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Pi-Chun Huang, Chien-Chung Chen
A plaid is a combination of two gratings whose orientations are orthogonal to each other with the same or similar contrasts. We used plaid patterns as stimuli to investigate the mechanisms underlying the detection of a plaid to understand how the visual system combines information from orientation-selective channels. We used a masking paradigm in which an observer was required to detect a target (either a spiral or a plaid) superimposed on a pedestal. We measured the target threshold versus pedestal contrast (TvC) functions at 7 pedestal contrasts for various target-pedestal combinations with a temporal 2AFC paradigm and a staircase procedure...
2016: PloS One
Udo A Ernst, Alina Schiffer, Malte Persike, Günter Meinhardt
Processing natural scenes requires the visual system to integrate local features into global object descriptions. To achieve coherent representations, the human brain uses statistical dependencies to guide weighting of local feature conjunctions. Pairwise interactions among feature detectors in early visual areas may form the early substrate of these local feature bindings. To investigate local interaction structures in visual cortex, we combined psychophysical experiments with computational modeling and natural scene analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Dasuni S Alwis, Katrina L Richards, Nicholas Sc Price
In visual masking the perception of a target stimulus is impaired by a preceding (forward) or succeeding (backward) mask stimulus. The illusion is of interest because it allows uncoupling of the physical stimulus, its neuronal representation and its perception. To understand the neuronal correlates of masking, we examined how masks affected the neuronal responses to oriented target stimuli in the primary visual cortex (V1) of anaesthetized rats (n=37). Target stimuli were circular gratings with 12 orientations; mask stimuli were plaids created as a binarized sum of all possible target orientations...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Noya Meital-Kfir, Yoram S Bonneh, Dov Sagi
A salient visual object can disappear from conscious perception when surrounded by a moving texture, a phenomenon known as MIB, Motion-Induced Blindness (Bonneh, Cooperman, & Sagi, 2001). Here we tested the information available in the brain from such stimuli that do not access awareness by examining interactions across the boundary of awareness between stimuli that reach awareness and those that do not. Observers performed the MIB task in which a "Cue" was presented next to the "Target" after observers reported the perceptual disappearance of the target (Kawabe, Yamada, & Miura, 2007)...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Antonio Di Zazzo, Maryam Tahvildari, George J Florakis, Reza Dana
PURPOSE: To report the ocular manifestations of phospholipase-Cγ2-associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation (PLAID). METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 21-year-old woman diagnosed with PLAID was referred for evaluation of repeated episodes of ocular inflammation resulting in bilateral peripheral corneal pannus with episcleritis and corneal scarring accompanied by systemic manifestations including epidermolysis bullosa and interstitial lung disease...
July 20, 2016: Cornea
Marika Warren
Les choix de vivre « à risque » sont complexes et difficiles. Ils peuvent être structurés par les politiques organisationnelles. Certaines personnes veulent vraiment vivre dans des situations à haut risque ou perçues comme telles parce qu'elles en tirent un avantage important. Cependant, il est probable que ces choix dépendent en grande partie du contexte et qu'ils ne se soient pas posés dans une autre situation. L'article plaide pour la responsabilité d'être attentif aux effets des décisions organisationnelles sur les choix de vivre à risque et sur la répartition globale du risque...
July 2016: Healthcare Management Forum
Pamela M Baker, Wyeth Bair
UNLABELLED: Primate cortical area MT plays a central role in visual motion perception, but models of this area have largely overlooked the binocular integration of motion signals. Recent electrophysiological studies tested binocular integration in MT and found surprisingly that MT neurons lose their hallmark "pattern motion" selectivity when stimuli are presented dichoptically and that many neurons are selective for motion-in-depth (MID). By unifying these novel observations with insights from monocular, frontoparallel motion studies concurrently in a binocular MT motion model, we generated clear, testable predictions about the circuitry and mechanisms underlying visual motion processing...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Rui Henriques, Sara C Madeira
BACKGROUND: Despite the recognized importance of module discovery in biological networks to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, existing methods generally suffer from two major drawbacks. First, there is a focus on modules where biological entities are strongly connected, leading to the discovery of trivial/well-known modules and to the inaccurate exclusion of biological entities with subtler yet relevant roles. Second, there is a generalized intolerance towards different forms of noise, including uncertainty associated with less-studied biological entities (in the context of literature-driven networks) and experimental noise (in the context of data-driven networks)...
2016: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
Anja Schade, Claudia Walliser, Martin Wist, Jennifer Haas, Petra Vatter, Johann M Kraus, Davide Filingeri, George Havenith, Hans A Kestler, Joshua D Milner, Peter Gierschik
Deletions in the gene encoding signal-transducing inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C-γ2 (PLCγ2) are associated with the novel human hereditary disease PLAID (PLCγ2-associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation). PLAID is characterized by a rather puzzling concurrence of augmented and diminished functions of the immune system, such as cold urticaria triggered by only minimal decreases in temperature, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency. Understanding of the functional effects of the genomic alterations at the level of the affected enzyme, PLCγ2, is currently lacking...
September 2016: Cellular Signalling
Kevin Latimer, William Curran
The duration compression effect is a phenomenon in which prior adaptation to a spatially circumscribed dynamic stimulus results in the duration of subsequent subsecond stimuli presented in the adapted region being underestimated. There is disagreement over the frame of reference within which the duration compression phenomenon occurs. One view holds that the effect is driven by retinotopic-tuned mechanisms located at early stages of visual processing, and an alternate position is that the mechanisms are spatiotopic and occur at later stages of visual processing (MT+)...
