years ago the first transferable mechanism of quinolone resistance (TMQR), QnrA, was described. Thereafter, innumerable TMQRs, either Qnr related or not, were described. Ten years ago the exponential description of Qnr genes/alleles led to the proposal of a common nomenclature. Objectives: This analysis aims to determine the degree of correctness of the Qnr sequences currently present in GenBank. Methods: The Qnr amino acid type sequence of the first allele (e...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391815/molecular-analysis-of-multidrug-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-shigella-spp-from-2001-2010-in-kolkata-india-role-of-integrons-plasmids-and-topoisomerase-mutations
#3
Neha Rajpara, Mrinalini Nair, Goutam Chowdhury, Asish K Mukhopadhyay, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, Ashima Kushwaha Bhardwaj
To understand the genetic basis of high drug resistance in Shigella, 95 clinical isolates of Shigella spp. (2001-2010) were obtained from the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata, India. Ninety-three isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Resistance to nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, streptomycin, and co-trimoxazole was most common in this population. Dendrogram analysis showed that S. sonnei strains were more clonally related when compared to the other Shigella species. The role of mobile genetic elements and chromosome-borne resistance factors was analyzed in detail...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360506/chromosomal-mutations-that-accompany-qnr-in-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli
#4
Laura Vinué, David C Hooper, George A Jacoby
We examined 13 qnr-positive and 14 qnr-negative clinical isolates of Escherichia coli for mutations previously seen in a qnr-containing laboratory strain exposed to supra MIC concentrations of ciprofloxacin. Among the qnr-positive strains, those with ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥ 2 µg/ml had at least one mutation in gyrA. Mutations in parC were present in strains with a ciprofloxacin MIC of ≥128 µg/ml. The 6 most ciprofloxacin-resistant strains contained additional plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286015/prevalence-of-class-1-integrons-and-plasmid-mediated-qnr-genes-among-enterobacter-isolates-obtained-from-hospitalized-patients-in-ahvaz-iran
#5
Mansour Amin, Solmaz Dibachi, Mojtaba Shahin
Quinolones are frequently used classes of antimicrobials in hospitals, crucial for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The inappropriate use of quinolones and other antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections leads to a significant increase of resistant isolates. The acquisition of antimicrobial resistance may be related to achievement of resistance determinant genes mediated by plasmids, transposons and gene cassettes in integrons. The objective of this cross-sectional study, conducted from December 2015 to July 2016 at two teaching hospitals in Ahvaz, southern Iran, was to screen for the presence of class 1 integrons and quinolone resistance genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229634/genomic-insights-into-colistin-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-a-tunisian-teaching-hospital
#6
Nadia Jaidane, Rémy A Bonnin, Wejdene Mansour, Delphine Girlich, Elodie Creton, Garance Colleton, Cherifa Chaouch, Noureddine Boujaafar, Olfa Bouallegue, Thierry Naas
The emergence of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CoRKp) is a public health concern since this antibiotic has become the last line of treatment for infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negatives. In this study, we have investigated the molecular basis of colistin-resistance in 13 MDR Kp isolated from 12 patients in a teaching hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to decipher the molecular mechanism of colistin-resistance and to identify the resistome of these CoRKp It revealed a genome of ca...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207706/detection-of-blactx-m-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhi-in-a-tertiary-care-centre
#7
Aishwarya Ramachandran, Mariappan Shanthi, Uma Sekar
Introduction: Infections caused by Salmonella are an important public health threat in tropical and subtropical countries. Due to the emergence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (multidrug resistant salmonellae) in the late 1980s, fluoroquinolones and extended spectrum cephalosporins became the drugs of choice. Resistance to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone due to the production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin have emerged resulting in treatment failure...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151995/the-molecular-study-of-antibiotic-resistance-to-quinolones-in-salmonella-enterica-strains-isolated-in-tehran-iran
#8
Shirin Malehmir, Reza Ranjbar, Naser Harzandi
Introduction: Salmonella is known as one of the most important causes of gastrointestinal disease in the world. Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are used successfully in the treatment of salmonellosis particularly for infections that have become resistant to several antibiotics. But non-susceptible isolates to quinolones have been reported in several countries. The data are limited about the prevalence of quinolone-resistant isolates in our country. Therefore, this study investigated the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Salmonella enterica isolated in Children's Medical Center in Tehran during 2014-2015...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148877/characterization-and-horizontal-transfer-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-and-integrons-in-bacteria-isolated-from-cooked-meat-products-in-china
#9
Tao Yu, Xiaobing Jiang, Yu Liang, Yanping Zhu, Jinhe Tian, Hao Ying, Xuannian Wang, Lei Shi
