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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775873/psychosocial-stress-and-inflammation-driving-tryptophan-breakdown-in-children-and-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-two-cohorts
#1
Nathalie Michels, Gerard Clarke, Loreto Olavarria-Ramirez, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, Ascensión Marcos, Kurt Widhalm, Livia A Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Tryptophan breakdown is an important mechanism in several diseases e.g. inflammation and stress-induced inflammation have been associated with the development of depression via enhanced tryptophan breakdown. Depression is a major public health problem which commonly starts during adolescence, thus identifying underlying mechanisms during early life is crucial in prevention. The aim of this work was to verify whether independent and interacting associations of psychosocial stress and inflammation on tryptophan breakdown already exist in children and adolescents as a vulnerable age group...
May 15, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773951/the-role-of-neuroinflammation-and-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-major-depressive-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Sang Won Jeon, Yong-Ku Kim
Although depression has generally been explained with monoamine theory, it is far more multifactorial, and therapies that address the disease's pathway have not been developed. In this context, an understanding of neuroinflammation and neurovascular dysfunction would enable a more comprehensive approach to depression. Inflammation is in a sense a type of allostatic load involving the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of depression by increasing proinflammatory cytokines, activating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, increasing glucocorticoid resistance, and affecting serotonin synthesis and metabolism, neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773671/targeted-inhibition-of-cd74-attenuates-adipose-cox-2-mif-mediated-m1-macrophage-polarization-and-retards-obesity-related-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#3
Pei-Chi Chan, Ting-Ni Wu, Ying-Chuan Chen, Chieh-Hua Lu, Martin Wabitsch, Yu-Feng Tian, Po-Shiuan Hsieh
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is crucial to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of COX-2/MIF-mediated crosstalk between hypertrophic adipocytes and macrophages to the etiology of AT inflammation and involvement of CD74 using human SGBS adipocytes, THP-1 macrophages and mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The MIF and CD74 mRNA levels in the adipocytes and SVCs (stromal vascular cells) of white fat were highly correlated with body weight, HOMA-IR and adipose macrophage marker expression levels, especially those in SVCs...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773070/humoral-immunity-in-heart-failure
#4
Khadija Rafiq
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve disorders of heart and blood vessels, including: hypertension, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, which finally lead to heart failure (HF). There are several treatments available all over the world, but still CVD and heart failure became the number one problem causing death every year worldwide. Both experimental and clinical studies have shown a role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of heart failure...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772938/the-suppressive-effect-of-the-three-herb-extract-mixture-on-vascular-and-liver-inflammation-in-atherogenic-diet-with-high-fructose-fed-mice
#5
Hae Seong Song, Hyun Jung Koo, Bong Kyun Park, Jeong Eun Kwon, Seon-A Jang, Hyun Jin Baek, Se Young Kim, Sung Ryul Lee, Se Chan Kang
CONTEXT: Cynanchum wilfordii (Maximowicz) Hemsley (Apocynaceae), Arctium lappa L. var. rubescens Frivald (Asteraceae) and Dioscorea opposite Thunb (Dioscoreaceae) root extracts have been widely used as an alternative for intervening obesity. OBJECTIVES: The synergistic effect of three-herb mixture of C. wilfordii, A. lappa and D. opposita was determined on aortic and liver inflammatory responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CWE, ALE and DOE were prepared from the root of C...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772649/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Norris S H Lan, Benjamin D Massam, Sandeep S Kulkarni, Chim C Lang
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), the first category of pulmonary hypertension, is a chronic and progressive disorder characterised by angioproliferative vasculopathy in the pulmonary arterioles, leading to endothelial and smooth muscle proliferation and dysfunction, inflammation and thrombosis. These changes increase pulmonary vascular resistance and subsequent pulmonary arterial pressure, causing right ventricular failure which leads to eventual death if untreated. The management of PAH has advanced rapidly in recent years due to improved understanding of the condition's pathophysiology, specifically the nitric oxide, prostacyclin-thromboxane and endothelin-1 pathways...
May 16, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771821/the-effects-of-exercise-aspirin-and-celecoxib-in-an-atherogenic-environment
#7
Heather Grimm, Jan Kretzschmar, Marc D Cook, Michael D Brown
INTRODUCTION: Optimal vascular function is a hallmark of cardiovascular health. Specifically, the balance of vasoconstricting and vasodilating substances is recognized as a marker of vascular health. One of the greatest challenges to vascular health and vasodilatory balance is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) mediated inflammation. Uncovering effective strategies that maintain a vascular environment that is more vasodilatory and anti-thrombotic in the face of an inflammatory challenge is favorable...