May 2016: Vision Research
J M Bosten, L Smith, J D Mollon
On the basis of measurements of the perceived coherence of superimposed drifting gratings, Krauskopf and Farell (1990) proposed that motion is analysed independently in different chromatic channels. They found that two gratings appeared to slip if each modulated one of the two 'cardinal' color mechanisms S/(L+M) and L/(L+M). If the gratings were defined along intermediate color directions, observers reported a plaid, moving coherently. We hypothesised that slippage might occur in chromatic gratings if the motion signal from the S/(L+M) channel is weak and equivalent to a lower speed...
May 2016: Vision Research
Christian Quaia, Lance M Optican, Bruce G Cumming
UNLABELLED: Since the discovery of neurons selective for pattern motion direction in primate middle temporal area MT (Albright, 1984; Movshon et al., 1985), the neural computation of this signal has been the subject of intense study. The bulk of this work has explored responses to plaids obtained by summing two drifting sinusoidal gratings. Unfortunately, with these stimuli, many different mechanisms are similarly effective at extracting pattern motion. We devised a new set of stimuli, obtained by summing two random line stimuli with different orientations...
April 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hamid Alavi Majd, Soodeh Shahsavari, Ahmad Reza Baghestani, Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabaei, Naghme Khadem Bashi, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Mohsen Hamidpour
Background. Biclustering algorithms for the analysis of high-dimensional gene expression data were proposed. Among them, the plaid model is arguably one of the most flexible biclustering models up to now. Objective. The main goal of this study is to provide an evaluation of plaid models. To that end, we will investigate this model on both simulation data and real gene expression datasets. Methods. Two simulated matrices with different degrees of overlap and noise are generated and then the intrinsic structure of these data is compared with biclusters result...
2016: Scientifica
Amy Rose Price, Jonathan E Peelle, Michael F Bonner, Murray Grossman, Roy H Hamilton
UNLABELLED: A defining aspect of human cognition is the ability to integrate conceptual information into complex semantic combinations. For example, we can comprehend "plaid" and "jacket" as individual concepts, but we can also effortlessly combine these concepts to form the semantic representation of "plaid jacket." Many neuroanatomic models of semantic memory propose that heteromodal cortical hubs integrate distributed semantic features into coherent representations. However, little work has specifically examined these proposed integrative mechanisms and the causal role of these regions in semantic integration...
March 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jeffrey R Binder, Sara B Pillay, Colin J Humphries, William L Gross, William W Graves, Diane S Book
Patients with surface dyslexia have disproportionate difficulty pronouncing irregularly spelled words (e.g. pint), suggesting impaired use of lexical-semantic information to mediate phonological retrieval. Patients with this deficit also make characteristic 'regularization' errors, in which an irregularly spelled word is mispronounced by incorrect application of regular spelling-sound correspondences (e.g. reading plaid as 'played'), indicating over-reliance on sublexical grapheme-phoneme correspondences. We examined the neuroanatomical correlates of this specific error type in 45 patients with left hemisphere chronic stroke...
May 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Nina Riddell, Laila Hugrass, Jude Jayasuriya, Sheila G Crewther, David P Crewther
Electroretinogram (ERG) studies have demonstrated that the retinal response to temporally modulated fast-ON and fast-OFF sawtooth flicker is asymmetric. The response to spatiotemporal sawtooth stimuli has not yet been investigated. Perceptually, such drifting gratings or diamond plaids shaded in a sawtooth pattern appear brighter when movement produces fast-OFF relative to fast-ON luminance profiles. The neural origins of this illusion remain unclear (although a retinal basis has been suggested). Thus we presented toad eyecups with sequential epochs of sawtooth, sine-wave, and square-wave gratings drifting horizontally across the retina at temporal frequencies of 2...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Helena X Wang, J Anthony Movshon
Neurons in area MT/V5 of the macaque visual cortex encode visual motion. Some cells are selective for the motion of oriented features (component direction-selective, CDS); others respond to the true direction of complex patterns (pattern-direction selective, PDS). There is a continuum of selectivity in MT, with CDS cells at one extreme and PDS cells at the other; we compute a pattern index that captures this variation. It is unknown how a neuron's pattern index is related to its other tuning characteristics...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Rui Henriques, Sara C Madeira
Genes can participate in multiple biological processes at a time and thus their expression can be seen as a composition of the contributions from the active processes. Biclustering under a plaid assumption allows the modeling of interactions between transcriptional modules or biclusters (subsets of genes with coherence across subsets of conditions) by assuming an additive composition of contributions in their overlapping areas. Despite the biological interest of plaid models, few biclustering algorithms consider plaid effects and, when they do, they place restrictions on the allowed types and structures of biclusters, and suffer from robustness problems by seizing exact additive matchings...
July 2015: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Christian Quaia, Lance Optican, Bruce Cumming
Psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence indicates that the computation of pattern motion is partially, but not completely, disrupted when two drifting gratings forming a plaid are presented dichoptically (i.e., one to each eye, Tailby, Majaj and Movshon, 2010). Here we set out to quantify the extent of this disruption along the visual pathway that underlies short-latency reflexive eye movements in humans. Unikinetic plaids, formed by summing a drifting and a static sinusoidal grating of different orientations, elicit short-latency ocular following responses (OFRs) that can be used to study pattern motion computations (Masson and Castet 2002)...
2015: Journal of Vision
Erin Koch, Jiazhong Jin, Yushi Wang, Jens Kremkow, Jose Manuel Alonso, Qasim Zaidi
Parallel perception of multiple orientations is essential for identification of patterns and 3-D shapes from texture. While the primary visual cortex of primates and carnivores is organized in columns of neurons that respond to the same orientation preferences, neuronal responses to gratings of preferred orientation can be suppressed when another orientation is added to create a plaid. It is currently unknown how the different factors contributing to this cross-orientation suppression vary across the orientation map...
2015: Journal of Vision
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