The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance and the presence and transferability of corresponding resistance genes and integrons in bacteria isolated from cooked meat samples in the People's Republic of China. A total of 150 isolates (22 species belonging to 15 genera) were isolated from 49 samples. Resistance of these isolates to antimicrobials was commonly observed; 42.7, 36.0, and 25.3% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, and ampicillin, respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed in 41 (27...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111483/involvement-of-topoisomerase-mutations-qnr-and-aac-6-ib-cr-genes-in-conferring-quinolone-resistance-to-the-clinical-isolates-of-vibrio-and-shigella-spp-1998-to-2009-from-kolkata-india
#10
Kittappa Vinothkumar, Shaileshkumar R Bhalara, Aneri Shah, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, G Naresh Kumar, Ashima Kushwaha Bhardwaj
BACKGROUND: Quinolone antibiotics have been widely used to treat diarrheal diseases caused by the bacterial agents such as those belonging to Vibrio spp. and Shigella spp. As these pathogens are accumulating quinolone resistance, treating the infections caused by them has become complicated. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, isolates of Vibrio and Shigella species, obtained from the diarrhea patients from Kolkata, India were analyzed for quinolone resistance. In total, nine V...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106520/increased-expression-of-qnr-is-sufficient-to-confer-clinical-resistance-to-ciprofloxacin-in-escherichia-coli
#11
Linnéa Garoff, Kavita Yadav, Diarmaid Hughes
Background: Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, targets two essential bacterial enzymes, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Plasmid-borne qnr genes, encoding proteins that protect DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from inhibition by fluoroquinolones, contribute to resistance development. However, the presence of a plasmid-borne qnr gene alone is insufficient to confer clinical resistance. Objectives: We asked whether the level of expression of qnr was a limiting factor in its ability to confer clinical resistance and whether expression could be increased without reducing fitness or viability...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044980/phenotypic-and-genotypic-profile-of-clinical-and-animal-multi-drug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-isolates-from-mexico
#12
S Aguilar-Montes de Oca, M Talavera-Rojas, E Soriano-Vargas, J Barba-León, J Vázquez-Navarrete, J Acosta-Dibarrat, C Salgado-Miranda
AIMS: The objective of this study was to obtain a phenotypic and genotypic profile of Salmonella enterica including multidrug-resistant isolates from food-producing animals and clinical isolates, as well as their genetic relatedness in two different States of Mexico (Jalisco and State of Mexico). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 243 isolates were evaluated in terms of antimicrobial resistance and related genes through a disk diffusion method and PCR respectively; we found sixteen multidrug-resistant isolates, all of them harbouring the blaCMY gene but not qnr genes, these isolates represent less than 10% of the collection...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039707/first-detection-of-ctx-m-1-in-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-seafood-from-tunisia
#13
Leila Ben Said, Mouna Hamdaoui, Ahlem Jouini, Abdellatif Boudabous, Karim Ben Slama, Carmen Torres, Naouel Klibi
The purpose of this study was to determine the carriage rate of Escherichia coli isolates in seafood, to analyze the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in the recovered isolates, and to characterize extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli producers. E. coli isolates were recovered from 24 (34.3%) of the 70 seafood samples analyzed, and one isolate per sample was further characterized. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the disk diffusion method in the 24 isolates, with the following results (number of resistant isolates): tetracycline (8), streptomycin (7), ampicillin (6), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (4), chloramphenicol (4), ciprofloxacin (3), cefotaxime (2), and ceftazidime (2)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026795/the-prevalence-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-hospital-wastewater-sources-in-tehran-iran
#14
Reza Ranjbar, Omid Farahani
BACKGROUND: Considering the importance of hospital wastewaters as potential reservoirs for the dissemination of bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli and antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the need for such information becomes imperative. METHODS: E. coli strains were isolated from hospital wastewater sources in Tehran, Iran, over a 24-month sampling period (Jun 2014- Jun 2016) and identified using standard bacteriological methods. Quinolone resistance among the strains was determined using Kirby-Bauer method and the frequency of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS) was investigated by PCR...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022216/initial-evaluation-of-the-celesteion-large-bore-pet-ct-scanner-in-accordance-with-the-nema-nu2-2012-standard-and-the-japanese-guideline-for-oncology-fdg-pet-ct-data-acquisition-protocol-version-2-0
#15
Tomohiro Kaneta, Matsuyoshi Ogawa, Nobutoku Motomura, Hitoshi Iizuka, Tetsu Arisawa, Ayako Hino-Shishikura, Keisuke Yoshida, Tomio Inoue
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Celesteion positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner, which is characterized by a large-bore and time-of-flight (TOF) function, in accordance with the NEMA NU-2 2012 standard and version 2.0 of the Japanese guideline for oncology fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT data acquisition protocol. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, count rate characteristic, scatter fraction, energy resolution, TOF timing resolution, and image quality were evaluated according to the NEMA NU-2 2012 standard...