April 30, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771268/hiv-disease-is-associated-with-increased-biomarkers-of-endothelial-dysfunction-despite-viral-suppression-on-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-in-botswana
#8
Mosepele Mosepele, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Sikhulile Moyo, Kara Bennett, Shahin Lockman, Linda C Hemphill, Virginia A Triant
BACKGROUND: Untreated HIV infection is associated with increased biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction. However, the predictors and degree of endothelial dysfunction among virally suppressed HIV-infected adults on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been well studied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We enrolled 112 HIV-infected adults with virological suppression on long-term ART and 84 HIV-uninfected controls in Botswana. We measured plasma levels of markers of endothelial injury [soluble vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin] and plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin 6 (IL-6)] and monocyte activation (sCD163)...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770194/clinical-utility-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-in-genitourinary-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Jason Gandhi, Omar Seyam, Noel L Smith, Gunjan Joshi, Sohrab Vatsia, Sardar Ali Khan
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a medical technique which delivers oxygen at ambient pressures to increase the amount of dissolved oxygen in the blood and oxygen distribution to tissues. There are several beneficial properties of HBOT concomitant with elevated oxygen distribution in tissue including anti-inflammation, angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor proliferation, augmented fibroblast activity through fibroblast growth factor proliferation, tissue and wound repair, enhancement of lymphocyte and macrophage activity, increased male testosterone secretion, and bactericidal activity...
January 2018: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769772/oral-hygiene-status-gingival-status-periodontal-status-and-treatment-needs-among-pregnant-and-nonpregnant-women-a-comparative-study
#10
Meena Kashetty, Sagar Kumbhar, Smita Patil, Prashant Patil
Objectives: The gingival and periodontal changes during pregnancy are well known. Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral manifestations associated with pregnancy. The hormonal and vascular changes that accompany pregnancy are known to exaggerate the inflammatory response to the local irritants. Hence, a study was designed to assess oral hygiene status, gingival status, periodontal status, and treatment needs (TNs) among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 pregnant and 120 nonpregnant women of 18-44 years age attending the Outpatient Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Government Hospital of Belgaum city, Karnataka, India...
March 2018: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769642/high-resolution-imaging-of-myeloperoxidase-activity-sensors-in-human-cerebrovascular-disease
#11
Youssef Z Wadghiri, Dung Minh Hoang, Anita Leporati, Matthew J Gounis, Aurora Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mary L Mazzanti, John P Weaver, Ajay K Wakhloo, Peter Caravan, Alexei A Bogdanov
Progress in clinical development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substrate-sensors of enzymatic activity has been slow partly due to the lack of human efficacy data. We report here a strategy that may serve as a shortcut from bench to bedside. We tested ultra high-resolution 7T MRI (µMRI) of human surgical histology sections in a 3-year IRB approved, HIPAA compliant study of surgically clipped brain aneurysms. µMRI was used for assessing the efficacy of MRI substrate-sensors that detect myeloperoxidase activity in inflammation...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768198/myocardin-related-transcription-factor-a-promotes-recruitment-of-itga5-profibrotic-progenitors-during-obesity-induced-adipose-tissue-fibrosis
#12
Jean Z Lin, Nabil Rabhi, Stephen R Farmer
Adipose tissue fibrosis is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance in human obesity. In particular, visceral fat fibrosis is correlated with hyperlipidemia and ectopic fat accumulation. Myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTFA) is an important coactivator that mediates the transcription of extracellular matrix and other fibrogenic genes. Here, we examine the role of MRTFA in the development of adipose tissue fibrosis and identify a signaling pathway that regulates the fate of vascular progenitors...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766980/ripasudil-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-lps-mediated-apoptosis-and-inflammation-in-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells-via-rock2-enos-signaling
#13
Jianxin Yang, Feng Ruan, Zhongjun Zheng
BACKGROUND Microvascular endothelial inflammation and apoptosis are responsible for septic acute lung injury (ALI). Ripasudil is a novel Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor which shows therapeutic effects on several vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects and correlated molecular mechanisms of ripasudil on lipopolysaccharide- induced inflammation and apoptosis of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). MATERIAL AND METHODS Cultured PMVECs were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
May 16, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766782/role-of-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-the-beneficial-effects-of-flavonoids
#14
Mohammad Shamsul Ola, Dalia Al-Dosari, Abdullah S Alhomida
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness in developed countries. Diabetes-induced metabolic disorder is believed to increase oxidative stress in the retina. This results in deleterious changes through dysregulation of cellular physiology that damages both neuronal and vascular cells. Here in this review, we first highlight the evidence of potential metabolic sources and pathways which increase oxidative stress that contributes to retinal pathology in diabetes...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766640/subclinical-inflammation-phenotypes-and-long-term-outcomes-after-pediatric-kidney-transplantation
#15
Michael E Seifert, Megan V Yanik, Daniel I Feig, Vera Hauptfeld-Dolejsek, Elizabeth C Mroczek-Musulman, David R Kelly, Frida Rosenblum, Roslyn B Mannon
The implementation of surveillance biopsies in pediatric kidney transplantation remains controversial. Surveillance biopsies detect subclinical injury prior to clinical dysfunction, which could allow for early interventions that prolong allograft survival. We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of 120 consecutive pediatric kidney recipients, of whom 103 had surveillance biopsies ≤ 6 months post-transplant. We tested the hypothesis that subclinical inflammation (borderline or T cell-mediated rejection without clinical dysfunction) is associated with a 5-year composite endpoint of acute rejection and allograft failure...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765110/mast-cells-contribute-to-enterovirus-71-infection-induced-pulmonary-edema-in-neonatal-mice
#16
Yuefei Jin, Chao Zhang, Hui Wang, Guangyuan Zhou, Xiangpeng Wang, Rongguang Zhang, Shuaiyin Chen, Jingchao Ren, Lu Chen, Dejian Dang, Peng Zhang, Yuanlin Xi, Weidong Wu, Weiguo Zhang, Guangcai Duan
Enterovirus (EV) 71 infection has been widely acknowledged as the leading cause of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which may rapidly lead to fatal pulmonary edema. In this study, we established a mouse model for EV71 infection exhibiting high incidence of severe symptoms with pulmonary edema. Mast cells (MCs) accumulation, activation and allergic inflammation were found in the brains, lungs and skeletal muscle of mice after EV71 infection, especially in the lungs of mice. Levels of histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) and noradrenaline (NA) were increased in EV71-infected lungs...
May 15, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765083/adeno-associated-virus-vector-mediated-interleukin-10-induction-prevents-vascular-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-kawasaki-disease
#17
Jun Nakamura, Sachiko Watanabe, Hiroaki Kimura, Motoi Kobayashi, Tadayoshi Karasawa, Ryo Kamata, Fumitake Usui-Kawanishi, Ai Sadatomo, Hiroaki Mizukami, Noriko Nagi-Miura, Naohito Ohno, Tadashi Kasahara, Seiji Minota, Masafumi Takahashi
Kawasaki disease (KD), which is the leading cause of pediatric heart disease, is characterized by coronary vasculitis and subsequent aneurysm formation. Although intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is effective for reducing aneurysm formation, a certain number of patients are resistant to this therapy. Because interleukin-10 (IL-10) was identified as a negative regulator of cardiac inflammation in a murine model of KD induced by Candida albicans water-soluble fraction (CAWS), we investigated the effect of IL-10 supplementation in CAWS-induced vasculitis...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763891/endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-kidney-diseases
#18
Abdullah Ozkok, Alaattin Yildiz
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are bone marrow derived or tissue-resident cells that play major roles in the maintenance of vascular integrity and repair of endothelial damage. Although EPCs may be capable of directly engrafting and regenerating the endothelium, the most important effects of EPCs seem to be depended on paracrine effects. In recent studies, specific microvesicles and mRNAs have been found to mediate the pro-angiogenic and regenerative effects of EPCs on endothelium. EPC counts have important prognostic implications in cardiovascular diseases (CVD)...
May 10, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763436/treatment-of-limb-wounds-of-horses-with-orf-virus-il-10-and-vegf-e-accelerates-resolution-of-exuberant-granulation-tissue-but-does-not-prevent-its-development
#19
Lyn M Wise, Christa J Bodaan, Gabriella S Stuart, Nicola C Real, Zabeen Lateef, Andrew A Mercer, Christopher B Riley, Christine L Theoret
Bandaging of limb wounds in horses leads to formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) that retards healing due to protracted inflammation, aberrant vascularisation and delayed epithelialisation. EGT is not observed if wounds are left undressed or when wounds are on the body. A previous study showed that short-term administration of proteins derived from orf virus dampened inflammation and promoted epithelialisation of open wounds in horses. Here, we investigated the impact of orf virus interleukin-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor-E on the development and resolution of EGT...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762637/set8-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-hyperglycemic-memory-in-human-umbilical-endothelial-cells
#20
Xiangyuan Chen, Qichao Wu, Hui Jiang, Jiaqiang Wang, Yanjun Zhao, Yajun Xu, Minmin Zhu
Hyperglycemic memory occurs in diabetic cardiovascular complications, but the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Although the depletion of SET8 leads to increased mitochondrial oxidative stress via increasing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, the role of SET8 in hyperglycemic memory-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of SET8 in this setting. Our results showed that high glucose-induced vascular inflammation, ROS production and apoptosis remained at high levels even when glucose returned to normal level...
May 14, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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