October 11, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865446/computational-discovery-and-functional-validation-of-novel-fluoroquinolone-resistance-genes-in-public-metagenomic-data-sets
#16
Fredrik Boulund, Fanny Berglund, Carl-Fredrik Flach, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Nachiket P Marathe, D G Joakim Larsson, Erik Kristiansson
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics used to prevent and treat a wide range of bacterial infections. Plasmid-mediated qnr genes provide resistance to fluoroquinolones in many bacterial species and are increasingly encountered in clinical settings. Over the last decade, several families of qnr genes have been discovered and characterized, but their true prevalence and diversity still remain unclear. In particular, environmental and host-associated bacterial communities have been hypothesized to maintain a large and unknown collection of qnr genes that could be mobilized into pathogens...
September 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805537/high-prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-wild-fish-from-the-mediterranean-sea-in-algeria
#17
Soumia Brahmi, Abdelaziz Touati, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Albert Sotto, Alix Pantel, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
AIM: We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae among wild fish from the coast of Bejaia (Algeria) in the Mediterranean Sea. RESULTS: From March 2012 to August 2013, gut and gill samples of wild fish were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Strains were characterized with regard to antibiotic resistance, β-lactamase content, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, aminoglycoside resistance genes, and clonality (repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction profiles and multilocus sequence typing)...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747968/quinolone-susceptibility-and-genetic-characterization-of-salmonella-enterica-subsp-enterica-isolated-from-pet-turtles
#18
B C J De Silva, Sabrina Hossain, S H M P Wimalasena, H N K S Pathirana, Mitchell Wendt, Gang-Joon Heo
Turtle-borne Salmonella enterica owns significance as a leading cause in human salmonellosis. The current study aimed to determine the quinolone susceptibility and the genetic characteristics of 21 strains of S. enterica subsp. enterica isolated from pet turtles. Susceptibility of four antimicrobials including nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin was examined in disk diffusion and MIC tests where the majority of the isolates were susceptible to all tested quinolones. In genetic characterization, none of the isolates were positive for qnr or aac(6')-Ib genes and no any target site mutations could be detected in gyrA, gyrB, and parC quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR)...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648624/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-enterobacterial-clinical-isolates-from-neonates-in-tunisia
#19
Karama Charfi, Raoudha Grami, Abir Ben Jeddou, Aziza Messaoudi, Yosra Mani, Olfa Bouallegue, Noureddine Boujaafar, Mahjoub Aouni, Hedi Mammeri, Wejdène Mansour
This study was conducted to investigate extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the Center of Maternity and Neonatology of Monastir, Tunisia. Fourty-six strains out of 283 were found to produce ESBL: Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 37), Escherichia coli (n = 6), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 2), and Citrobacter freundi (n = 1). Genotyping analysis, using ERIC2 and RAPD, showed that strains were clonally unrelated. PCR amplification followed by sequencing revealed that all strains produced CTX-M-15...
June 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638412/molecular-identification-of-aminoglycoside-modifying-enzymes-and-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-among-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clinical-isolates-recovered-from-egyptian-patients
#20
Mohamed F El-Badawy, Wael M Tawakol, Shaymaa W El-Far, Ibrahim A Maghrabi, Saleh A Al-Ghamdi, Moselhy S Mansy, Mohammed S Ashour, Mohamed M Shohayeb
Inappropriate use of antibiotics in clinical settings is thought to have led to the global emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of genes encoding aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance among clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. All K. pneumoniae isolates were phenotypically identified using API 20E and then confirmed genotypically through amplification of the specific K. pneumoniae phoE gene. All isolates were genotyped by the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction technique (ERIC-PCR)...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
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